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Old Norse Men's Names

This webpage is, and will probably always be, under development. As my knowledge of Norse naming grows, I will keep revising and updating this page. At this point, I'm aware that the page is really too large, and I'm working out better methods of presentation.

Some of my sources listed names that were either hypothetical forms re-constructed based on place-name and later personal name evidence, or else doubtful interpretations from runic evidence. These have been included, but are shown with the headword in a greyed-out text, for example, kimann.

In the list below, I have abbreviated certain source references as follows:

  • CV = Cleasby, Richard and Gubrandr Vigfusson. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. 1957.

  • GB = Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Studia Marklandica I. Olney, MD: Markland Medieval Militia. 1977.

  • FJ = Fellows-Jensen, Gillian. Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. Copenhagen. Akademisk Forlag. 1968.

  • NR = Lena Peterson. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon. (Dictionary of Names from Old Norse Runic Inscriptions). Sprk- och folkminnes-institutet (Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research). Accessed 30 September 2005.

For full details on any source referenced, please see the Bibliography.

 
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Name Notes Source
Abbe, Abbi Short form of Abjrn. Found in Found in Old Danish as Abbi and in Old Swedish as Abbe. This name is a short form of birn. Not found in Norway or Iceland. Runic examples include the nominative form abi and the accusative form aba. Runic examples include the nominative forms abiarn, [abiarn], [abiori], abiun, [abiurn], abiur... and the accusative form abiorn. May be found in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Abbe (1142), Habb' (c. 1224, 1330) and in the place-names Habbeholme (1100's) and Albeholme (1228). FJ pp. 1, 342, 348 s.nn. Abbe, -, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Abbi, birn
Abel Christian GB p. 7 s.n. Abel
Abjrn, birn The - first element may either derive from *ana, "all," or from *anu, "ancestor," or from Germanic *az-, "point, edge; anxiety, fear". Later forms derived from *anu may show -, resulting in name pairs such as leifr and its parallel later form lfr. The second element -bjrn is identical with Old Icelandic bjrn, "bear". This name is found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as Abiorn. The short form of this name is Abbe or Abbi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. -, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Abbi, birn, -, -birn, Biarni
dm Christian GB p. 8 s.n. dm
diarfR Found in Old Swedish as Adirf. The first element is perhaps derived from Germanic *az-, "point, edge" or "fear,anxiety." The second element, -diarfR is from the OW.Norse adjective djarfr "bold, brave, daring, courageous." Runic examples include the nominative forms aterfr, [atiarfr] and the accusative forms aterf, atiarf. CV p. 100 s.v. djarfr; NR s.nn. diarfR, -, -diarfR
Aakn Celtic name. Found in the runic genitive form . NR s.nn. Aakn
Aalbert Names in A- or Aal- derive from *aa or aal, "noble, foremost, premier". GB p. 7 s.n. Aalbert; FJ pp. 342 s.n. A-
Aalbrandr For the first element Aal- see above. The second element -brandr is identical with OW.Norse brandr, "sword, sword-blade." GB p. 7 s.n. Aalbrandr; FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. A-, -brandr; CV p. 76 s.n. brandr; NR s.n. -brandr
Aalbrikt For the first element Aal- see above. GB; FJ pp. 342 s.n. A-
Aalmrki, AalmkiR For the first element Aal- see above. The second element -mrki is from OW.Norse merki "sign; banner." The second element -mkiR is from OW.Norse mkir "sword". Originally a man's by-name. The runic accusative form aal:miki is found, but it is unclear which of the two second elementes listed here is represented. FJ pp. 342 s.n. A-; NR s.nn. Aalmrki, Aal-
Aalrr For the first element Aal- see above. The second element -rr is identical with Old Icelandic r, "counsel, advice". GB p. 7 s.n. Aalrr; FJ pp. 342, 345 s.n. A-, -rar
Aalrkr For the first element Aal- see above. The second element -rkr also exists as the weakened form -rekr and derives from the OW.Norse adjective rkr, which in turn is from Germanic *rikiaR "mighty, distinguished, rich". When occurring as the second element in a compound name, -rkR also is understood as partly derived from the noun *rk(a)z "ruler, sovereign" an early Germanic loan-word from Celtic rix (compare with Gothic reiks and Latin rex, "king"). GB p. 7 s.n. Aalrikr; FJ pp. 342, 350 s.n. A-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Aalsteinn For the first element Aal- see above. The second element -steinn is identical with Old Icelandic steinn, "stone". GB p. 7 s.n. Aalsteinn; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.n. A-, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. -stinn
Aalvaldr For the first element Aal- see above. The second element -valdr is from Old Icelandic valdr, "ruler" may also occur as -valdi, -aldr, or -aldi. GB p. 7 s.n. Aalvaldr; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.nn. A-, valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
Agils, Asl For the first element A- see above. The second element -gils is an alternate form of -gsl and is related to Longobard gsil, "arrow-shaft" OW.Norse geisl "staff", and Old Icelandic geisli, "sun-shaft, sun beam". Overall this name-element has a sense of "a shaft typical of a weapon or a part of a weapon." The name may also be linked to OW.Norse gsl "hostage". Found in Old Swedish as Adhils and in OW.Norse as Ails. Runic examples include the nominative form aisl and the accusative form aisl. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 7 s.nn. Agils, Asl; FJ pp. 342, 349 s.n. A-, -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.n. Asl, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
fastr Found in Sweden in the Latin form Afwastus and in the Old Swedish form Avst. The first element is perhaps derived from Germanic *az-, "point, edge" or "fear, anxiety." The second element, -fastr is from the OW.Norse adjective fastr "firm, fast, strong." Found in the runic accusative form afast. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. CV p. 145 s.v. fastr; NR s.n. fastr, -, -fastr, Fasti
Afi Originally a nickname meaning "grandfather." Some instances found in Danish, including the variant Awi from an 11th century coin and the Latin Awo. Not recorded in West Scandinavia. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Avelunt, Auelunt, Avetorp, Auetorp. FJ pp. 1 s.n. Afi
Afvaldr For the second element -valdr see above. GB p. 7 s.n. Afvaldr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
gautr Found in Old Danish as Agot. For the first element - see above. The second element -gautr was originally a Swedish name element, meaning "man from Gautland, Gtlander." Side forms -gotr, -gutr and weak forms -gauti, -goti, -guti also exist. The Cleasby-Vigfusson dictionary notes that the masculine name Gautr is a poetical name for inn, and suggests that it may mean "father". Found in the runic accusative form akaut. FJ pp. 348-349 s.nn. -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. gautr, -, -gautr, Gautr
geirr For the first element - see above. The second element -geirr is identical with Old Icelandic geirr, "spear". Found in the runic nominative forms [aker] and akiR. GB p. 8 s.n. geirr; FJ pp. 342, 349 s.nn. A-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. giRR, -, -giRR
Aggi, Agi Probably short forms of some name based on Ag-, possibly from Old West Scandinavian agi, "awe, terror". May instead be derived from *AgiRR, "weapon point + spear" Found often in Old Danish. A few instances of agi appear in West Scandinavia, but seem to always refer to Danes. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Agge (c. 1189-1260), Aggi (1202), Aghi (1202), Aki (1202). FJ pp. 1-2, 342 s.nn. Aggi, Agi, Ag-
Agmundr, gmundr Formed from *Aga-, represented in Old West Scandinavian as agi, "awe, terror" or possibly a German origin as *ag-, "point, weapon point." The second element -mundr comes either from Old West Scandinavian *-munduR, "protector" or possibly from Old Icelandic mundr meaning "gift." Found in Old Swedish as Aghmund and in OW.Norse as gmundr. In Norwegian found as Amundr and gmundr. Runic examples include the nominative forms agmunr, agmuntr, ahmuntr, ahmutr, aukmuntr and the accusative forms agmunt, akmunt, [akmunt], [in]hmuntr, ukmut. Anglo-Scandinavian variants include Agemund (c. 1086-1226), Aghemund (1142-1153), Agmund (c. 1150), Hamund (c. 1150-1160), Haghemund (c. 1155), Aghemund (c. 1160), Augmund (c. 1180-1190), Aggemund (1202). A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 2-3, 342, 350 s.nn. Agmundr, Ag-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.n. Agmundr / gmundr, Ag-, -mundr, Mundi
Agnarr For the first element Ag- see above. GB p. 7 s.n. Agnarr; FJ p. 342 s.n. Ag-
Agni This name may be found in Old Danish as Aghen. Found in Old Swedish as Agne, and in OW.Norse Agni. Derived from Germanic *az- "point" or "anxiety, fear", corresponding to OH.Germ. Agino. Found in the runic nominative form ahni. GB p. 7 s.n. Agni; FJ p. 342 s.n. Ag-; NR s.n. Agni
guti For the first element - see above. The second element -guti seems to be the same word as the masculine name Guti, from OW.Norse goti "Gaut, Gtlander," but may also be a weak side-form of the second element -gautr, above. Runic examples include the nominative forms agotihi, akuti, ak(u)ti, akyti, ak-(t)in and the accusative forms aguta, akut-. FJ pp. 342, 348-349 s.nn. -, -gauti; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. guti, -, -gautr, Guti, -guti
Agvir For the first element Ag- see above. The second element -vir is identical with Old Icelandic vir, "tree, wood". This name is found in Old Danish as Aghwith. Runic examples include the nominative forms [ahuir] and ahuir. FJ pp. 342, 352 s.nn. Ag-, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Agvir, Ag-, Vi-, -vir
Ailmr Originally the Old English name thelmr. Runic examples include the nominative forms ailmer and almer. NR s.n. Ailmr
ki This name is found in Old Danish as Aki, in Old Swedish as Ake and in OW.Norse as ki. This name may either represent a diminuitive form with the -k second element of *anuR "forefather, ancestor," or it may be a byname with a second element from *anu-, "ancestor." This name is considered to be equivalent to the Old High German name Anihho. Frequent in Denmark, where it is also found in the Latin form Aco. Also frequent in Sweden. Not found in Norway until ca. 1300. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Achi (1142-1155), Aki (c. 1200-1248), Acche (c. 1200), Acke (c. 1160), Acca (1409), Ace (1166-1409), Hacche (c. 1168), Acki (1185), Hacke (c. 1190-1245), Ache (c. 1200-1225), Ake (1202), Akke (1202), etc. Runic examples include the nominative forms aki, oaki and the accusative form aka. FJ pp. 3-5 s.n. ki; NR s.n. ki
kimann "ki's man." Hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian construction. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Ackeman, Ackemann (c. 1190-1212), Okeman (c. 1218-1219), Akkeman (c. 1218-1219). FJ pp. 5-6 s.nn. kimann
larr The first element Al- or l- is derived from Germanic *ala- or *alla- "all, whole", or it may be derived from Primitive Scandinavian *alu "defense, protection, luck", from *aal- "noble, foremost" or even from OW.Norse alfr, "elf". The second element -arr has several possible origins. It may be from *-harjaR, "army leader, general, warrior", or from *-warjaR "one who wards, defender", or from *-gaiRaR "spear." GB p. 8 s.n. larr; FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. Al-, -arr; NR s.nn. Al-, -arr
Albr Albr is an Old Low German name. For the Al- see above. The second element -br is from Germanic *-baud- or perhaps *-bd- (from the verb bjuda). The earlier understandings of this name are recently contradicted by new understandings of pronunciation. Found in the runic accusative form albo. FJ p. 342 s.n. Al-; NR s.nn. Albr, Al-
Albrikt For the Al- see above. GB p. 7 s.n. Albrikt; FJ pp. 342 s.n. Al-; NR s.nn. Al-
Aldi Short form for names in Ald- (see below). Found in the runic nominative form [alti]. NR s.nn. Aldi
Aldlfr, Adlfr The first element Ald- is from the Germanic adjective *ala- "old", and is related to Gothic alds, Old High German ald, alt, and Old English eald. The second element -lfr and the side form -lfr are from *wulfaR, "wolf". When this second element appears in the latter part of masculine names, it is always pronounced as -lfr, and quite often spelled that way as well. Compare with the Old High German name Aldulf. A short form of names in Ald- is Aldi. GB p. 7 s.n. Adlfr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. Ald-, Aldi, -ulfR
Aldvir For the first element Ald- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms altuir. Also occurs as the Old Gtlandic name Aldvir, which is documented in a medieval runic inscription G151. A short form of names in Ald- is Aldi. CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Aldvir, Ald-, -vir, Aldi
leifr, lfr, lifR The first element in this name is derived from *Anu-, "ancestor" (see - above). The second element -leifr or -lifR is derived from Primitive Scandinavian *-laibaR and is related to OW.Norse leif "inheritance, legacy", but as an element in personal names meaning "one who comes after, heir." Variants in -lafR derive from a Primitive Scandinavian shortening of /ai/ > /a/. This name appears in West Scandinavia, however the form lfr is more common in West Scandinavia. Skjldunga saga has a legendary Danish king with a Latinized form of this name, Aleifus. Danish place-name evidence suggests that the forms Alef and Alaf were also current in Denmark, but the usual forms in East Scandinavia were Olaf and Olef. Found in the runic accusative forms [(a)l(a)ib] and a-(in)b. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Allef. FJ pp. 6, 342, 350 s.nn. leifr, -, -leifr; CV p. 381 s.v. leif; NR s.nn. lifR, -, -lifR, lafR, lifR
Alfarr The first element Alf- is identical with Old Icelandic alfr, "elf, a type of subterranean being, ancestral spirit." Found in Old Danish as Alvar and in OW.Norse as lfarr. Occurs in the runic accusative form alfar. For the second element -arr see above. FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. Alf-, -arr; NR s.nn. Alfarr, Alf-, -arr
Alfarinn For the first element Alf- see above. The second element -arinn may either come from arinn, "hearth," or more likely from *arin-, which is related to rn, "eagle". GB p. 7 s.n. Alfarinn; FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. Alf-, -arna; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr
Alfgautr, Algautr For the first element Alf- see above. For the second element -gautr see above. Found in Old Danish as Algut, in Old Swedish as Algot or Algut, and in OW.Norse as Algautr. Occurs in the runic nominative forms alfkautr and alkautr. GB p. 7 s.n. Algautr; FJ pp. 342, 348-349 s.nn. Alf-, -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.nn. Alfgautr, Alf-, -gautr
lfgeirr, Alfgeirr For the first element Alf- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Occurs early in Norway, but is rare. Found in Sweden as the runic inscription alfkiR. May be present in Danish, where it may be included in Alger, which can also be a form of the Latin name Algerus. Found in OW.Norse as lfgeirr. Runic examples include the nominative form alfkeR and the accusative form alfkiR. Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include the place-names Algerahge (1189), Algaretoft (1226), Algarlowe (1483), Alfgerriding (c. 1170) and the names Alfgare, Alfgar, Alger (1086-1298), Algar (1202). GB p. 8 s.n. lfgeirr; FJ pp. 6-7, 342, 349 s.nn. Alfgeirr, Alf-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. AlfgiRR, Alf-, -alfr, -giRR
Alfgrmr An Anglo-Scandinavian name. For the first element Alf- see above. The second element -grmr is identical with Old Icelandic grmr, "mask," used of a helm which hides the face. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Algrim and the place-name Algrimhou (c. 1200's). FJ pp. 7, 342, 349 s.nn. *Alfgrmr, Alf-, -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr, -grmR
Alfketill, Alfkll For the first element Alf- see above. The second element -ketill, originally "kettle" but meaning also "helmet" or "chieftain with helmet." Names with the -ketill second element often have a side form using -kell. Not found in West Scandinavia. Found in Old Danish as Alfkil. Runic examples include the nominative form alfkil and the accusative form [alfkit]. Anglo-Scandinavian variants include Alfcetel (c. 1050), Alchil, Alchel, Alfkild, Alkild (1183-1186), Alkilde (1183-1186), Alfkil (1189-1214). FJ pp. 8, 342, 349 s.nn. Alfketill, Alf-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. Alfkll, Alf-, -k(ti)ll
AlflakR For the first element Alf- see above. The second element is a form of the name element -likR, from OW.Norse leikr "play, weapon-play, battle", which is in turn from Primitive Scandinavian *laikaR, though as a personal name element it may instead represent a name derived from the OW.Norse verb leika, "to participate in play". Occasionally this second element will occur as the variant form -lakR or -lkR, which derives from a Primitive Scandinavian shortening of /ai/ > /a/. This name is found in the runic accusative form alflak. A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. FJ pp. 185-186, 342 s.nn. Alf-, -leikr, Leikr; CV pp. 382-383 s.v. leika, leikr; NR s.nn. AlflakR, Alf-, -likR/-lakR
lfljtr For the first element Alf- see above. The second element -ljtr may come either from Old Icelandic ljtr, "ugly" or from Old Icelandic *ljtr "giving light" and related to Old English leoht. GB p. 8 s.n. lfljtr; FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. Alf-, -ljtr; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr
lfr, Alfr From *Aa-wulfaR, *Aa- being related to aal-, "noble." For the second element -ulfr see above. Found frequently in Old West Scandinavian from the earliest period onwards, and occasionally found in Danish. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Alurestan and Alvestan. GB p. 8 s.n. lfr; FJ pp. 6, 342, 351 s.nn. lfr, A-, -ulfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
lfrr For the first element Alf- see above. For the second element -rr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. lfrr; FJ pp. 342, 345 s.nn. Alf-, -rr; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr
AlfrkR For the first element Alf- see above. For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Found in Old Danish as Alfrik and in OW.Norse as Alfrkr and possibly Alrekr. Runic examples include the nominative forms alfrik, alfrikr, alfr-k. FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. Alf-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. AlfrkR, Alf-, -rkR
lfrimr For the first element Alf- see above. GB p. 8 s.n. lfrimr; FJ pp. 342 s.nn. Alf-; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr
Alfvaldr For the first element Alf- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. A coin from Lund, Sweden has the name Alfvold, which may however represent the Old English name lfweald. May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Alwoldesbi, Alwoldebi, Aldulvebi, Aldulesbi, Alduoldebi, Aluuoldebi, Alwaldtofts (1292), as well as the names Aluuold (1086), and Alfwald, Alfuuold, Alfwold (1300's). FJ pp. 8-9, 342, 351 s.nn. Alfvaldr, Alf-, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr, -valdr
Alfvarr Hypothetical - forms that would result in this name may also be a loan from Old English, lfweard. For the first element Alf- see above. The second element -varr may also occur as -vrr, -orr and -urr in positions of secondary stress and is derived from *waruR, Old Icelandic vrr, varr, "guard, watchman." Probably Danish, see the Danish runic inscription Aluar. Not recorded in West Scandinavia. May be found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Aluuarestorp, Alwardtorp (1235), Alwariding (1200's), Alwardethuait (1200's). FJ pp. 9, 342, 351 s.nn. *Alfvarr, Alf-, -varr; CV p. 722 s.v. vrr; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr, -varr
lfvarinn For the first element Alf- see above. GB p. 8 s.n. lfvarinn; FJ pp. 342 s.nn. Alf-; NR s.nn. Alf-, -alfr
Alfvin, lfun For the first element Alf- see above. The second element is from -vinr, which is identical to Old Icelandic vinr, "friend", in turn derived from *-winiz, "friend". Found in Old Danish as Alfwin and in Old Swedish Alwin. Found in the runic accusative forms alfuin and aulfun. FJ p. 342, 351 s.nn. Alf-, -un(n); NR s.nn. Alfvin/lfun, Alf-
Algautr, Alfgautr For the first element Alf- see above. For the second element -gautr see above. Found in Old Danish as Algut, in Old Swedish as Algot or Algut, and in OW.Norse as Algautr. Occurs in the runic nominative forms alfkautr and alkautr. GB p. 7 s.n. Algautr; FJ pp. 342, 348-349 s.nn. Alf-, -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.nn. Alfgautr, Alf-, -gautr
Algsl The derivation of the first element in this name is uncertain: it may derive from Alf- (see above) or from *alu (see above). For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Found in the runic nominative form alkisl. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. FJ pp. 342, 349 s.nn. Alf-, -, -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Algsl, Alf-, Al-, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
li or Alli These two names are treated here as one, since when examining runic and place-name evidence, they cannot usually be distinguished. li is the diminuitive form with the -l- second element of a name from *Ana-, *Anu-, related to Old High German Analo, Anulo, Anilo and Old English Onela, or it may be the short form of lifR, lafR. Alli may be a short form of names in Al- or Alf-. These names are found in Old Danish as Ali and Alli and in the Latinized form Allo, in Old Swedish as Ale or Alle, and in OW.Norse as li. The names cannot be told apart in the runic inscriptions: examples include the nominative forms ali, [ali], al|in|, in the genitive forms ala, [ala], alah and in the accusative forms ala, [ala], [alah]. One or the other of these names may appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Aletorp, Halebi, Alesbi, Alsebi, Aletoftegate (1200's), and the names Ale (1208), Alli (c. 1270), Ally (c. 1270), though some of these may instead derive from Old English Ala or Alla instead. FJ pp. 9-10 s.nn. li, Alli; NR s.nn. li or Alli
Alibrandr For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 7 s.n. Alibrandr; FJ pp. 348 s.n. -brandr; CV p. 76 s.n. brandr
Almrr   GB p. 7 s.n. Almarr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -mrr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr
Almgautr The first element Alm- is from OW.Norse almr "elm-tree". For the second element -gautr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form almkautr and the accusative form [almkaut]. FJ pp. 348-349 s.nn. -gauti, -gautr; NR s.nn. Almgautr, Alm-, Gautr, -gautr
lmgeirr, Almgeirr For the first element Alm- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Found as OW.Norse lmgeirr. Occurs in the runic accusative form almkar. GB p. 8 s.n. lmgeirr; FJ pp. 349 s.nn. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. AlmgiRR, Alm-, -giRR
Almr For the first element Al- see above. The second element -mr is identical to Old Icelandic mr "excitement, wrath." Found in Norwegian and Icelandic as lmr. Not found in East Scandinavia. An Anglo-Scandinavian form is found in the name Almod (1086). FJ pp. 10, 342, 350 s.nn. Almr, Al-, -mr; NR s.nn. Al-, -mr
Alrekr, AlrkR For the first element Al- see above. For the second element -rekr see above. Found in OW.Norse as Alrekr and as lrekr. For the Al- see above. For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms Aliriku, alrikr, alrikR, al-ikr|, Alrik-, Aslriku and the genitive form alriks. GB p. 7 s.n. Alrekr; FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. Al-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. Al-; NR s.nn. AlrkR, Al-, RkR, -rkR
AlvR, lvR, lvir The first element Al- is derived either from *Alu- or *Ala- (see Al- above). One researcher considers that the first element in this name comes from Gothic alhs "temple" and that the original meaning thus should be "heathen priest". The derivation of the second element -vR or its side-form -vir is not certain. The name-element may derive from Germanic *-whaz, related to the Gothic adjective weihs, "holy," making the sense of the word "priest." Alternatively, -vR may be a formed from the Gothic verb weihan "to fight" and related to the OW.Norse noun vg, "fight, struggle," which would make the interpretation "warrior." This name is found in Old Danish as lvir, in Old Swedish as Alver or lver, and in OW.Norse as lvir. Runic examples include the nominative forms aluiR, [au]liR, oliR, uliR and the accusative forms alui, a(l)(u)in, (a)(l)ui. GB p. 17 s.n. lvir; FJ pp. 342, 352 s.nn. -, -vr; NR s.nn. AlvR/lvR, Al-, -vR
Alvini The second element here is from -vinr (see above). GB p. 7 s.n. Alvini; FJ p. 351 s.n. -un(n); NR s.nn. Alfvin/lfun
Ambi Short form of Arnbjrn, "eagle bear." Found in Norway after 1300 as both a personal name and as a by-name. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian form Hambe. FJ pp. 10, 342, 348 s.nn. Ambi, Arn-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn
mundi, mundr The - first element derives from either *Ana-, "all" or *Aga-, which is related to Old West Scandinavian agi, "awe, terror" or possibly to *ag-, "point, weapon point." For the second element -mundr or the weak side-form -mundi see above. Found in Old Danish as Amundi, Old Swedish Amunde, OW.Norse mundi. Runic examples include the nominative forms amuit, amuti, [amut]in, [amuti], hamunti, the accusative forms hamnta, omunta and one example for which the case is uncertain, omuta. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Amund and Amundi (1206). A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 10, 342, 350 s.nn. Amundr, -, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. mundi, -, -mundr, -mundi, Mundi
n, nn Possibly from *Awin. For the first element A- see above. For the second element -vini or -vinr see above. This form appears only in Old West Scandinavian. A weak side-form ni is found in a Danish runic inscription, with a few other instances in old Danish. May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Anesacre and Onesmor (1200's). GB p. 8 s.nn. n, nn; FJ p. 11, 342, 351 s.nn. nn, A-, -un(n)
Andreas Christian, Andrew. This Christian name appeared in Sweden in the late 1100's, but it was probably only used by clerics at that point. It did not become a common name until the 1300's. In Magnss saga blinda og Haralds gilla (part of Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla, written about 1220 or so), this name is shown as Andrs. GB p. 7 s.n. Andreas; Academy of Saint Gabriel Report #1736
Andrr   GB p. 7 s.n. Andrr
Andsvarr, Ansvarr, Ansurr, Assurr, ssurr, zurr Derived from Primitive Scandinavian *and-swaruR "one who gives answer, avenger" (the first element and- "to, against" + the verb svara, "answer"). Found in Old Danish as Azur, Old Swedish Ansvar, Azur, OW.Norse zurr. Runic examples include the nominative forms ansuar, [ansua...], asur, a[s]ur, a[su]r, [asur], atsir, atsor, atsur, ontsuar, [osuar], osur, [osur], [usur], [usurR], the genitive case forms ansuars, osuraR and the accusative case forms [asr], asur, [as]ur, [asur], ausr, onsur, osmr, osur, [usur]. GB p. 17 s.n. zurr; FJ pp. 36-37 s.nn. Atsurr; NR s.nn. An(d)svarr/Ansurr/Assurr/ssurr
Andvttr This word, found in runic inscriptions, may be a compound name formed from the first element and- "against/to" and the verb-stem from Primitive Scandinavian *wt-, thus " one who turns against, opponent, adversary, enemy, foe". The origins of the word are unclear. May be found in Old Swedish as Andvidh. Runic examples include the nominative forms [anituitr], antuetr, antuitr, [antuitr], [antuitR], an(u)(in)(t)r, atuitr, ontuitr, the genitive form antuita and the accusative forms anhuit, antuit, ant[ui]t, anuit, ontuit. NR s.nn. Andvttr
ni Of unclear origin. May be a diminuitive or pet name from OW.Norse nn or nn. Found in Old Danish as Ani, Old Swedish Ane, OW.Norse ni. Runic examples include the nominative forms [a]ni, oni. GB p. 8 s.n. ni; NR s.nn. ni
Anki Short form of names beginning with either Arng- or Arnk-, both from rn, "eagle." Recorded once in Sweden in 1489, possibly found in some Norwegian personal names as well. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Anche (1142), Anke (early 1200's), Anca (1165-1185), Hanke (late 1200's). FJ pp. 10 s.nn. Anki
Anundr, Anvindr, nundr, Anundi The origins of this name are unclear. The first element may derive from *Anu- ("ancestor, forefather"), while Fellows-Jensen suggests that it derives from *and, the preposition "against". The derivation of the second element, -vindr or the side-form -undr is also unclear, and several possible explanations are given. It may possibly derive from Germanic *-winuz, *uen-tu-s, from the root *uen-, "to win, prevail, triumph, be victorious." Fellows-Jensen suggests it may be "Wend, Wendish". Found in Old Danish as Anund, in Old Swedish as Anund, and in OW.Norse as nundr. Also frequent in Skne and Halland, and appears in Swedish runic inscriptions. Runic examples include the nominative forms anuatr, anun, anunr, |anunr, [anunR], anuntr, anu[n]tr, [anuntr], a(n)untra, anun-[r], anutr, (a)nutr, [anutR], onontr, onunr, onuntr, onutr, the genitive forms anunta, anutar, anutaR, onunt*ar, onutar and the accusative forms anunt, anut, onunt, onut. Appears in the Latinized Anglo-Scandinavian form Anandus (1160-1180). The name Anundi is a weak side-form of Anundr/nundr, and occurs in runic inscriptions in the genitive form anunta and the accusative form anuta. FJ pp. 11, 342, 352 s.nn. Anundr, -, -vindr; NR s.nn. Anundr/nundr, Anundi, -, -undr/-vindr
Api Originally a by-name meaning "fool", from OW.Norse api, "ape, foolish person". Possibly found in the Norwegian place-name Apnes. Found in Old Danish as Api. Runic examples include the nominative form abi and the accusative form aba, though these may derive instead from the name Abbi or bbi. A hypothetical form, *Appi, is hypothesized from a Danish place name. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian palcename Apedale (c. 1175). FJ pp. 11 s.nn. Api; NR s.nn. Api, Abbi, bbi
Ari Found in Old Danish as Ari, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Ari. From OW.Norse ari "eagle." This name may also be understood as a short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn-. Runic examples include the nominative forms ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Ari; NR s.nn. Ari
Arinbjrn, Arinbirn, Arnbjrn, Arnbirn For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. One of the most common names in Norway through the whole medieval period. Found in Old Danish as Arnbiorn, Ernbiorn and the Latinized form Arnbernus. Found in Old Swedish Anbiorn, Arnbiorn, rinbiorn, rnbiorn. Occurs in OW.Norse as Arinbirn, Arnbirn. Runic examples include the nominative forms ar[b]iurn, [ar]biurn, [arliurn], [irbiarn], the genitive forms (a)nbiarnar and [arinbiarnaR], and the accusative forms arbion, erbrn, eriibiun, [ernbiorn]. Found in several Anglo-Scandinavian names including Erneberne, Gerneber, Gerneberne, Hernebern (1185), Arnebertus (1166-1191), Arberni (c. 1190-1195), Arenibern (1194), Arnbern (1295). The short form of this name is Ambi. A short form used for names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 12, 342, 348 s.nn. Arnbjrn, Arn-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)nbirn, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -birn, Biarni
rmr For the second element -mr see above. GB p. 7 s.n. rmr; FJ pp. 350; NR s.n. -mr
Arn Arn may be derived from rn, "eagle" or may be a side-form of the Anglo-Scandinavian name Arni, which is a short form for names beginning in Arn-. FJ pp. 11-12 s.nn. Arn, Arni; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnaldr Names with a first element of Arn-, Arinn-, rn- or rinn- are alternate forms of the OW.Norse bird-names rn, ari "eagle". Different explanations of these alternate forms are given. The name-element might also considered to be identical to OW.Norse arinn "hearth". A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnaldr; FJ pp. 342 s.n. Arn; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnbjrn, Arnbirn, Arinbirn For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. One of the most common names in Norway through the whole medieval period. Found in Old Danish as Arnbiorn, Ernbiorn and the Latinized form Arnbernus. Found in Old Swedish Anbiorn, Arnbiorn, rinbiorn, rnbiorn. Occurs in OW.Norse as Arinbirn, Arnbirn. Runic examples include the nominative forms ar[b]iurn, [ar]biurn, [arliurn], [irbiarn], the genitive forms (a)nbiarnar and [arinbiarnaR], and the accusative forms arbion, erbrn, eriibiun, [ernbiorn]. Found in several Anglo-Scandinavian names including Erneberne, Gerneber, Gerneberne, Hernebern (1185), Arnebertus (1166-1191), Arberni (c. 1190-1195), Arenibern (1194), Arnbern (1295). The short form of this name is Ambi. A short form used for names in Arn-, Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 12, 342, 348 s.nn. Arnbjrn, Arn-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)nbirn, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -birn, Biarni
Arnbrandr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Arbrandwyth and the names Ernebrand, Arnebrand, Arnebraunk (1251), Arnebrandus (1200's). A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 12, 342 s.nn. *Arnbrandr, Arn-, -brandr, 348; CV p. 76 s.n. brandr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnfastr For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Found in Old Danish as Arnfast, in Old Swedish as Anfast, Arnfast, Arvast, Arnvast, rnvast and in OW.Norse as Arnfastr. Runic examples include the nominative forms arfastr, [arnfastr], [erefast], ernfast, ernfastr, ernf(a)(s)tr, [ernfastr], irinfastr, irnfastr, [irnfatr], [-rnfastr] and the accusative forms airnfast, arfast, arnfast, [erfast], [...rnfas].... A short form used for names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ pp. 342 s.n. Arn-; CV p. 145 s.v. fastr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)nfastr, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -fastr, Fasti
Arnfir For the first element Arn- see above. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnfir; FJ pp. 342 s.n. Arn; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnfinnr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element -finnr is identical with Old Icelandic finnr, which means "Smi, Laplander." The word is often mistranslated as "a person from Finland, a Finn". A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnfinnr; FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. Arn-, -finnr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arngeirr For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Borne by one of the Landnmsmenn (original Icelandic settlers) and found frequently in Iceland. Found in Old Danish as Arnger and the Latinized form Arngerus, in Old Swedish as Anger, Arnger, ringer, rnger and in OW.Norse as Arngeirr. Runic examples include the nominative forms ark(a)..., arkir, arnkeR U720, erinker, irnkaiR and the genitive form arnk=airs. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Arnenger and Arngar (1185). The short form of names in Arng- and Arnk- is Anki, or the short form of names in Arn-, Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 13, 342, 349 s.nn. Arngeirr, Arn-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)ngiRR, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -giRR
Arngrmr For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. Found frequently in Iceland, and it must have been fairly common in Norway as well. Occasional instances found in East Scandinavia are the names of moneyers, who may have come from the Danelaw. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Argrim, Arengrimus (c. 1224), Arnegrim (c. 1180), Arngrim (c. 1200-1240), Argrim (1230-1240), Arengrim (1219-1250), Arnegrun (1298), Argrym (1298). The short form of names in Arng- and Arnk- is Anki, or the short form of names in Arn-, Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 13-14, 342, 349 s.nn. Arngrmr, Arn-, -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -grmR
Arnhaldr For the first element Arn- see above. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnhaldr; FJ pp. 342 s.n. Arn-; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnhallr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element -hallr is identical to Old Icelandic hallr, "flat stone". A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnhallr; FJ pp. 342, 344 s.nn. Arn-, -hallr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnhvatr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element -hvatr and its weak side form hvati are related to the OW.Norse adjective hvatr "quick, bold, brave, daring, manly." Runic examples include the nominative forms anuatr, a(r)uatr. A short form used for names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 342 s.n. Arn-; CV pp. 297 s.v. hvatr; NR s.nn. Arn-/rnhvatr, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, Hvatr, -hvatr
rni See Arn above. A short form of masculine names in Arn-, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-. Found in Old Danish as Arni, in Old Swedish as Arne, and in OW.Norse as rni. Runic examples include the nominative form arni, the genitive form arna, the dative form arno and the accusative form arna. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 8 s.n. rni; FJ pp. 11-12, 342 s.nn. Arn, Arni, Arn-; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnnitr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element -nitr is from the OW.Norse verb njta, "have to use and enjoy", thus "one who has or enjoys." Occurs in the runic nominative form orniutr. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 342 s.n. Arn-; CV p. 456 s.v. njta; NR s.nn. Arnnitr, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -nitr
Arnketill, Arnkell For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Appears in one early instance in Iceland and a few later cases in Norway. Found in Old Danish as Arnketil, in Old Swedish as rnkil and in OW.Norse as Arnkell. Runic examples include the nominative forms arkil, arn-il and the accusative forms [arnki...], rkil. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include the place-names Arkelcroft (1163), Archelcroft (1100's), Harchelcroft (1100's), Arkelhowe (c. 1220), Arkelrighes, Arketelesneuland (1360), Arthelrow (1611), Arkelmire (1100's), Arkillesgarth (1199), Arkelbek (1226), etc. and the names Archil (1086), Arketil (late 1100's), Arkel (c. 1225), Arketel (1256), Arkil (1185-1243), Arkyl (1227-1243) etc. The short form of names in Arng- and Arnk- is Anki, or the short form of names in Arn-, Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnkell; FJ pp. 14-16, 342, 349 s.nn. Arnketill, Arn-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. Arn-/rnk(ti)ll, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -k(ti)ll
Arnketilbarn "Young Arnketill." A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from Arnketill, see above. The second element -barn means "child, young man." Assumed to be the root of the Anglo-Scandinavian name Archilbar. The short form of names in Arng- and Arnk- is Anki, or the short form of names in Arn-, Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 14-16, 342, 349 s.nn. *Arnketilbarn, Arn-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnlaugr For the first element Arn- see above. The second elementes -laugr, -laug, logr, -lugr are of uncertain origin. May possibly be related to Old Icelandic laug and Latin lavare, in an ancient sense of "bathing for religious purification". Nordisk runnamnslexikon suggests that this name element is derived from Germanic *-laug- and that it is identical to the Gothic verb liugan "give holy vows, enter into marriage," and that therefore the name-element may then originally have the meaning, "one who is promised or dedicated (to)." One settler in Greenland bore this name, but not found elsewhere in West Scandinavia. A few instances of the form Arlgh are found in Denmark. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnlaugr; FJ pp. 16, 342, 350 s.nn. Arnlaugr, Arn-, -laugr; CV pp. 374 s.v. laug def. IV; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -laugR
Arnljtr For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -ljtr see above. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnljtr; FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. Arn-, -ljtr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnmr For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -mr see above. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnmr; FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. Arn-, -mr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -mr
Arnmundr For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -mundr or the weak side-form -mundi see above. Found in Old Swedish as Armund, Arnmund, rmund, rnmund. Runic examples include the nominative forms [arfuntr], arinmu(n), ar(m)untr, armutR, erinmontr, ermuntr, (in)rin[m]utr, iri-muntr, [irmuntr], [ir-mut...] and the accusative forms erinmunt, ermutr, ermu-, irinmunt, [irmunt], [irm...], irnmunt. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. Arn-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)nmundr, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -mundr, Mundi
Arnoddr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element -oddr is identical with Old Icelandic oddr, "point, weapon-point, spear-point, arrow-point." Borne by one of the Landnmamenn in Iceland and popular there afterwards, found once in Old Danish but not in Norway. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnoddr; FJ pp. 16-17, 342, 350 s.nn. Arnoddr, Arn-, -oddr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, Uddi
Arnrr, Arnrr, Arndrr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element -rr, found also as -drr, is the god's name, rr. Early West Scandinavian forms use Arnrr or Arndrr, but later forms are always Anor or Andor. Andor is the only form found in Danish or Swedish. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include the place-name Amthorhegge (1189) and the names Artor (1086), Aror (c. 1050). A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.nn. Arnrr, Arnrr; FJ pp. 17, 342, 347, 351 s.nn. Arnrr, Arn-, -rr, r-; CV p. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnrr For the first element Arn- see above. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnrr; FJ p. 342 s.n. Arn-; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnrr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element is from -frr, derived from *friuR, "love, peace". Appears occasionally in Norway after 1341, usually with the spelling Androder. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 17, 342, 348 s.nn. Arnrr, Arn-, -rr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arnsteinn Found in Old Danish as Arnsten, Old Swedish A(r)nsten, OW.Norse Arnsteinn. For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms arn[stin], ersten and the accusative form ars(t)[in]. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnsteinn; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.nn. Arn-, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Arn-/rnstinn, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -stinn
Arnulfr, rnulfr Found in Old Danish as Arnulf, Old Swedish Arnulf, Arnolf, r(in)nolf, OW.Norse rnlfr. For the first element Arn- or rn- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Frequently found from early on in Old West Scandinavian, mainly in the rnulfr form. Runic examples include the nominative form arulfr and the accusative form anulf. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include the place-names Ernulfestorp, Einulvestorp, Hernoldesthorp (1147) and the names Ernulfus (1409), Arnulfi (c. 1190), Arnolf' (1202), Arnolfo (1182-c. 1210). A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. FJ pp. 17-18, 342, 351 s.nn. Arnulfr, Arn-, -ulfr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, -ulfR
Arnvir For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -vir see above. A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnvir; FJ pp. 342, 352 s.nn. Arn-, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n- Vi-, -vir
Arnjfr For the first element Arn- see above. The second element -jfr is either identical to Old Icelandic jfr, "thief," or is derived from Primitive Scandinavian *-ewaR, "servant". A short form of names in Arn- is Arni. A short form of names in Arn-, Arinn-, rn-, rinn- is Ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Arnjfr; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.nn. Arn-, -jfr; NR s.nn. Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-
Arta Possibly also found as the Old Swedish man's by-name Arte (?). From the OW.Norse bird-name arta, the Garganey (Linn. Anas querquedula), a type of duck. Runic examples include the nominative forms [arta]. NR s.n. Arta
Aron Christian, form of Aaron GB p. 7 s.n. Aron
sbjrn Found in Old Danish as Esbiorn, Old Swedish Asbiorn, sbiorn, OW.Norse sbirn. The first element s- or s- is from *ansu and related to Old Icelandic ss or ss, "a god." For the second element -bjrn see above. This name was popular in Norway from the mid 9th century onward. The sbjrn form was common in Danish with a few instances in Norway, probably as loans from East Scandinavian. Danish runic inscriptions have usbiaur, cf. the Normandy form, Osbern. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Esbern, Osbern, Sbern, Sberne, Hosber, Hoseber, Hosbern, Asbearn, Asbeorn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 8 s.n. sbjrn; FJ pp. 18-19, 342, 348 s.nn. sbjrn, Esbjrn, s-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. sbirn/sbirn, s-/s-, -birn, Biarni
sbrandr For the first element s- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. sbrandr; FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. s-, -brandr; CV p. 76 s.n. brandr; NR s.n. s-/s-
sdiarfR Also occurs in Old Swedish as Asdirf. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form astiarfr. FJ p. 342 s.n. s-; CV p. 100 s.v. djarfr; NR s.n. sdiarfR, s-/s-, -diarfR
sfar English form of Norse sfrir. Found in the runic nominative form asfar. FJ p. 342 s.n. s-; NR s.n. sfar, s-/s-, frr
sfastr Found in Old Swedish as Asfast. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form asfast. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ pp. 342, 343 s.nn. s-, Fast-; CV p. 145 s.v. fastr; NR s.n. sfastr, s-/s-, -fastr, Fasti
sfrr, sfrir, sfrr, Asror For the first element s- see above. The second element may be -frir or -frr from *friuR, "love, peace" or -frr from *friioR, related to the OW.Norse adjective frr "beautiful" (in the original sense of "beloved," consider the pret. part. of the OW.Norse verb frj "to love") and the Gtlandic frijion, "to love" with an original meaning of "beloved" and later meaning "fair." Rare in Scandinavia. Danish forms include Osfrid, Asferth, Asferd and a runic form, asfar, all of which may have entered Danish from Anglo-Scandinavian names influenced by the Anglo-Saxon forms Osfer, Osfri. One of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn carried a form of this name, Asror. A runic inscription from the Isle of Man has srur. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Ansfrid, Anfrido, Anfredi, Anfridus, Asferth, also Ashfor, Alford, Hasford, Esford, Asford, Asfort, Asforth. FJ pp. 19-20, 342, 348 s.nn. sfrir, sfrr, s-, -frir, -frr; NR s.n. s-/s-, -frr, sfar
sgautr Found in Old Danish as Asgut, in Old Swedish as Asgot or Asgut, and in OW.Norse as sgautr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -gautr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms asgautr, askutr, [askutr], [askytr], (a)s[nu]tr, [(in)sk(u)tr], oaskut:ar, osgutr, [(o)sgutr], oskautr, oskautrR, oskutr, [oskutr], the genitive form oskaus, and the accusative forms askaut, askut, oskut. GB p. 8 s.n. sgautr; FJ pp. 20-22, 342, 348-349 s.nn. sgautr, s-, -gauti, -gautr; NR s.nn. sgautr, s-/s-, Gautr, -gautr
sgeirr Found in Old Danish as Asger or Esger, in Old Swedish as Asger and sger, and in OW.Norse as sgeirr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Commonly found in Norway ca. 800's, less frequent later. Runic examples include the nominative forms [a]skaiR, askeiR, askiR, oskaiR, [oskaiR], oskir, the genitive case forms askis, [in]sgis, oskis, and the accusative forms [asaaiR], [askair], [askir], askiR, eskiR, iskir, osgiR, oski. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Asger, Asgar, Ansgerus, Asgeri, Angeri, Angero, Esgari, Ansgero, Ansgaro, Anger. GB p. 8 s.n. sgeirr; FJ pp. 22-24, 342, 349 s.nn. sgeirr, Esger, s-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. sgiRR/sgiRR, s-/s-, -giRR
sgsl For the first element s- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form [hskis]. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. FJ pp. 342, 349 s.nn. s-, -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. sgsl, s-/s-, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
sgrmr For the first element s- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. sgrmr; FJ pp. 342, 349 s.n. s-, -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. s-/s-, -grmR
si Short form of names beginning in s-. Found in Old Danish as Asi, Esi, Ose, in Old Swedish as Ase or Asi, and in OW.Norse as si. Rare in West Scandinavia, however the father of one of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn had this name. Runic examples include the nominative form asi and the accusative form asa. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Ase, Ese, se, Asi. GB p. 8 s.n. si; FJ pp. 24 s.nn. si, Esi; NR s.n. si/si, s-/s-
skell, sketill For the first element s- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. The masculine name skell, sketill is found in Old Danish as Askil or Eskil, in Old Swedish as Askel and skil, and in Old West Norse as skell. Runic examples of this name include the nominative forms: askel, askil, ask(in)l, askl, eski, eskil, iskil, oskihl; and the accusative forms: eskil, isikl, [iskii], iskil, oskil, oskl, Rskil. Danish runic inscriptions have forms askil, askl, iskil, eskil, shkil, skl. Other Danish sources have Eskil, skil, and the Latinized forms Eskillus, Eschillus, Esquillus. Found frequently in Swedish as skil. This name was also one of the most common Scandinavian names in Normandy, as Achitil, Anchitil, Aschitil, Anschitil, Achetil, Anchetil, Aschetil, Anschetil and Latin versions of all of these ending in -us. Because of the popularity of the Norman name forms, variants are frequently found in post-Conquest British sources, however Anglo-Scandinavian forms predating the Conquest also appear: Asketel, Askytel, Aschil, Aschil and others. GB p. 8 s.nn. skell, sketill; FJ pp. 25-32, 342, 349 s.n. sketill, Eskil, s-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. skll/skll, s-/s-, -k(ti)ll
Askr   GB p. 7 s.n. Askr
sl, sl Found in Old Danish as Asl or Asel. The first element in this name comes from Primitive Scandinavian *Ana- or *Anu- (see - above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Runic examples include the nominative form ays- and the accusative forms asl, osl, usl. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. sl/sl, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
slkr, sleikr Found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as Aslak, and in OW.Norse as slkr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -lakr or -leikr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms aslak, aslakR, oslaks, [uslakr] and the accusative form oslak. A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. GB p. 8 s.nn. slkr, sleikr; FJ pp. 33-34, 185-186. 342, 350 s.nn. slkr, sleikr, s-, -lkr, -leikr, Leikr; CV pp. 382-383 s.v. leika, leikr; NR s.nn. slakR, slikR, s-/s-, -likR/-lakR
sleifr For the first element s- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Found in Old Danish as Aslef and in OW.Norse as sleifr. Found in the runic accusative case form oslf. GB p. 8 s.n. sleifr; FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. s-, -leifr; CV p. 381 s.v. leif; NR s.n. slifR, s-/s-, -lifR/-lafR
sli In Norway appears as a side form of Atli. Found as Danish, Swedish and Anglo-Scandinavian names as a short form of a name in sl-. For the first element s- see above. FJ pp. 34, 342 s.nn. sli, s-
smarr Found in OW.Norse as smarr. For the first element s- see above. The second element -marr comes from the OW.Norse adjective mrr, "famous, glorious, great", derived in turn from the proto-Scandinavian mriR "to distinguish, to praise, to commend". Runic examples include the nominative form [nsmar] and the accusative form osmr. FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. s-, -mrr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr; NR s.n. smarr, s-/s-, -mrr
smr Found in Old Danish as Asmoth and in OW.Norse as smr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -mr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form asmu. GB p. 8 s.n. smr; FJ pp. 342, 350 s.n. s-, -mr; NR s.n. s-/s-
smundr Found in Old Danish as Asmund, Osmund, in Old Swedish as Asmund, and in OW.Norse as smundr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Found frequently in Iceland and Norway from the 900's on, and the form Osmundr appears after 1290. Runic examples include the nominative forms [aosmuntr], asmuhtr, asmund, asmunr, asmuntr, asmutr, [osmunr], osmunrt, [osmunrt], osmuntr, ousmuntR, and the accusative forms asmut, osmunt, osmut, osm=ut. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Osmund, Asmund. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 8 s.n. smundr; FJ pp. 34-35, 342, 350 s.n. smundr, s-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. smundr, s-/s-, -mundr, Mundi
snitr For the first element s- see above. For the second element -nitr see above. Found in the runic nominative form (a)s[nu]tr. FJ p. 342 s.n. s-; CV p. 456 s.v. njta; NR s.n. snitr, s-/s-, -nitr
slfr, slfr Found in Old Danish as Asulf, in Old Swedish as Asulf, Asolf, and in OW.Norse as slfr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. There are a few early instances of this name in Iceland and many late ones in Norway. A Danish runic inscription, slf may represent either sulfr or sleifr. Runic examples include the nominative forms aosu[l]f(R), osuhlfr, the genitive form osulfs and the accusative forms asulf, oslf, osulb. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Osolf, Osulf, Osulfus. GB p. 8 s.n. slfr; FJ pp. 35, 342, 351 s.n. sulfr, s-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. s-/s-, -ulfR
srr, strr The first element st- here is a form of Old Icelandic ss, "god, one of the sir". In proper names, the first element becomes st- before the liquid r. See also the first element s- see above. FJ pp. 342 s.n. s-; CV pp. 46 s.v. ss; NR s.n. s-/s-
srr, srr Found in Old Danish as Asfrith and in OW.Norse as srr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -(f)rer/(f)rr see above. Found in the runic nominative forms istryr and o(s)(r)(u)()(r). GB p. 8 s.n. srr; FJ pp. 342 s.n. s-; NR s.n. srr/strr, s-/s-, -(f)rer/(f)rr
Assar   GB p. 7 s.n. Assar
sti Short form of strr. Found in Old Danish as Asti, in Old Swedish as Aste or Oste, and in OW.Norse as sti. Short form of strr. Runic examples include the nominative form osti and the accusative form osta. NR s.n. sti
strr Found in Old Danish as Astrath, Old Swedish Astradh. The derivation of the first element st- is under debate, though it may come from OW.Norse st "love, affection". For the second element -rr see above. A short form of strr is sti. Runic examples include the nominative forms osrar and ostarr, as well as the accusative form astra. NR s.n. strr,
svaldr, svaldi For the first element s- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. svaldr is found in Old Swedish Asvald, Asvalde and in OW.Norse svaldr. svaldi may occur in Old Danish as Aswaldi, and may also be present in Old Swedish as Asvald or Asvalde. svaldr is found in the runic accusative form asualt. Runic examples of svaldi include the nominative forms asualdi and ausualti. GB p. 8 s.n. svaldr; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.nn. s-, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.n. svaldi, s-/s-, -valdr, -valdi
svarr Found in OW.Norse as svarr. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -varr see above. There is very little documentation for this name in Old Norse, aside from an svarr in Njls saga and a possible runic accusative form, osua-..... Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Asward, Asuuard, Asewrd. GB p. 8 s.n. svarr; FJ pp. 35-36, 342, 351 s.nn. svarr, s-, -varr; CV p. 722 s.v. vrr; NR s.n. svarr, s-/s-, -varr
svir May perhaps occur in Old Danish as Aswith, found in Old Swedish as Asvidh or svidh, and in OW.Norse as svir. For the first element s- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the genitive form osuiaR and the accusative form osui. FJ pp. 36, 342, 351 s.nn. svir, s-, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.n. svir, s-/s-, vir
Atfari A compound name from the preposition at and -fari. OW.Norse -fari is found in compound names, and is typical of people who traveled or were in the habit of traveling to a specific place as indicated in their name; these names are derived from the OW.Norse verb fara "to go, to travel". Occurs in the runic nominative form afari. CV pp. 28-29, 141-143, s.v. at, at-fr, fara; NR s.n. Atfari, -fari
Atli Found in Old Danish as Atli, in Old Swedish as Atle, and in OW.Norse as Atli. Identical to the Continental Germanic name Attala or Attila, also found as a diminuitive form from Gothic atta "father", adopted early into Scandinavia from Vlsungasaga. In the West Norse area the name may represent a weak form of the OW.Norse adjective atall "wicked, evil, harmful". Runic examples include the nominative form atli and the accusative forms atla, [atln]. GB p. 7 s.n. Atli; NR s.n. Atli
Atsurr, zurr, Azurr Originally a by-name for *AntswaruR, "he who answers," which may have the sense of "answering an insult, avenger". The name is common in Norway in the form zurr and two of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn carried the name as well. The name has been found in Swedish. Danish runic inscriptions with this name include sur, asur, atsor, atsur, atsir and Latinized forms Acerus, Ascerus, Ascer. Norman forms include Aszor, Adsor, Azor. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Azor, Azer, Ascer, Aschri, Asceri, Aschur. GB pp. 8, 17 s.n. Azurr, zurr; FJ pp. 36-37 s.n. Atsurr
Atti Found in Old Danish as Atti, in Old Swedish as Atte, and in OW.Norse Atti is the name of a fictional character. Atti is a short form of Indo-European-derived names such as Azurr (see also Andsvarr). It has also been suggested that this name may derive from Gothic atta "father". Runic examples include the nominative forms ati. NR s.n. Atti
Aubi A short form of Aubjrn. A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian short form of Aubjrn, derived from the Anglo-Scandinavian name Aubo or Oube. See Aubjrn below. FJ pp. 37 s.n. *Aubi
Aubjrn Found in Old Danish as thbiorn, in Old Swedish as dhbiorn, and as OW.Norse Aubjrn. The first element Au- is occasionally written Od- and is identical to OW.Norse aur " wealth, riches, abundance; happiness, luck". For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms aubiarn, aubiarn, aubiorn, [a]ubi[u]rn, oubern, oubian, ubirn, the genitive forms aubiarnaR and aubiarnar, and the accusative forms aubiarn and oobiarn. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 7 s.n. Aubjrn; FJ pp. 37, 38, 39, 342, 348 s.n. Aui, Aubjrn, Au-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Aubirn, Au-, -birn, Aui, Biarni
Aufinnr For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -finnr see above. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . GB p. 7 s.n. Aufinnr; FJ pp. 39, 342, 348 s.n. Aui, Au-, -finnr
Augeirr Found in Old Danish as thger, in Old Swedish as dhger, and in OW.Norse as Augeirr. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Found in Norway after 1322 as Odgeir. Runic examples include the nominative forms [auker] and aukiR, as well as the accusative forms aukair and aukiR. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 38, 39, 342, 349 s.n. Augeirr, Au-, -geirr, Aui; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. AugiRR, Au-, -giRR, Aui
Augsl Found in Old Swedish as dhgisl and in OW.Norse as Augsl. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Found in a runic incription for which the case is uncertain as ...uils. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 7 s.n. Augsl; FJ pp. 39, 342, 349 s.nn. Aui, Au-, -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Au(g)sl, Aui, Au-, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
Augrmr Found in Old Swedish as dhgrim and in OW.Norse as Augrmr. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. This name is occasionally found in Norway after 1224. The Danish form grim appears in the 1100's but was rare. Found in the runic nominative form uakrimR. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Outgrim, Ougrim, Augrim. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 38, 39, 342, 349 s.nn. Augrmr, Aui, Au-, -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. AugrmR, Au-, grma; NR s.nn. Aui, -grmR
Auhvatr, Auvatr Found in Old Swedish as Odowater in one example from Gtland. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -hvatr or its weak side-form -hvati see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [auatr] and auuatr. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 342, 349 s.nn. Aui, Au-, -hvatr; CV pp. 297 s.v. hvatr; NR s.n. Au(h)vatr, Au-, Aui
Aui This name is found in Old Danish as thi, in Old Swedish as dhe, and in OW.Norse as Aui. It is a short form of names beginning in Au-. For the first element Au- see above. Found frequently in Norway after 1300. Runic examples include the nominative forms aui, (a)u()(in) and the accusative forms aua, au(a), ua. GB p. 7 s.n. Aui; FJ pp. 39, 342 s.nn. Aui, Au-; NR s.n. Aui, Au-
Auin, Auun This name is found in Old Danish as Othin or thin, in Old Swedish as dhin, and in OW.Norse as Auun. For the first element Au- see above. The second element is from Germanic *-winiz "friend" (see -vinr above). Runic examples include the nominative forms auin, a[uin], [uun] and the accusative form ...uin. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 342, 351 s.nn. Aui, Au-, -un(n); NR s.nn. Auin/Auun, Au-, Aui
Auketill For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -ketill see above. This name is not found in Norway before the 1500's. Found in Old Danish as thkil and in OW.Norse as Aukell. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Okal, Okel, Aucetel, Audkillo, Antkil. Runic examples include the nominative form aukil and the accusative forms aukil, eykil, ukitil. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39-40, 342, 349 s.nn. Auketill, Aui, Au-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. Auk(ti)ll, Au-, Aui, -k(ti)ll
Aumar, Aumann Originally a by-name, "wealthy man." For the first element Au- see above. Aumar is found in Iceland in the 1200's. Aumann appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian form Othman c. 1140-1156. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 40, 342 s.n. Aumann, Au-, Aui; NR s.nn. Au-, Aui
Aumundr Found in Old Swedish as dhmund and in OW.Norse as Aumundr. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -mundr or the weak side-form -mundi see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms aumuntr, omontr, [o]()munt and the accusative form oumunt. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 39, 342, 350 s.nn. Aui, Au-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Aumundr, Aui, Au-, -mundr, Mundi
Aulfr, Aulfr Found in Old Danish as thulf, in Old Swedish as dholf, and in OW.Norse as Aulfr. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -lfr or -ulfr see above. One of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn was Aulfr Aulfsstum. The name is common in Norway and is found in Swedish runic inscriptions. There may be a few instances in Danish as well. Runic examples include the nominative forms auulfr, au()ulfr, uulfr. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Othol, Authel, Authul, Odulf, Odulfi, Oudulf, Audulf, Hodulfi, Hautolf, Autolf, Audulfus, Oudulfus. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . GB p. 8 s.n. Aulfr; FJ pp. 39-41, 342, 351 s.nn. Auulfr, Aui, Au-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. AuulfR, Aui, Au-, -ulfR
Aur See above. GB p. 8 s.n. Aur; FJ pp. 342 s.n. Au-; NR s.n. Au-
AurkR, AurkR Found in the Latinized Old Swedish forms ricus, Orikus. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -rkr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [aRrukr], aurik, aurikr, au(r)(in)(k)r, the dative form auriki and the accusative form urik. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 342, 350 s.nn. Aui, Au-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. AurkR, Aui, Au-, -rkR
Austeinn Found in Old Danish as the Latinized form Odstanus and as Old Swedish dhsten. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Found in the runic nominative form austa.... A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 342, 351 s.n. Aui, Au-, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Austinn, Aui, Au-, -stinn
Auunn, Auvini See above. The second element comes from -vinr. For the second element -vini or -vinr see above. This name is common as a West Scandinavian name from the earliest period onwards, and the short forms Aun and Auni were used. There are a few instances in Danish and Swedish as well, with Danish records showing a short form n. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Oun, Oudon, Houden, Oune, Oudhen, Oden, Ouein, Othen, Ohen, Outhen. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . GB p. 8 s.n. Auunn; FJ pp. 39, 41-42, 342, 351 s.nn. Auunn, Aui, Au-, -un(n); CV pp. 655 s.v. unnr; NR s.nn. Au-, Aui
Auvaldr Occurs in Old Swedish as dhvald. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. Found in the runic nominative form auualtr. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 342, 351 s.nn. Aui, Au-, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Auvaldr, Aui, Au-, -valdr
Auvir Occurs in Old Swedish as dhvidh. For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Found in the runic nominative form ouir. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian form Auduid. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 42, 342, 352 s.nn. *Auvir, Aui, Au-, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Auvir, Aui, Au-, Vi-, -vir
Auvindr For the first element Au- see above. For the second element -vindr see above. This form is hypothesized from the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Auundeleia, Auuindeley, Aghenlay. A short form of names beginning in Au- is . FJ pp. 39, 42, 342, 352 s.n. *Auvindr, Aui, Au-, -vindr
Augnarr Of uncertain etymology. Found in the runic nominative form aunhar|. NR s.n. Augnarr
Auki A short form of Auketill. The Old Norse form here is hypothesized from the Anglo-Scandinavian forms which include Auca, Ouchi, Auch, Houc, Oucke, Ouke, Houk, Ouk, Hauk, Oukes. The name is thought to represent a solely Anglo-Scandinavian formation. FJ pp. 42-43 s.n. *Auki
Aumundr For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 8 s.n. Aumundr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Aun, Auni, n Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England, Oune. Of uncertain etymology, perhaps a diminuitive from Aunn or a short form of Auunn. Occurs in the runic accusative form [auno]. GB p. 8 s.n. Aun; NR s.n. Auni
Aunn Found in OW.Norse as Aun. Contracted form of Auin or Auun (see above). Occurs in the runic genitive form aunar. NR s.n. Aunn
Austbjrn First element from OW.Norse austr "east" For the second element -bjrn see above. The runic evidence is uncertain: this name may occur as the accusative form ausburn, or the inscription may actually be the name sbjrn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Austbirn, Bjarni
Austmar Found in Old Danish as Ostman, in Old Swedish as the by-name stman, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Austmar. From OW.Norse austmar "a man from the east". Found in the runic nominative form austmo[(r)]. NR s.n. Austmar
Auti This is a problematic name hypothesized to be derived from *Aqguti > *Auguti > *Aukti. The name would then be reflected in the Swedish runic inscription akuti and the 15th century Jutlandic name yti. Alternatively, this could be a by-name meaning "out in the sty." FJ pp. 43-44 s.n. Auti
AutiR Of uncertain etymology. Found in the runic nominative form autiR. Compare with Auti. NR s.n. AutiR
valdi, valdr For the first element - see above. For the second element -valdr see above. GB p. 8 s.nn. valdi, valdr; FJ pp. 342, 351 -, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
vangr For the first element - see above. GB p. 8 s.n. vangr; FJ pp. 342
varr Found in Old Danish as Awer, in Old Swedish as Aver, and in OW.Norse as varr. Derived from Primitive Scandinavian *Anu-gaiRaR (see -, -geir). Runic examples include the nominative forms auer, ouaiR, [ouAiR] and the accusative form [ayi]. GB p. 8 s.n. varr; FJ pp. 342, 351-352; NR s.nn. viRR, -, -arr
vir Occurs in Old Swedish as Avidh. The first element is from Germanic *az- (see - above.) For the second element -vir see above. Found in the runic nominative form auir. CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.n. vir
varr   GB p. 17 s.n. varr
 
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Name Notes Source
BgliR Perhaps a formation from a verb corresponding to Nynorsk begla "to hinder". Compare with the OW.Norse man's by-name Begla, interpreted as equivalent to the Nynorsk noun begla "perverse and quarrelsome person." Compare with the Old Danish by-name Beghel. Found in the runic accusative form begli. NR s.n. BgliR
BiliR Identical to BgliR? Found in the runic nominative form beiliR. NR s.n. BiliR
Baggi Originally a by-name from OW.Norse baggi "bag, pack, bundle" or may also be "beggar, vagrant". Found in Old Danish as Baggi, in Old Swedish as Bagge, and in OW.Norse as Baggi. Found as both a personal name and a by-name in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative form baki, the genitive form baka and the accusative form baka, although these may instead represent the name Banki. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bagge, Baghe. FJ p. 45 s.n. Baggi; NR s.n. Baggi
Bak Originally a by-name, "back." Found in a few Norwegian examples. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Basche. FJ p. 45 s.n. Bak
Baldi Short form of some name in Bald-. Appears in Sweden as a by-name, where it is assumed to be a loan from Germany. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Balde. FJ pp. 45-46 s.n. Baldi
Balkr, Balki, Blki Originally a by-name related to Modern Norwegian balk, "confusion," or else from the Old English noun balca, "balk." Balki and Blki are weak side-forms. Blki appears once in West Scandinavian, as a personal name among the Landnmsmenn of Iceland, and appears as a place-name element in both Iceland and Norway. Not recorded in East Scandinavia. GB p. 8 s.n. Blki; FJ pp. 46 s.n. Balki
Balli Found as both personal names and by-names in in Old Danish as Balli and in Old Swedish as Balle. Occurs in OW.Norse as the by-name Balli. From the OW.Norse adjective ballr "dangerous, hazardous, risky, terrible, bold, brave, daring" or from OW.Norse bllr "ball". Runic examples include the nominative forms bali and balin. FJ p. 46 s.n. Balli; NR s.n. Balli
BallungR Derived from the OW.Norse adjective ballr "dangerous, hazardous, risky, terrible, bold, brave, daring". Found in the runic genitive form baluks. NR s.n. BallungR
Balsi, Ballsi A formation from the second element -si added to Balli. Found in the runic nominative form balsi. NR s.n. Bal(l)si
Banki Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Banke. Related to the Old Swedish verb banka "knock, pound, beat" or a name corresponding to the Swedish dialect word banke "crossbar". Runic examples include the nominative form baki, the genitive form baka and the accusative form baka. NR s.n. Banki
Bari Originally a nickname meaning a specific type of ship. Found in Iceland and Norway, with a few instances found in Denmark, for instance the Latin form Bartho. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bardi, also appears in the place-names Barthwait and Barthtwayt. GB p. 8 s.n. Bari; FJ pp. 47-48 s.n. Bari
Brr Derived from Primitive Scandinavian *Bau-friuR. The first element *Bau- also gives rise to the name element B-, which is identical to Old Icelandic b (genitive form bvar, "battle"). The second element *-friuR is also represented in the second element -frr, see above. Found in Old Danish as Barth, in Old Swedish as Bardh, and in OW.Norse as Brr. Found in the runic nominative form barr. GB p. 8 s.n. Brr; FJ pp. 46-47, 343, 348, 351 s.nn. Brr, B-, -frr, -varr; NR s.n. Brr, B(v)-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Brekr For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. Brekr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Barkr, Brkr, Barki Originally a by-name, "bark" related to Old Icelandic brkr (genitive barkar). One of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn was named Brkr, and a few other occurrences in West Scandinavian. Bark is found as a by-name in Sweden, and Barki is also seen as a side-form of this name. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Barch, Barc, Bark. FJ pp. 48 s.nn. Barkr, Brkr, Barki; NR s.n. Barkvir
Barkvir Old Swedish Barkvidh (example from stergtland). The first element, Bark- is from Old Swedish barker, OW.Norse brkr "bark"), because it is otherwise unknown in two-element names. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms barkuir and [barkuiR], as well as the accusative form barkui. FJ pp. 48, 352 s.nn. Barkr, Brkr, Barki, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.n. Barkvir
Barn, Barni Originally a by-name meaning "child, youth, young man," derived from OW.Norse barn "child". Barni is a weak side-form of the name. Found in some Danish place-names and as the Old Danish by-name Barni. Runic inscriptions of the nominative forms barni, (b)ar(n)in exist, but are thought to be a spelling of Bjarni. This name may have originated as a short form or by-name for names containing the -barn second element. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Barne, Barn, Brn, Bern. FJ pp. 48-49 s.nn. Barn, Barni; NR s.n. Barni
Basing "Son of Bassi, descendant of Bassi." A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from the Scandinavian name Bassi plus the Old English second element -ing. Forms include Basing, Besing, Blasing, Basind, Besign, Besyng, Bassyng, Bosing, Basinc. FJ pp. 49-51 s.n. *Basing, *Besing
Bassi This name occurs as both a personal name and a by-name, Found in Old Danish and OW. Norse as Bassi and in Old Swedish as Basse. Nordisk runnamnslexikon suggests that the derivation is from OW.Norse bassi "wild boar", although the Cleasby-Vigfusson Old Icelandic Dictionary has bassi as "bear." Found in the runic nominative form b(a)si. GB p. 8 s.n. Bassi; NR s.n. Bassi
Baugr   GB p. 8 s.n. Baugr
BulfR This name is a contracted form of OW.Norse Blfr. It is found in the runic accusative form baulf. FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. B-, -ulfr; NR s.nn. BulfR
Bausi Found in Old Danish as Bsi and in Old Swedish as the by-name Bse. May be related to the Norwegian dialect word bause "magnate; proud, very touchy person". Runic examples include the accusative forms baosa and bausa. NR s.n. Bausi
Beda Christian, the same name as that of the Venerable Bede. GB p. 8 s.n. Beda
Beggi   GB p. 8 s.n. Beggi
Beigan Celtic GB p. 8 s.n. Beigan
Beinir This name occurs in Freyinga saga, ch. 4. GB p. 8 s.n. Beinir
Beinvir Found as a mythological name as OW.Norse Beinvir. From OW.Norse beinvir. Cleasby-Vigfusson shows beinvir to be holly oak (Quercus ilex), however Nordisk runnamnslexikon has the meaning as Swedish benved, which appears to be the European spindle-tree (Euonymus europaeus). This Runic Swedish name should be interpreted as a two-element name from -vir, but in Scandinavian personal names the element Bin- seems otherwise to be unknown. For the second element -vir see above. Found in the runic nominative form benuir. CV p. 56 s.v. beinvii, beinvir, beinviir; NR s.n. Binvir
Bekan Celtic GB p. 8 s.n. Bekan
Bekki A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian name, possibly from the West Scandinavian by-name Bekkr, "brook." However this may also be a loan from Old English, Frisian, or Continental Germanic. FJ pp. 51 s.n. *Bekki
Belgr Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic belgr (genitive belgjar) "skin, skin-bag, bellows," used to mean "dry, withered old man." Found as a West Scandinavian name and also as an Anglo-Scandinavian name. FJ pp. 51 s.n. Belgr
Beli Originally a by-name derived from Old Icelandic belja "to bellow, to roar." The only certain Scandinavian occurrences are as fictional characters, for example, in orsteins saga Vkingssonar ch. 1 and in Frijfs saga ins frkna ch. 1, and a possible occurrence in Sweden. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bele, and the name occurs in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Belesbi, Bilesbi, Bellebi, Ballebi. FJ p. 51-52 s.n. Beli
Belli A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from either the Old Norse by-name bellinn "bold," or perhaps related to a Norwegian dialect term bell "bell-clapper." FJ p. 52 s.n. *Belli
Beltr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation, not recorded in Scandinavia but possibly related to the West Scandinavian by-name Belti, derived from belti, "belt." FJ p. 52 s.n. *Beltr
Benedikt Christian, Benedict. A diminuitive form of Benedikt is Bensi. GB p. 8 s.n. Benedikt; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Bengeirr For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. Bengeirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Beni   GB p. 8 s.n. Beni
Bensi A diminuitive form of Benedikt. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Benteinn   GB p. 8 s.n. Benteinn
Bergfinnr The first element Berg- is derived from the present stem of the OW.Norse verb bjarga "to save, to help" (compare with the Continental Germanic names in Berg-, Perg- etc. and the Norwegian dialect term berg, "protection, help.") but may also be associated with OW.Norse berg, bjarg "mountain, cliff". For the second element -finnr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. Bergfinnr; FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. Berg-, -finnr; NR s.nn. Bergr, Berg-
Bergr This name is found as both a personal name and as a by-name in Old Swedish, where it appears as Birgh or Brgh, and in OW.Norse where it takes the form Bergr, and appears in Old Danish as the by-name Biergh. The personal name may be derived from the OW.Norse verb bjarga "to save, to help", but as a by-name is derived from OW.Norse berg, bjarg "mountain, cliff," in which case it is likely to have originated from an identical place-name. Found in the runic nominative form [(b)irkr]. See Berg- above. GB p. 8 s.n. Bergr; FJ pp. 342 s.n. Berg-; NR s.nn. BergR, Berg-
Bergsveinn Found in Old Swedish as Birghsven in an example from Jmtland, and in OW.Norse as Bergsveinn. For the first element Berg- see above. The second element -sveinn is identical to Old Icelandic sveinn, "young man," often used to mean "young warrior." The term is related to the archaic English term "swain." Runic examples include the nominative form barksuain and the accusative form bersen. GB p. 8 s.n. Bergsveinn; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.nn. Berg-, -sveinn; NR s.nn. Bergsvinn, Bergr, Berg-, -svinn
Bergrr For the first element Berg- see above. For the second element -rr see above. The name is found frequently in West Scandinavian, occurring in both Norway and in Iceland. Also recorded in Sweden. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bertor, Berhor, Berthor. GB p. 8 s.n. Bergrr; FJ pp. 52, 342, 347, 351 s.nn. Bergrr, Berg-, r-, -rr; CV p. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. Bergr, Berg-
Bergulfr For the first element Berg- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Rare in Norway before 1300, but found there frequently after that. Found in Swedish, and in a few late instances in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Beregolf, Berguluer, also found in place-names Berguluesbi, Bergolbi. FJ pp. 52, 342, 351 s.nn. Bergulfr, Berg-, -ulfr; NR s.nn. Bergr, Berg-, -ulfR
Bergvir Found in Old Swedish as Birghvidh in an example from stergtland. For the first element Berg- see Berg- above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms barkuir, [barkuiR] and the accusative forms barkui, birui. FJ pp. 342, 352 s.nn. Berg-, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Bergvir, BergR, Berg-, -vir
Bernharr The second element -harr is from the OW.Norse adjective hrr "hard, strong". GB p. 8 s.n. Bernhardr; NR s.nn. Har-, Harr
Bersi, Bessi Found in Old Danish and OW.Norse as Bersi, and as the Old Swedish by-name Brse. Originally a by-name from OW.Norse bersi "(little) bear," and related to Old Icelandic bersi, "he-bear." Found very frequently in Iceland and frequently in Norway from the 800's. There are a few instances in Sweden and Denmark. Found in the runic genitive case form [biria]. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include occur in the place-names Berisholm, Baseuuic, Besewic, Bersewyk, Bessewallesike. GB p. 8 s.n. Bersi; FJ pp. 53 s.n. Bersi, Bessi; NR s.nn. Bersi
Bldr, Billi Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic bldr, "blade." The name is as a personal name of fictional characters in West Scandinavia, for example in Hrmundar saga Gripssonar ch. 1 and in rvar-Odds saga Bldr is listed as a berserker in ch. 14. It is also found frequently as a by-name. It may also occur in the character named Bildus in Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum and as both a by-name and a place-name in Denmark. Billi is found in one Norwegian place-name with a few instances in Sweden and Denmark. FJ pp. 53 s.n. Bldr, Billi
Billingr Found in Old Danish as both the name and the by-name Billing, in OW.Norse as a mythological character and as a by-name in the form Billingr, and in Old Swedish as the by-name Billing. The name is derived from OW.Norse billingr "twin". Runic examples include the nominative forms bilikikR, bilik=r. NR s.nn. BillingR
Birgir Found in Old Danish as Birghir, in Old Swedish as Birgher, and in OW.Norse as Birgir. This name is of disputed derivation. It may be based on a name-element derived from OW.Norse bjarga "to save, to help", or it may be an adjective formed from Germanic *berz "help," or it could be a short form of names in Berg-, or it could be a two-element name with the second element of -geirr see above. The first three proposals assume all initial forms in *BergiaR. Runic examples include the nominative forms biriR. GB p. 8 s.n. Birgir; FJ pp. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. BirgiR, -giRR
Birningr   GB p. 8 s.n. Birningr
Bisi This name occurs in Old Swedish as Bise, occurring both as a personal name and as a by-name; it is also found in Old Danish as a by-name Bise; and as the OW.Norse by-name Bisi. This name derives from a term meaning "commander, leader," compare with the Swedish dialect word bis(s)e "commander, old man." Found in the runic nominative form (b)isi. NR s.n. Bisi
Bjaachr Celtic GB p. 8 s.n. Bjaachr
Bjlfi Found in OW.Norse as Bilfi, both as a personal name and as a by-name. From OW.Norse bjlfi "fur, pelt." Found in the runic accusative case form biafa. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjlfi; NR s.n. Bilfi
Bjalla A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian name derived from the Old Icelandic bjalla, "bell," or the place-names isntead may be using the personal names Beli or Belli. FJ pp. 53-54 s.n. *Bjalla
Bjarki   GB p. 8 s.n. Bjarki
Bjarngeir This name is found in Old Danish in the Latinized forms Berngerus and Berengarius. The name elements Bjarn- and Bjrn- (both meaning "bear") are derived from the same Primitive Scandinavian language roots: over time, and following certain linguistic rules, languages change, and the two forms seem to be the result of a series of changes resulting in similar forms. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form biarngaiR and the accusative form biarnkir. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV pp. 65-66, 196 s.v. bjarnar, bjrn, geirr; NR s.nn. BiarngiRR, Biarn-, -giRR, Biarni
Bjarnharr For the first element Bjarn- see above. For the second element -harr see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjarnharr; CV pp. 65-66 s.v. bjarnar, bjrn; NR s.n. Biarn-, Har-, Harr, Biarni
Bjarnheinn For the first element Bjarn- see above. The name-elements Hein-, -heinn and the single-element name Heinn are of disputed derivation. The name may have come into Scandinavia as a Continental Germanic loan from the Hjaninga saga, related to Continental German Hetan. There is a discrepancy in pronunciation between medieval West Scandinavian forms (Hein-, -heinn) and medieval East Scandinavian forms (Hiin-, -hiinn). The OW.Norse form with /e/ is assumed to have been formed along the pattern of OW.Norse heinn "fur, pelt," but the discrepancy between the East Scandinavian /i/ and the West Scandinavian /e/ may also be explained as a change according to normal phonetic priciples. The Viking Age runic examples seems to occur both as /i/ and /e/. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjarnheinn; CV pp. 65-66 s.v. bjarnar, bjrn; NR s.n. Biarn-, Hein-/Hiin-, -heinn/-hiinn, Heinn/Hiinn, Biarni
Bjarnhfi A compound from the OW.Norse bjrn "bear" and -hfi. For the first element Bjarn- see above. The second element, -hfi is derived from OW.Norse hfu, "head." Runic examples include the nominative forms biarnaffi, biarnhufi and the accusative form biarnafa. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. CV pp. 65-66, 306 s.v. bjarnar, bjrn, hfi; NR s.nn. Biarnhfi, Biarni, -hfi
Bjarni Found in Old Danish as Biarni, in Old Swedish as Biarne or Birne, and in OW.Norse as Bjarni. This is a short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn, and is found as a side-form of Bjrn and Arinbjrn. Runic examples include the nominative forms barni, (b)ar(n)in, biarni. Found throughout Scandinavia. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Berne. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjarni; FJ pp. 54 s.n. Bjarni; CV pp. 65-66 s.v. bjarnar, bjrn; NR s.nn. Biarni
Bjarnlaugr For the first element Bjarn- see above. For the second element -laugr see above. Found in the runic nominative form [biarlaukr]. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 350 s.n. -laugr; CV pp. 374 s.v. laug def. IV; NR s.nn. BiarnlaugR, Biarn-, -laugR, Biarni
Bjarnvarr For the second element -varr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjarnvarr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -varr; CV pp. 65-66, 722 s.v. bjarnar, bjrn, vrr
Bjartr This name occurs as a by-name in OW.Norse as Bjartr. From the OW.Norse adjective bjartr "light, bright". Runic examples include the nominative forms (b)artr. NR s.nn. Biartr
Bjartmrr The first element Bjart- is probably from Old Icelandic bjartr, "bright". For the second element -mrr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjartmrr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -mrr; CV pp. 65, 418, 443 s.v. bjartr, -mr, mrr; NR s.nn. Biartr
Bjlan   GB p. 8 s.n. Bjlan
Bjlfr, Blfr "Bee wolf," a kenning for "honey thief" and thus a bear. A contraction of Blfr, and related to Old English Beowulf. For the second element -lfr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjlfr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
Bjrglfr For the second element -lfr see above. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjrglfr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
Bjrn From OW.Norse bjrn, which in turn derives from Primitive Scandinavian *bernuR, "bear". An extremely common name in West Scandinavia, originally derived from a by-name meaning "bear." This was a very popular name, as the many runic examples attest: nominative case forms include biairn, biarn, biaurn, biaurn, binrn, biorn, birn, biurn, burn, byorn, byrn; the genitive case forms bianaR, biarnar, biarnaR; the accusative case forms baorn, biaorn, biarn, biern, bihrn, biorn, bira, biur, biurn, biurno, burn, etc. Found in Old Danish as Biorn, in Old Swedish as Biorn and Birn, and in OW.Norse as Birn or Bjrn. Found in Latinized Old Danish as Bero, Berno, Biorno, Biornus. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Beorn, Biern, Bern, Biorn, Ber. A diminuitive form of Bjrn is Bjrsi. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjrn; FJ pp. 54-55, 342 s.nn. Bjrn, Bjrn-; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; NR s.nn. Birn
Bjrnkarl From a nickname meaning "bear-hunter" or else a compound name from Bjrn (see above) and the second element -karl. The second element -karl is identical with Old Icelandic karl, "man." Anglo-Scandinavian forms include which derive from either this name or from Bjrnketill include Berkil and the place-names Barkedale, Barkendale. FJ pp. 54-55, 342, 349, 351 s.nn. Bjrn, Bjrnkarl or Bjrnketill, Bjrn-, -karl, -ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Bjrnketill For the first element Bjrn see above. For the second element -ketill see above. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include which derive from either this name or from Bjrnkarl include Berkil and the place-names Barkedale, Barkendale. FJ pp. 54-55, 342, 351 s.nn. Bjrn, Bjrnkarl or Njrnketill, Bjrn-, -karl, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Bjrnlfr, Bjrnlfr, Bjrnulfr For the first element Bjrn see above. For the second element -olfr or -ulfr see above. Appears early in Iceland, but is documented only in place-names in Norway until late. Found in Sweden as Birnulv. Found in Old Swedish as Biornolf and in OW.Norse as Bjrnlfr. Runic examples include the nominative forms [biarnulfr] and [biaurn(u)].... Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bernulf, Bernolf, Bernoff, Bernulfus, Bernolfus. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjrnlfr; FJ pp. 55-56, 342, 351 s.nn. Bjrnulfr, Bjrn-, -ulfr; NR s.nn. BiarnulfR, Biarn-, ulfR, Biarni
Bjrr Found in Old Danish as Biaver, in Old Swedish as the by-name Biur and in the OW.Norse by-name Bjrr. From OW.Norse bjrr "beaver". Runic examples include the nominative forms [biur] and the accusative form bior. FJ p. 54 s.n. Bjrr; NR s.n. Birr
Bjrsi A diminuitive form of Bjrn. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Bjrstein Found in Old Swedish as Biursten in an example from Sdermanland. For the first element Bjr- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the accusative case forms biurstain, byrst(a)in. FJ p. 54, 351 s.n. Bjrr, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Birstinn, Birr, -stinn
Blftr "Blue-foot." Originally a by-name, recorded once in West Scandinavian for "Tosten blftr." Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Blafotewang. FJ pp. 56 s.n. Blftr
Blkri Formed as a compound with the OW.Norse adjective blr "black" and the OW.Norse adjective *krr (from Germanic *kaura- "bowed, curved") with the sense partly of "curly, wavy," and partly "obstinate, pugnacious, reluctant." Alternately, the second part of the name may be the masculine name Kri (see below) with a prefixed by-name of Bl- "black, blue, bruise-colored." Runic examples include the form blakari in both the nominative and the accusative cases. NR s.nn. Blkri/Bl-Kri
Blakkr, Blakki "Black, dun-colored." Originally a by-name with both strong and weak forms, found throughout Scandinavia. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Blacher and the place-name Blaketoft. FJ pp. 56-57 s.nn. Blakkr, Blakki
Blanda "One who mixes his drinks." Originally a by-name recorded in West Scandinavian. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include the place-name Blandebi. FJ pp. 57 s.n. Blanda
Blr "Blue-black, livid." Originally a by-name, this color word is the one used to describe corpses and bruises. Found late in West Scandinavian and Sweden. Found in England in the name Randulfus Bla de Scitebroc. FJ pp. 57 s.n. Blr
Blsi Originally a by-name from the verb blsa, "to blow." Recorded in West Scandinavian. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Blasse, Blase. FJ pp. 57 s.n. Blsi
Blasus Christian GB p. 8 s.n. Blasus
Blingr   GB p. 8 s.n. Blingr
Bleikr, Bleiki "Pale, pale one." Originally a by-name with both strong and weak forms, both of which are found in OW.Norse. Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Blek, and in OW.Norse as Bleikr, occurring in each of these areas as both a personal name and as a by-name. From the OW.Norse adjective bleikr "pale, white". Runic examples include the nominative forms bel[e]ik[r], [blikr] and the accusative form bleik. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Blaic, Blayk, Bleik. FJ pp. 57 s.n. Bleikr, Bleiki; NR s.nn. BlikR
Blesa Identical to modern Icelandic blesa "blaze, mare with the blaze on the forehead" (compare with Blesi). Found in the runic nominative form [blesa]. NR s.nn. Blesa, Blesi
Blesi Originally a by-name meaning "white spot on a horse's forehead, blaze," derived from the OW.Norse *bles "blaze" (compare with OW.Norse blesttr "with a blaze on the forehead"). Related to the modern Icelandic blesa "blaze, mare with the blaze on the forehead" (compare with Blesa). The name is found as a nickname for one of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn. Appears in one Swedish runic inscription in the nominative form blisi and possibly in some Swedish place-names. Used as an Anglo-Scandinavian personal name which appears in the place-names Blasebi and Blesebi. FJ pp. 58 s.n. Blesi; NR s.nn. Blesa, Blesi
Bleyi A hypothetical form, possibly an Anglo-Scandinavian name, originally a by-name derived from Old Icelandic bleyi, "cowardice." However, may instead be derived from the Middle English surname "Blade." Found in place-names Bladeroides, Blaithroide, Blaytheroyde. FJ pp. 58 s.n. *Bleyi
Blgr Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic blgja "to gaze." Found in West Scandinavian in personal names, by-names, and place-names. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Blh and appear in the place-names Blittone, Blitone, Blituna, Bliburg. FJ pp. 58 s.n. Blgr
Blingr Originally a by-name from the Old Icelandic adjective blr, "blue, dark" which is often found referring to the color of corpses or bruises, cf. hel-blr, "black as death." Found as a personal name in Iceland, including one of the Landnmsmenn, and possibly appearing in one Norwegian place-name. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bleyn. FJ pp. 58 s.n. Blingr
Bandi Found in Old Danish as Bondi, in Old Swedish as Bonde, and in OW.Norse as Bndi; found as both a personal name and as a by-name in all three areas. From OW.Norse bndi (bandi, bandi) "landowner, yeoman." Found in the runic nominative form buanti. NR s.nn. Bandi
Boi A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian short form of Bvarr. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Boe. FJ pp. 59, 69 s.nn. *Boi, Bvarr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Boddi An 8th century diminuitive form of names in B- (Old English Beadu-). GB p. 8 s.n. Boddi; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Bmr For the first element B- see above. For the second element -mr see above. A diminuitive form of names in B- is Boddi. GB p. 9 s.n. Bmr; FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. B-, -mr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; NR s.n. -mr
Blfr For the first element B- see above. For the second element -olfr see above. A diminuitive form of names in B- is Boddi. GB p. 9 s.n. Blfr; FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. B-, -ulfr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Bvarr Related to *Bau-harjaR, "he who has a battle-array." Found in Old Danish as Bodwar and in OW.Norse as Bvarr. Found in the runic accusative form bau().... Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Batharar. A diminuitive form of names in B- is Boddi. GB p. 9 s.n. Bvarr; FJ pp. 69, 343, 348 s.nn. Bvarr, B-, -varr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; NR s.nn. Bvarr, B-, -varr, Brr, BulfR
Bfi Originally a by-name. Found in Old Danish as Bovi, in Old Swedish as Bove, and in OW.Norse as Bfi; found as both a personal name and as a by-name in all three areas. From the word *bfi "thick and clumsy person." Runic examples include the nominative forms bofi, bufi, the genitive forms [bofa], bufa, the dative form bufa and the accusative forms bofa, [bofi]. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Boue. FJ p. 59 s.n. Bfi; NR s.n. Bfi
Bggvir The second element -vr or its side-form -vir are derived from *wihaR, "warrior" and related to Old Icelandic noun vg, "battle". GB p. 9 s.n. Bggvir; FJ p. 352 s.nn. -ver; ; NR s.n. -vR
Bogi "Bowstave." GB p. 8 s.n. Bogi; CV p. 72 s.v. bogi
Bi Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Bo and in OW.Norse in the forms B, Bi; found as both a personal name and as a by-name in all three areas. From OW.Norse bi "dweller," derived from the OW.Norse verb ba "to dwell." Runic examples include the nominative forms bui, (b)ui, [bui] and the accusative forms bui, (b)ui. NR s.nn. Bi
Bla Found in OW.Norse as the masculine by-name Bla. From OW.Norse bla "bump, swelling." This word is found in the runic accusative case form bulu, where it may represent a personal name. NR s.nn. Bla
Boli Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic boli "bull." A single instance is recorded in West Scandinavian from 1399. Several Anglo-Scandinavian names and place-names contain one of Boli, Bli or Bolli, but it is not clear from which name a given Anglo-Scandinavian instance is derived. These Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bole, Bol, Bolle, Bule, Bulle, Bola. FJ p. 59 s.nn. Boli, Bli, Bolli
Bli Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as both a personal name and as a by-name in the form Bole. occurs in OW.Norse as the by-name Bli. Perhaps from OW.Norse bli "leaseholder, tenant". A few instances are found in West Scandinavia in the 1300s. The Old Danish personal name Bole seems to be a Continental loan-word. Runic examples include the nominative form buli and the accusative form bul(in). Several Anglo-Scandinavian names and place-names contain one of Boli, Bli or Bolli, but it is not clear from which name a given Anglo-Scandinavian instance is derived. These Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bole, Bol, Bolle, Bule, Bulle, Bola. FJ pp. 59 s.nn. Boli, Bli, Bolli; NR s.nn. Bli
Bolli Originally a by-name, Fellows-Jenson gives the etymology of this name as being derived from Old Icelandic bolli "bowl" and hence a fat man. Nordisk runnamnslexikon suggests that this name from OW.Norse bolli "little chubby man." Found in Old Danish as Bulle, in OW.Norse as Bolli (both as a personal name and as a by-name), and as the Old Swedish by-name Bulle. This name is fairly frequent in West Scandinavia. Danish place-names in Bolle or Bulle are thought to be derived from this name. Runic examples include the nominative form buli and the accusative form bul(in). Several Anglo-Scandinavian names and place-names contain one of Boli, Bli or Bolli, but it is not clear from which name a given Anglo-Scandinavian instance is derived. These Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bole, Bol, Bolle, Bule, Bulle, Bola. GB p. 8 s.n. Bolli; FJ pp. 59 s.n. Boli, Bli, Bolli; NR s.nn. Bulli/Bolli, Bli
Blnautr Possibly a compound name formed from OW.Norse bl "dwelling; abode" and OW.Norse nautr "person, mate, fellow." Found in the runic genitive form bulnaus|. NR s.nn. Blnautr
Boltr Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic bolt, as in a bolt of cloth, related to a Modern Icelandic word meaning "bundle," and to a Shetland dialect word meaning "fat, lumpy figure," thus a fat man. Found several times in West Scandinavian. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Boltebi. FJ pp. 60 s.n. Boltr
Bndi Originally an occupational name from Old Icelandic bndi, "farmer." Occurs in West Scandinavian as both a personal name and a place-name. Found in one Swedish runic inscription. Very common in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bunde, Bonde, Bonda, Bondo, Bondus, Bond as well as place-names Bundebi, Bondholm. FJ pp. 60-61 s.n. Bndi
Blverkr   GB p. 9 s.n. Blverkr
Borggeir, BorggiRR The first element Borg- is an alternate form of Berg-, thus derived from the OW.Norse verb bjarga "to save, to help." Borg- is sometimes assumed to be derived from OW.Norse borg "castle, fortified place". For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the accusative case forms borkeR, burkaiR, [burkeR]. FJ pp. 343 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. BorggiRR, Borg-, -giRR
Borgfastr For the first element Borg- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms borfas[tr], [b]or[f]... and the accusative form borfast. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ pp. 344 s.n. -fastr; CV pp. 145 s.v. fastr; NR s.nn. Borgfastr, Borg-, -fastr, Fasti
Borglfr, BorgulfR Found in Old Swedish as Borgholf. For the first element Borg- see above. For the second element -ulfR see above. Runic examples include the nominative form bur[kulfR] and the accusative forms borkulf, burkulf. FJ pp. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. BorgulfR, Borg-, -ulfR
Brkr Originally a by-name, "bark" related to Old Icelandic brkr (genitive barkar). One of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn was named Brkr, and a few other occurrences in West Scandinavian. Bark is found as a by-name in Sweden, and Barki is also seen as a side-form of this name. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Barch, Barc, Bark. GB p. 9 s.n. Brkr; FJ p. 48 s.nn. Barkr, Brkr, Barki; NR s.n. Barkvir
Bsi, Bsi, BsiR Found in Swedish and Danish sources. Found in Old Danish as Bosi, Old Swedish as Bose, and in OW.Norse as Bsi; found as both a personal name and as a by-name in all three areas. From OW.Norse bsi "plump, chubby man." Runic examples include the nominative form bosi and the accusative form busa. The name BsiR is a side-form of Bsi created with the -ia-second element, and appears in the runic nominative form bysiR. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Besy, Besi. FJ pp. 70 s.n. Bsi; NR s.n. Bsi, BsiR
Btbjrn The first element Bt- comes from Old Icelandic bt, "remedy, improvement, weregild, recovery, compensation, penalty, fine." For the second element -bjrn see above. Found in the runic nominative form [botbiern]. FJ pp. 342, 348 s.nn. Bt-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Btbirn, Bt-, -birn
Btfrer The name Btfrer is found as a medieval Old Gtlandic name. For the first element Bt- see above. The second element, -frer is from OW.Norse frir, which in turn comes from proto-Scandinavian *friuR "love, peace." As a name-element frir may mean "protection, defense." Found in the runic nominative form bofrir, which may actually represent the feminine Old Norse name Btfrr. FJ p. 342 s.n. Bt-; NR s.nn. Btfrer, Bt-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Btfss Found in medieval Old Gtlandic as Btfss. For the first element Bt- see above. The second element, -fss, is from the OW.Norse fss "seeking-after, willing to". Found in the runic nominative form butfus. FJ p. 342 s.n. Bt-; CV pp. 178-179 s.v. fss; NR s.nn. Btfss, Bt-, -fss
Btgeir, BtgiRR For the first element Bt- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Found in Old Swedish as Botgher. Occurs in the accusative case in the partial runic inscription ...tkaiR FJ pp. 342, 343 s.nn. Bt-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. BtgiRR, Bt-, -giRR
Bthvatr For the first element Bt- see above. For the second element -hvatr see above. Found in the runic nominative form botuat(r). FJ pp. 342, 349 s.nn. Bt-, -hvatr; CV pp. 297 s.v. hvatr; NR s.nn. Bthvatr, Bt-, -hvatr
Btmundr For the first element Bt- see above. For the second element -mundr or the weak side-form -mundi see above. Found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as Botmund. Runic examples include the nominative forms butmuntr, [b]u[t]muntr. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 342, 350 s.nn. Bt-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Btmundr, Bt-, -mundr, Mundi
BtrifR For the first element Bt- see above. The second element -rifR is from the OW.Norse adjective reifr "friendly, happy." Occurs in Old Swedish as Botref. Runic examples include the nominative form butraifR and the accusative form botraif. FJ p. 342 s.n. Bt-; CV p. 490 s.v. reifr; NR s.nn. BtrifR, Bt-, -rifR, RifR
Btlfr, Btulfr For the first element Bt- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Found in Old Danish as Botulf, in Old Swedish as Botolf, and in OW.Norse as Btlfr. Found in the runic nominative form bot[ulf]. GB p. 8 s.n. Btlfr; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.n. Bt-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. BtulfR, Bt-, -ulfR
Btvir For the first element Bt- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Found in Old Danish as Botwith, in Old Swedish as Botvidh, and in OW.Norse as Btvir. Found in the runic nominative form botuir. FJ p. 342 s.n. Bt-; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Btvir, Bt-, Vi-, -vir
Bti Found once as a by-name in West Scandinavian meaning "man from Bute." A few late instances as a personal name are probably short forms of Btulfr. The name may also occur in some Danish place-names. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bote. FJ pp. 61 s.n. Bti
Bvi   GB p. 8 s.n. Bvi
Bragi Bragi is the name of a poet from the early 800s, who later was transformed in the literature to a god of poetry alongside inn. There are a few other occurrences in West Scandinavian where the name is used for fictional characters. One instance is found in Denmark as Bragh. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Bragebi and Brahebi. GB p. 8 s.n. Bragi; FJ pp. 61-62 s.n. Bragi
BramR Found in Old Danish as Bram and in Old Swedish as the by-name Bram. Related to Old Danish and Old Swedish bram "pomp, extravagance, overabundance;" compare with the Nynorsk verb brama "to be resplendent". Found in the runic accusative form bram. NR s.n. BramR
Brandi Found in OW.Norse as Brandi, and in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Brande. This name is a weak side-form or pet name for Brandr, or is derived from the same root-word. Found in the runic nominative form branti. NR s.nn. Brandi, Brandr
Brandr Originally a by-name meaning either "sword" or "fire." From OW.Norse brandr "log, pole, fire, torch, sword-blade." Found in Old Danish, Old Swedish and OW.Norse as Brand, both as a personal name and also as a by-name. Common in Iceland from the 900s onward. Not found in Norway in the early period, except perhaps as an element in compound personal names. This name was common in Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative forms brantr (6 occurrences) and bratr. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Brand, Brande, Brandi, Braund. A pet name for Brandr is Brandi. GB p. 8 s.n. Brandr; FJ pp. 62-63, 343, 348 s.nn. Brandr, Brand-, -brandr; CV p. 76 s.n. brandr; NR s.n. Brandr, Brandi
Brandulfr, Brndulfr, Brndlfr For the first element Brand- see above. For the second element -olfr or -ulfr see above. An Icelandic settler was named Brndulfr. Occurs in Norway in the 1400s. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Brandulf, Brandolf. GB p. 9 s.n. Brndlfr; FJ pp. 63, 343, 351 s.nn. Brandulfr, Brand-, -ulfr
Brattr   GB p. 8 s.n. Brattr
Breir, Breii Originally a by-name, "the broad one." The name of one of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn, also found in Norway. Found as a by-name in West Scandinavian. Appears as a personal name and as a by-name in Denmark and Sweden. The weak form Breii is not recorded in Scandinavia. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Breth, as well as being included in place-names Bredestorp, Breizbi, Brezbi, Braiatun, Breietun, Bretone, Brettan, Brayton, Braycewell, Braythwelle. GB p. 8 s.n. Breir; FJ p. 64 s.n. Breir, Breii
Bresi   GB p. 8 s.n. Bresi
Bretakollr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian name. The first element Breta- is the genitive plural of Bretar, "the Welsh". The second element -kollr is identical to Old Icelandic kollr "head, shaven crown", which has the extended sense of "man." The Scandinavian spelling here is extrapolated from the documented Anglo-Scandinavian form Bretecol, ca. 1050. FJ p. 64 s.n. *Bretakollr
Brn Celtic GB p. 8 s.n. Brn
Brsi Related to the Nynorsk verb brisa "to shine; to show off, be resplendent;" compare with OW.Norse brsingr "fire." Runic examples include the nominative form brisi and the genitive forms brisa, bris(a). NR s.n. Brsi
Brjnn Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Brjnn
Broddr, Broddi Found once among the Icelandic Landnmsmenn, the weak form Broddi also found in Iceland and Denmark. Frequent in Norway after 1400. A few instances of both the strong and weak forms are found from Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include are found in the place-names Brichesuuorde, Brodesuurde, Broddeswrde. GB p. 9 s.nn. Broddr, Broddr; FJ p. 64 s.n. Broddr
Brir Found in Old Danish as Brothir and in Old Swedish Brodhir, in both locations the name occurs as both a personal name and a by-name. Found in OW.Norse as Brir. From OW.Norse brir "brother". A few late instances are found in West Scandinavia. The name is common in Sweden and Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative forms broir, bru(in)m, bruiR, buriR, the accusative forms [br]()(u)r, [bruur], and in one form in which the case is uncertain as buruR. FJ p. 65 s.n. Brir; NR s.n. BriR
Brklauss A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation, originally a by-name from Brk- "breeches" and -lauss "less." Alternate Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Broclaus, Broclos, Brocles. FJ p. 64 s.n. *Brklauss
Brosa Originally a by-name, either from Old Icelandic brosa, "to smile" or related to Modern Norwegian brosa, "a blast of wind." FJ p. 65 s.n. Brosa
Brotulfr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. The first element is from Brot-, "breaking." For the second element -ulfr see above. FJ pp. 65-66, 351 s.nn. *Brotulf, -ulfr
Bruddr Found in Old Danish as Brod, in Old Swedish as Brud, and in OW.Norse as Broddr; the name is found as both a personal name and as a by-name in all locations. From OW.Norse broddr "broad, thick". Runic examples include the nominative form brutr and the accusative form [burut]. NR s.n. Bruddr
Brr Originally a by-name from either brr, "bride" or brur < brunnr, "stream, burn, brook." A few instances are found in West Scandinavian. Anglo-Scandinavian forms are found in the place-names Brutherwrthe, Brudeford, Bruddeford. FJ p. 66 s.n. Brr
Brni Originally a by-name. The name Brni is found in Old Danish as Bruni, in Old Swedish as Brune, and in OW.Norse Brni; the name is found as both a personal name and as a by-name in all locations. Derived from the OW.Norse adjective brnn "bright, shining; brown." Recorded in some Norwegian place-names. Brni was the name of one of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn, and is found early in Norway. Runic examples of Brni include the nominative forms brune, bruni (7 instances), brunk, iruni, the genitive form bruna and the accusative forms bruna, [bruna], [brunia], bruno, brun.... GB p. 9 s.n. Brni; FJ pp. 66, 343 s.nn. Brnn, Brni, Brn-; NR s.n. Brnn, Brni
Brnkarl A hypothetical Anglo_Scandinavian name. For the first element Brn- see above. For the second element -karl see above. FJ pp. 66, 343, 349 s.n. *Brnkarl, Brn-, -karl
Brunkell, Brunketill, Brnketill Fellows-Jenson has the name Brnketill with the first element as Brn- see above. Nordisk runnamnslexikon shows the name with a first element Brun- is a side-form of Bryn(in)-, which comes from the stem in OW.Norse brynja "byrnie, mail-coat." For the second element -ketill see above. Found in Old Danish as Brunkil. Runic examples include the nominative forms brunkil, brunkitil. FJ pp. 67, 343, 349 s.n. Brnketill, Brn-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. Bryn-/Brunk(ti)ll, Bryn(in)-, -k(ti)ll
Brnmar, Brnmann For the first element Brn- see above. Found in Old Danish as Brunman and in OW.Norse as Brnmann. This is a Norse name from the Danelaw. Found in the runic nominative case form brunman. FJ p. 343 s.n. Brn-; NR s.nn. Brnmar
Brnn Originally a by-name. OW.Norse Brnn is also found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Brun, and is both a personal name and a by-name in all locations. Derived from the OW.Norse adjective brnn "bright, shining; brown." See also the name Brni above. Recorded in some Norwegian place-names. Brnn is represented in the runic evidence as the accusative form brun. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Brun, Brune and are found in the place-names Brunetorp, Brunhou, and Brunhousike. GB p. 9 s.n. Brnn; FJ pp. 66, 343 s.n. Brnn, Brni; NR s.n. Brnn, Brni
Brunnlfr The first element Brunn- is from Old Icelandic brunnr, "stream, burn, brook.". For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Brunnlfr; FJ pp. 66, 351 s.n. Brnn, Brni, -olfr
Brsi Originally a by-name. Found as Old Swedish and Old Danish as Bruse, and in OW.Norse as Brsi; the name occurs as both a personal name and as a by-name in all locations. From OW.Norse brsi "buck, he-goat." Found in Norway as both a personal name and a by-name from 1000 on. Recorded in Swedish runic inscriptions, and in both Swedish and Danish place-names. Runic examples include the nominative form brusi and the accusative form brusa. Anglo-Scandinavian forms occur in the place-names Brusegarth and Brosehou. GB p. 9 s.n. Brsi; FJ pp. 67 s.n. Brsi; NR s.n. Brsi
Brningr "Son of Brni; son of Brnn." Formed by adding the second element -ing to the by-name Brni, "stubborn." Alternatively may be formed from Brnn. Anglo-Scandinavian forms occur in the place-names Brennigston, Brinctun, Brinniston, Brinnistun, Brinigstun. FJ pp. 67 s.n. Brningr
Brynjlfr, Brynjulfr The first element Bryn- (before a vowel Brynj-) is identical with Old Icelandic brynja, "corselet, mail-coat, byrnie," and often has a side-form of Brun- (see above). For the second element -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms birynhiifR, brunulfR, bryniulfr, (b)[r]yniulfr and the accusative forms bryniulf, brynulfr. A diminuitive form of Brynjlfr is Brynki. GB p. 9 s.n. Brynjlfr; FJ pp. 67-68, 343, 351 s.n. Brynjulfr, Bryn-, -ulfr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; ; NR s.nn. BryniulfR/BrunulfR, Bryn(in)-, -ulfR
Brynki Diminuitive form of Brynjlfr. CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Bryti Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Bryti, occurring both as a personal name and as a by-name. From OW.Norse bryti "steward, bailiff." Found in the runic nominative form bruti. NR s.n. Bryti
Bui Occurs in Old Swedish as the personal name Bodhe and as the by-name Budhe. From OW.Norse boi "carrier, porter." As a personal name, Bui originates as a short form of Spiallbui. Found in the runic nominative form [b]u[in]. NR s.nn. Bui, Spiallbui
Buggi Originally a by-name. Fellows-Jensen has an etymology for this name of "fat man," while Nordisk runnamnslexikon relates this name to the Nynorsk word bugge "powerful man." Found in Old Danish as Buggi and in Old Swedish as Bugge, in both cases found both as a personal name and as a by-name. Occurs in OW.Norse as the by-name Buggi. A few late instances are found in Norway. Possible instances are also found in Denmark and Sweden. Found in the runic accusative case form [buka]. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bucca, Bugga, Bugge, and are found in the place-names Buichetorp, Buggerude, Bughetorp, Bugetorp. FJ p. 68 s.n. Buggi; NR s.n. Buggi
Bi Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic ba, "to dwell" hence "inhabitant." Found in rare instances in both Norway and Iceland as both a personal name and a by-name. Found in Denmark as Bo and in Latin forms Boecius, Boetius. GB p. 9 s.n. Bi; FJ pp. 68 s.n. Bi
Bukkr, Bukki Originally a by-name, "buck." Common in West Scandinavian as a by-name but also found there as a personal name. Found as a by-name in Denmark and Sweden. The form Bukki is found as a personal name in Danish but is a loan-word from Continental German bucco. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Buc, Buche, Bucca, Bugga. FJ pp. 68-69 s.n. Bukkr, Bukki
Buldi, Boldi Related to Old Swedish bulde, bolde "boil, abcess". Found in the runic nominative form bulti. The Old Danish byname Bolde is unrelated. NR s.nn. Buldi/Boldi
BriR, BriR Of uncertain etymology. Found in the runic accusative form buri. NR s.nn. BriR/BriR
Burr Found in OW.Norse as Borr or Burr, in the names of mythical or fictional characters. From OW.Norse burr "son." Runic examples include the nominative form buur (demon- or dwarf-name Burr) and the dative form buri (which may derive from OW.Norse *bor "hole" or OW.Norse burr "son"). NR s.n. Burr
Bursti   GB p. 9 s.n. Bursti
Buskr, Buski A hypothetical name-form. Originally a by-name related either to Modern Norwegian busk, "tuft" or the Shetland dialect word meaning "lump." Two late instances of Buskr are found in Norway. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Buschebi. FJ p. 69 s.n. *Buski
Butni, Botni Derived from OW.Norse botn "bottom." Found in the runic accusative form butna. NR s.nn. Butni/Botni
Btr   GB p. 9 s.n. Btr
Butraldi   GB p. 9 s.n. Butraldi
Blfr, Bjlfr "Bee wolf," a kenning for "honey thief" and thus a bear. This name is related to Old English Beowulf. For the second element -lfr see above. The contracted form of this name is Blfr. FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
 
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Name Notes Source
Cranebeinn A hypothetical form from a postulated hybrid by-name using Old English cran, "crane" and Old Icelandic beinn, "leg", similar to the Norwegian by-name Kbeinn, "jackdaw-leg". FJ pp. 70 s.n. *Cranebeinn
 
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Name Notes Source
Di A diminuitive derived from Davi, found as a name in an Icelandic colonist family from the British Isles in the 10th century. GB p. 9 s.n. Di; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Dagfinnr The first element Dag- is from OW.Norse dagr, "day." For the second element -finnr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Dagfinnr; FJ pp. 348 s.n. -finnr; CV pp. 94-95 s.v. dagr; NR s.n. DagR
Dagr From OW.Norse dagr, "day." Found in Old Danish as both a personal name and as a by-name in the form Dagh. Occurs in Old Swedish as Dagh and in OW.Norse as Dagr. Runic examples include the nominative form takh and the accusative form tak. GB p. 9 s.n. Dagr; FJ p. 348 s.n. -dagr; CV pp. 94-95 s.v. dagr; NR s.n. DagR
Dagstyrr For the first element Dag- see above. The second element -styrr is from OW.Norse styrr "stir, noise, tumult, battle." GB p. 9 s.n. Dagstyrr; FJ p. 348 s.n. -dagr; CV pp. 94-95 s.v. dagr; NR s.nn. Dagr, Styrr, -styrr
Dagvir Identical to Old Icelandic dagr, "day". For the second element -vir see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Dagvir; FJ pp. 348, 352 s.nn. -dagr, -vir; CV pp. 94-95, 703-704 s.v. dagr, vir; NR s.nn. Vi-, -vir
Dlkr   GB p. 9 s.n. Dlkr
Dalli   GB p. 9 s.n. Dalli
Danpr   GB p. 9 s.n. Danpr
Danr This name occurs in Old Swedish and Old Danish as Dan, and in OW.Norse as Danr. The name is identical with OW.Norse danr "Dane, Danish". Runic examples include the nominative form tan (8 instances), the genitive form tans, and the accusative form tan (5 instances). GB p. 9 s.n. Danr; NR s.n. DanR
Darri   GB p. 9 s.n. Darri
Dav, Dv Christian, David. A diminuitive form of the name Davi is Di. GB p. 9 s.nn. Dav, Dv; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
DiarfR Found in Old Swedish as Dirf and in Old Danish as the by-name Dierf. This name is derived from the OW.Norse adjective djarfr "bold, brave, daring, courageous." Runic examples include the nominative forms tiarfr, tiarfR, [tierfr], tihrfR, tirf(R), the genitive form terfs, and the accusative forms tia, [tierf]. CV p. 100 s.v. djarfr; NR s.nn. DiarfR, -diarfR
Djrgeirr, Dirgeirr The first element DiR- or Djr- is from Old Norse *djR (OW.Norse dr) "beast." At times this element appears with the R-sound as DR-. The understanding of the OW.Norse name-element Dr- is divided, with some scholars thinking that it comes from dr "beast" while others see the origin in the adjective drr "dear, expensive, valuable, precious." For the second element -geirr see above. Found in the runic accusative form t=riuRkaiR. The name DiRi may be a short form of names in DiR-. FJ pp. 343, 349 s.nn. Geir-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. DiRgiRR, DiR-, DiRi, -giRR
Djri, DiRi Found in Old Danish as the by-name Diuri and in Old Swedish as the by-name Diure. Derived from OW.Norse dr (from *diR) "beast". The Runic Swedish name may be from a short form of names in DiR-. Runic examples include the nominative forms tiori, tiuRi, the genitive form tiuRa and the accusative forms [tiura], tiuRo. NR s.n. DiRi
Djrvr, Dirvr, Drvr For the first element DiR- or Djr- see above. For the second element -vr or -vir see above. Found in the runic genitive form tuR:uis. FJ p. 352 s.n. -vr; NR s.n. DiRvR/DRvR, DiR-, -vR
Dofnakr Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dofnakr
Dolgfinnr, Dlgfinnr Perhaps originally an Anglo-Scandinavian by-name, possibly derived from the foreign word "dolphin" and possibly resulting from a folk-etymology process which made the name Dolg- and -finnr. For the second element -finnr see above. The only Scandinavian recording is in the name of the bishop of the Orkneys, 1286-1309. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Dolfin, Delfin. GB p. 9 s.n. Dlgfinnr; FJ pp. 71-72, 348 s.n. Dolgfinnr, -finnr
Dmaldi   GB p. 9 s.n. Dmaldi
Dmari Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Domare. From OW.Norse dmari "judge." Occurs in the runic accusative form tumara. NR s.n. Dmari
Dmrr   GB p. 9 s.n. Dmrr
Dmi Of uncertain etymology. Found in Old Swedish as Dome. Also occurs in Old Danish as the by-name Dome, where it is thought to be of Low German origin. May occur in the runic nominative and form tumi, although these inscriptions may instead represent the names Tmi, Tmi or Tummi. NR s.n. Dmi
Domnall Celtic name. Found in the runic nominative form tomnal. NR s.n. Domnall
Drrur   GB p. 9 s.n. Drrur
Dti Of uncertain etymology. Found in the runic accusative form tuta, which may instead represent the names Tti or Totti. NR s.n. Dti
Drafli   GB p. 9 s.n. Drafli
Dragmll From the OW.Norse adjective dragmll "drawling." Found in some Danish place-names. Found in a Swedish runic inscription in the accusative case as trakmal. Found as a Scandinavian name in England: Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Dragmal, Dragmel; NR s.n. Dragmll FJ pp. 72 s.n. Dragmll
Drengi Occurs in Old Swedish as the personal name and by-name Drnge. This name is from OW.Norse drengr "young man, brave man, warrior." Found in the runic nominative form [treke]. FJ pp. 72 s.n. Drengr; NR s.n. Drngi, DrngR
Drengr Found in Old Danish as Dreng, in Old Swedish as Drng, and in OW.Norse as Drengr; in all locations it occurs as both a personal name and as a by-name. Common in West Scandinavia from the 1300s onward. From OW.Norse drengr "young man; brave man, warrior." Found in the runic accusative form (t)rik. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Dreing, Dreng. FJ pp. 72 s.n. Drengr; NR s.n. Drengr
Drjgr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation which may be derived originally from a by-name meaning, "substantial, lasting." Or it may be a loan from the Continental Germanic name Drugo, Drogo. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Dristorp, Dreistorp, Dreuistorp, Struttorp. FJ pp. 73 s.n. *Drjgr
Drmundr Anglo-Scandinavian name. Originally a by-name meaning a type of ship. A single instance is recorded from West Scandinavia. Anglo-Scandinavian forms occur in the place-names Dragmalebi, Tromundesbi, Dromundby. FJ pp. 73 s.n. Drmundr
Drsbi Found in Old Swedish as both a personal name and as a by-name, Drosbo. If this actually represents a compound name, the first element Drs- may be related to the OW.Norse noun drs "woman," or the Norwegian dialect word dros "heavy, plump person," combined with a second element from OW.Norse bi "yeoman, farmer, land-owner." Alternatively, this may represent the masculine name Bi used with a prefixed by-name. Runic examples include the nominative forms drosboi, trusboi. NR s.n. Drsbi/Drs-Bi, Bi
Druian Celtic name. Occurs in the runic nominative form [t]ruian. NR s.n. Druian
Di Probably related to the Swedish personal name Dudo. An Anglo-Scandinavian form appears in the place-name Doutheburghe. FJ pp. 73 s.n. Di
Dfa Originally a by-name meaning "dove." A few instances appear in West Scandinavia. Also found as the name of a mythological female. Very common as a by-name in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Duue. FJ pp. 73 s.n. Dfa
Dufan Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dufan
Dufgall Celtic name. Runic examples include the genitive case forms tufkals, [t]u(f)kals. GB p. 9 s.n. Dufgall; NR s.n. Dufgall
Dufgss Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dufgss
Dufnall Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dufnall
Dufniall Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dufniall
Dufakr Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dufakr
Dugfss Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dugfss
Dungar Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dungar
Dungall Celtic GB p. 9 s.n. Dungall
Dunkr Originally a by-name related to the Norwegian dialect term dunk, "noisy blow" and Old Icelandic dynkr, "crashing noise, din." Found once in West Scandinavia in 1342. An Anglo-Scandinavian instance appears in the place-name Dunchecroft. FJ p. 74 s.n. Dunkr
Dsi Originally a by-name meaning, "the calm." Possibly also found in a few Danish place-names. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Dusebi and Dousedale. FJ p. 74 s.n. Dsi
Dyggvi   GB p. 9 s.n. Dyggvi
Drbjrn Found in the Latinized Old Swedish names Dyrbernus, Durbernus. For the first element Dr- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. May occur in the runic nominative form tur...rn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.n. Drbirn, DiR-, -birn, Bjarni
Dri Found in Old Danish as Dyri, in Old Swedish as Dyre, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Dri. This name may be derived from Old Norse *djR (OW.Norse dr) "beast" or alternatively from the OW.Norse name DiRi. It may also instead be formed from the OW.Norse adjective drr "dear, expensive." Runic examples include the nominative form [turi] and the accusative form [tiura]. GB p. 9 s.n. Dri; NR s.n. Dri, DiR-
 
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Name Notes Source
Edmundr For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 9 s.n. Edmundr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Evarr For the second element -varr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Evarr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -varr; CV p. 722 s.v. vrr
Efi Found in Old Danish as Evi. Corresponds to Old Saxon Evo, a short form of names in Eb- (which derive from *Ebura-). Runic examples include the nominative forms efi, [ifi]. NR s.n. Efi
Egill From the Primitive Scandinavian *agilaR, related to Old Icelandic agi, "awe, terror." Found from the settlement of Iceland and throughout the whole period in Norway and Iceland. A few instances occur in Denmark as well. Anglo-Scandinavian forms occur in the place-names Eylscroft, Elsho, Neleshou, Eyleshou. GB p. 9 s.n. Egill; FJ pp. 74, 342
Eir Identical to the Old Icelandic eir, "oath". Found as a proper name in Landnmabk. GB p. 9 s.n. Eir; CV pp. 117 s.v. eir
Eileifr, Eilfr The first element Ei- or Ein- comes from *aina, "one, alone, single." For the second element -leifr see above. Fairly common in Norway after 1270. Found in a Danish runic inscription as ailaif and frequently in other Danish sources, also appearing as Latin Elevus, Elauus. Also found in some Swedish runic inscriptions. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Elaf, Eilaf, Ailof, ilaf, Ailef. GB p. 9 s.n. Eileifr; FJ pp. 74-75, 343, 350 s.nn. Eileifr. Eilfr, Ei-, Ein-, -leifr; CV p. 381 s.v. leif
Eilfr For the first element Ei- or Ein- see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Eilfr; FJ pp. 74-75, 343 s.nn. Eileifr, Eilfr, Ei-, Ein-
Einarr For the first element Ei- or Ein- see above. For the second element -arr see above. The name comes from *Aina-harjaR and is directly related to einherjar, the word for the warriors in Valhll. One of the most common names in Iceland and Norway from the earliest times. Also found in Denmark as the runic inscriptions inar, ennar and in Danish Latin sources as Enarus. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Ainar, Eineri. The name Einarr occurs in many sagas. Landnmabk lists several men named Einarr, including Einarr Kleppsson ch. 15; Einarr Teitsson ch. 24; Einarr Sigmundarson (Ln-Einarr, Einarr from Lnland) ch. 28; Einarr sklaglamm ("tinkle-scales, concerned with hard cash") ch. 32; Einarr spaksson ch. 32; Einarr Ketilsson ch. 38; Einarr Knjksson ch. 46; Einarr Helguson ch. 70; Einarr Knalsson ch. 73; Torf-Einarr jarl (an earl or chieftain) ch. 74; Einarr Rgnvaldsson jarls (son of Jarl Rgnvaldr) ch. 74; Einar Bergrsson ch. 75; Einarr Magnsson ch. 83; Einarr Gurnarson ch. 84 (this is a matronymic, he is known by his mother's name); Einar Steinlfsson ch. 98, etc. Einars ttr Sklasonar has the title character, Einarr Sklason. He is also mentioned in Magnss saga blinda og Haralds gilla. rsteins ttr Su-Hallssonar has Einarr rsteinsson. orsteins saga hvta has Einarr risson. Sneglu-Halla ttr has Einarr fluga ("the murderer"). Grnlendinga ttr has Einarr Sokkason. Hrafns ttr Gurnarsonar has Einarr, a warrior of the local chieftain. Eirks saga raua and Brar Saga Snfelsss have Einarr Sigmundarson. Haralds saga grfeldar has Einarr sklaglamm. Hrafnkels saga Freysgoa has Einarr rbjarnarson. GB p. 9 s.n. Einarr; FJ pp. 75, 343, 348 s.nn. Einarr, Ei-, Ein-, -arr; NR s.nn. -arr
Eindrii, Eindrir Scholars are not certain what the derivation of the first element of this name is, but may come from the first element Ei- or Ein- (see above). The second element -rii is also of uncertain origin. The strong form Eindrir is a secondary formation from the original name, Eindrii. There are a few early instances of the name in Iceland, and it is very common in Norway from the 900s onwards. The strong form first appeared in Norway ca. 1300. Found in a Swedish runic inscription, ainrii. May appear in a couple of late instances in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms appear in the place-names Andrebi, Adredebi, Endrebi, Endretorp, Handerbi, Aiendrebi, Endreby, Enderby. GB p. 9; FJ pp. 75-76, 343, 350 s.nn. Eindrir, Eindrir, Ei-, Ein-, -rii
Eirkr Found in Old Danish as Erik, Old Swedish Erik, OW.Norse Eirkr. Scholars are not certain what the derivation of the first element of this name is, but may come from the first element Ei- or Ein- (see above), or alternately may derive from the form *aiwa, "always." For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. This name is very common throughout Scandinavia from the earliest times. Runic examples include the nominative forms airikr, (a)irikr, airikr, [ariki], genitive case Airikis, airikis, iriks, oiriks, the dative case form airiki and the accusative forms airik and erik. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Arich, Eriz, Eiric, Erich, iric, Airic and in the place-names Ayrykedene and Heyrikdene. GB p. 9 s.n. Eirkr; FJ pp. 76, 343, 350 s.n. Eirkr, EI-, Ein-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.n. irkR, i-, RkR, -rkR
Eitri Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic eitr, "poison." It is found as a name of one of the dwarves in the Poetic Edda. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Eterstorp. FJ pp. 76 s.n. Eitri
Ekkill Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic ekkill, "widower." It is found as the name of a sea-king in the Poetic Edda, and also appears in the name of the island Ekilsy. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Inkell, Inchel, Inkle. FJ pp. 76-77 s.n. Ekkill
Eldgrmr The first element Eld- is from OW.Norse eldr "fire." For the second element -grmr see above. A short form of names in Eld- is ldi. GB p. 9 s.n. Eldgrmr; FJ pp. 349 s.n. -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. ldi, -grmR
ldi A short form of names in Eld-. From OW.Norse eldr "fire", as in OW.Norse Eldgrmr, Eldrr, and Old Swedish Eldridh. Occurs in the runic genitive case form ilta. NR s.nn. ldi, -grmR
Eldjrn For the first element Eld- see above. The second element -jrn is identical with Old Icelandic jrn, "iron". A short form of names in Eld- is ldi. GB p. 9 s.n. Eldjrn; CV pp. 325 s.v. jrn; NR s.n. ldi
Elfrr   GB p. 9 s.n. Elfrr
Elliagrmr For the second element -grmr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Elliagrmr; FJ pp. 349 s.n. -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.n. -grmR
Emundi, Emundr For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 9 s.nn. Emundi, Emundr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Endrii   GB p. 9 s.n. Endrii
Eringsl For the first element Arn- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Found in Old Swedish rnils, Eringisl, ringisl and possibly Arnels and in OW.Norse as Eringsl. Runic examples include the nominative form ernkisl and the accusative forms arnkisl, aurnisl, ernisl. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. FJ pp. 342, 349 s.n. Arn-, -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Arn-/rn(g)sl, Ar(in)n-/r(in)n-, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
Erlendr Found in Old Danish as Erland, in Old Swedish as rland, and in OW.Norse as Erlendr. Usually interpreted as being formed from the OW.Norse adjective erlendr, rlendr (from Germanic *uzlandia-) "from a strange land, foreigner." Several other explanations are possible: the name could be derived from the word jarl and thus related to ErlingR; the first element Er- or r- may be from Primitive Scandinavian *harja- "host, army" or *arja- "distinguished, foremost." Runic examples include the nominative form arlantr[il(o)ns]. A diminuitive form of Erlendr is Erli. GB p. 9 s.n. Erlendr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; NR s.n. Erlndr, rlndr
Erli Diminuitive form of Erlendr. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
ErlingR Found in Old Swedish as rling and in OW.Norse as Erlingr. This name is derived from OW.Norse jarl ("chieftain, earl"), which in turn comes from *erlaR with a meaning of "son or descendant of a jarl." May also be considered a loan-word from the Continent. Occurs in the runic accusative case form arlik. GB p. 9 s.n. Erlingr; NR s.n. ErlingR
Erpr   GB p. 9 s.n. Erpr
Evangr   GB p. 9 s.n. Evangr
Eyarr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as iar and in OW.Norse as Eyarr. The first element Ey- (or before a vowel, Eyj-) is from Primitive Scandinavian *awi "island" or auja "happiness, luck, (luck) giver," or perhaps from the adverb *aiwa "always". For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms ayar, yar, the genitive form auars and the accusative form [auar]. NR s.nn. yarr, y-, -arr
Eybjrn For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms aubiarn, aybiarn, aybirn, eubern, the genitive form aubiarnaR and the accusative form hybiarn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. ybirn, y-, -birn, Biarni
Eyfrr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -frr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Eyfrr; FJ pp. 343, 348 s.n. Ey-, -frr; NR s.nn. y-
Eygautr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -gautr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms augutr, a(u)(k)(a)utr and the accusative form (a)ukut. NR s.nn. ygautr, y-, -gautr
Eyguti Found in Old Danish as goti. For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -guti see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form [aukuta]. NR s.nn. yguti, y-, -guti, -gautr
Eygeirr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms aykaiR, ayka-R and the genitive form (a)ukis. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. ygiRR, y-, -giRR
Eyjarr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -arr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Eyjarr; FJ pp. 343, 348 s.n. Ey-, -arr; NR s.nn. y-, -arr
Eyjlfr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. This name is frequent in Iceland from the 900s onward, although less common in Norway. Found in Old Swedish as iolf and in OW.Norse as Eyjlfr. Runic examples include the nominative forms aulfr, ayulf- and the accusative form ayulf. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Aiulf. A diminuitive form of Eyjlfr is Eyvi. GB p. 9 s.n. Eyjlfr; FJ pp. 77, 343, 351 s.n. Eyjulfr, Ey-, -ulfr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. yulfR, y-, -ulfR
Eykell For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Runic examples include the runic accusative forms aukil, eykil. FJ pp. 343, 349 s.n. Ey-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. ykll, y-, -k(ti)ll
Eykr Originally a by-name in West Scandinavia meaning "beast of burden, horse." Anglo-Scandinavian forms include the Latinized Aichus. FJ p. 77 s.n. Eykr
EylakR, ylakR For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -lakR see above. Found in the runic nominative form aulakR. A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Ey-, -leikr; CV pp. 382-383 s.v. leika, leikr; NR s.nn. ylakR, y-, -likR/-lakR
EyleifR, ylifR For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. Found in Old Swedish as laf. For the second element -leifr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form yla[if]. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Ey-, -leifr; CV p. 381 s.v. leif; NR s.nn. ylifR, y-, -lifR/-lafR
Eylaugr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -laugr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Eylaugr; FJ pp. 343, 350 s.n. Ey-, -laugr; CV pp. 374 s.v. laug def. IV; NR s.nn. y-, -laugR
Eymundr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Found frequently in Norway from the 900s onward, less common in Iceland. Appears several times in Denmark in Old Danish as mund. Also occurs as mund in Old Swedish, and in OW.Norse it appears as Eymundr. Runic examples include the accusative forms eumunt, ymut. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Aimundrebi, Edmundrebia, Eimundrebi. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 9 s.n. Eymundr; FJ pp. 77-78, 343, 350 s.nn. Eymundr, Ey-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. ymundr, y-, -mundr, Mundi
Eynitr, ynitr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -nitr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [eun:iutr], oyniotr. FJ p. 343 s.n. Ey-; CV p. 456 s.v. njta; NR s.nn. ynitr, y-, -nitr
EyrkR, yrkR Found in the Latinized Old Swedish forms ricus and Orikus. For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [aRrukr], aurik, aurikr, au(r)(in)(k)r, the dative form auriki and the accusative form urik. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Ey-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. yrkR, y-, -rkR
Eysteinn For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Found in Norway from 700s and common throughout the whole period. The name was borne by one of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn but gradually fell out of use in Iceland. Found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as sten, occurs in OW.Norse as Eysteinn. Runic examples include the nominative forms [aistin], austaen, austain (4 instances), [austain]+, a:ustain, austin, [austin], aystain (4 instances), [aystain], aystin (5 instances), [aystin], [eystin], istain, iystin, ustain, [ystain], ystin, the genitive forms austains, istin[s], ystis, and the accusative forms aistin, aisti[n], austain, austnin, aystain, aysti[(n)], ay(s)-(a)in, eystain, eystei-, istin, iystin, nus(t)in, [ustin], [ustn], ystain, ystin. GB p. 9 s.n. Eysteinn; FJ pp. 78, 343, 351 s.nn. Eysteinn, Ey-, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. ystinn, y-, -stinn
Eyvendill For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Eyvendill; FJ p. 343 s.n. Ey-; NR s.n. y-
Eyvi Diminuitive form of Eyjlfr. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Eyvindr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -undr or -vindr see above. Found in Old Danish as Ewind or nder, in Old Swedish as vind or nd, and in OW.Norse as Eyvindr. Runic examples include the nominative forms aRintr, auintr, [auintr], [aui(t)r], auntr, autr, ayintr, ayiti, aytr, out[r], (o)utr, uintR, uitr (4 instances), yntr, the genitive forms iuintaR, [uiRtnr], and the accusative forms [akn-], auint, [auit], aunt, ayt, euit, oitr, ouint, uint, uit, uuit. GB p. 9 s.n. Eyvindr; FJ pp. 343, 352 s.nn. Ey-, -vindr; NR s.nn. y(vi)ndr, y-, -undr/-vindr
Eyjfr For the first element Ey- or Eyj- see above. For the second element -jfr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Eyjfr; FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. Ey-, -jfr; NR s.n. y-
 
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Name Notes Source
Fai Of uncertain etymology, may be a pet-name. The name is found in Denmark as the name of a coin-master in the form Fati. Runic examples include the nominative forms fai. NR s.n. Fai
Faddi Originally a by-name from a diminuitive or pet-name for "father." Found in Norway in the late 1300s. May appear in a Danish place name. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Fademor, Faddemor. FJ pp. 78 s.n. Faddi
Fair Found in Old Danish as the by-name Fathir and in Old Swedish as the by-name Fadhir. Appears in OW.Norse in the Eddaic poem Rigsula, also once as a by-name. Originally a by-name from OW.Norse fair "father." Runic examples include the nominative form faiR and the accusative form faur. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fader. FJ pp. 79 s.n. Fair; NR s.n. FaiR
Fitr Found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as the by-name Fet. From the OW.Norse adjective feitr "fat." Occurs in the runic nominative form (f)iatr. NR s.n. Fitr
Faksi Originally a by-name, "man," with a few early instances in Norway as a personal name and later as a by-name. Some instances may reflect the horse-name. The name also occurs in Denmark. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Flaxflet, Faxflet. FJ pp. 79 s.n. Faksi
Falgeirr For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Falgeirr; FJ pp. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Flki From the Latin falco, "falcon." GB p. 9 s.n. Flki
Faraldr The first element Far- is from the present stem of the OW.Norse verb fara "to go, to travel," and is related to Old Icelandic far, "ship, passage." For the second element -valdr see above. A short form of names in Far- or -fari is Fari. GB p. 9 s.n. Faraldr; FJ pp. 79, 343, 351 s.nn. Faraldr, Far-, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Far-, -valdr
Farbjrn For the first element Far- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Found in Old Swedish as Farbiorn. Runic examples include the nominative forms farbiurn, farborn, far(e)biarn. A short form of names in Far- or -fari is Fari. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 343, 348 s.n. Far-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Farbirn, Far-, -birn, Biarni
Fargrmr An Anglo-Scandinavian formation, appearing as Fargrim. For the first element Far- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. A short form of names in Far- or -fari is Fari. FJ pp. 79, 343, 349 s.nn. *Fargrmr, Far-, -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. Far-, -grmR
Fari A short form of names in Far- or -fari. Runic examples include the accusative case forms fara and faua. NR s.nn. Fari, Far-, -fari
Farmann For the first element Far- see above. Originally a by-name, from OW.Norse farmar "wayfarer, traveler, merchant." Found in Old Danish as Farman, in Old Swedish as the by-name Farman, and in OW.Norse found both as the name Farmann and as the by-name Farmar. A few late instances occur in Norway. Circa 1000 a moneyer from Dublin bore the name Farman. Occurs in the runic nominative form farmar. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Farman and are found in the place-names Farmanesbi, Farmanebi, Faremancrof. A short form of names in Far- or -fari is Fari. FJ pp. 79-80, 343 s.nn. Farmann, Far-; NR s.nn. Farmar, Far-
Faregn From *faregn "traveler, merchant." For the first element Far- see above. The second element -egn is related to OW.Norse egn "thegn, free man, liegeman." Found late in West Scandinavia and in Denmark and Sweden. Found in Old Danish as Farthin, in Old Swedish as Farthghn, and in OW.Norse as Faregn. Fellows-Jensen believes that this name is probably an Anglo-Scandinavian formation as it is most frequent in the Danelaw. Runic examples include the nominative forms faraihn, fa[r][in]k[l] and the accusative form [farakn]. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fardein, Farthain, Fardain, Faryem, Farain, Fardan, Ferthing, Ferthig. A short form of names in Far- or -fari is Fari. FJ pp. 80, 343 s.nn. Faregn, Far-; NR s.nn. Faregn, Far-
Farulfr For the first element Far- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Found in Old Swedish as Farulf. Common in Sweden, but not found in Iceland, Norway or Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative forms [farulfi], farulfr, farulfuR, the genitive form farulfs and the accusative form farulf. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Farolf. A short form of names in Far- or -fari is Fari. FJ pp. 80, 343, 351 s.nn. Farulfr, Far-, -ulfr; NR s.nn. FarulfR, Far-, -ulfR
Fastar The first element Fast- is from the OW.Norse adjective fastr "firm, fast, strong." The second element -ar is from proto-Scandinavian *-hauR, related to OW.Norse h "fight." Found in the runic nominative form fas(t)ar. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 343 s.n. Fast-; NR s.nn. Fastar, Fast-, -ar, Fasti
Fastarr For the first element Fast- see above. For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form fastar and the accusative form fastar. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ pp. 343, 348 s.nn. Fast-, -arr; NR s.nn. Fastarr, Fast-, -arr, Fasti
Fastbjrn For the first element Fast- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Found in Old Swedish as Fastbiorn. Runic examples include the nominative forms fastbiarn, fastbiurn, fa[s]tbiurn, and the accusative forms fastbiaurn, fastbiurn. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 343, 348 s.nn. Fast-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Fastbirn, Fast-, -birn, Fasti, Biarni
Fastgeir For the first element Fast- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Found in Old Swedish as Fastger. Runic examples include the nominative forms faskr, fastkair, fastkaiR, fastkeR, fstkir. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ pp. 343, 349 s.n. Fast-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. FastgiRR, Fast-, -giRR, Fasti
Fasti A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr. Found in Old Danish as Fasti, in Old Swedish as Faste, and in OW.Norse as Fasti. Runic examples include the nominative forms fasti (9 instances), [fas](t)in and the accusative form fasta (7 instances). GB p. 9 s.n. Fasti; FJ pp. 343 s.n. Fast-; CV pp. 145 s.v. fastr; NR s.nn. Fasti, Fast-, -fasti
Fastmundr For the first element Fast- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. This name may be either Fastmundr or perhaps Vestmundr, as the accusative case runic inscription is ambiguous: ...as(t)munt. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ p. 343 s.n. Fast-; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Fastmundr, Fast-, -mundr, Fasti, Mundi, Vestmundr
Fastegn For the first element Fast- see above. For the second element -egn see above. Found in the runic nominative form fasikn. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 343 s.n. Fast; NR s.nn. Fastegn, Fast-, -egn, Fasti
Fastulfr For the first element Fast- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Fastulf, and in OW.Norse as Fastlfr. Common in Swedish runic inscriptions, and the few instances in West Scandinavia are thought to have been Swedes. Also occurs in Danish inscriptions. Runic examples include the nominative forms fastulfr (8 instances), fastulfR (4 instances), and in the accusative form fastulf (5 instances). Circa 995 a moneyer from Dublin bore the name Fastol or Fastolf. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fastolf. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ pp. 80-81, 343, 351 s.nn. Fastulfr, Fast-, -ulfr; NR s.nn. FastulfR, Fast-, -ulfR, Fasti
Fati Found in Old Danish as Fathi. Corresponds to Old High German Fato. Runic examples include the nominative forms fati, fadi. NR s.n. Fati
Feggi Originally a by-name, "old man." Found in Danish legendary history and also in Danish sources from the 1400s. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fegge, Fegga. FJ pp. 81 s.n. Feggi
Feigr An Anglo-Scandinavian formation, originally a by-name, "fated to die, death-bound." Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fech, Feg, and occur in the place-names Fechesbi, Fegesargh Fehhesherge. FJ pp. 81 s.n. *Feigr
Feitr, Feiti Originally a by-name, "fat." The weak form Feiti is found in West Scandinavia. Fet is found as a by-name in Sweden. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Feiz, Fez, Foit. FJ pp. 81 s.n. Feitr
Flagi, Flagr Originally a by-name, "fellow, partner." Not found in West Scandinavia. The weak form Flagi is found in Sweden and the strong form Flagr occurs in a Danish patronymic. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Felgesclif. FJ pp. 81-82 s.nn. Flagi, Flagr
Fiak Celtic name, from Facc. Occurs in the runic accusative case form fiak. NR s.n. Fiak
Filippus, Philippus Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Filippus, and in OW.Norse as Philippus. Christian name; from the Latin form of Greek Phlippos. Occurs in the runic nominative form filibus. NR s.n. Filippus
Finnr, Fir, Finni The name Finnr and the related form Fir are from OW.Norse finnr "Smi; Lapplander," and by extension came to mean "magician" as well, since the Finnar were all considered to be powerful magic workers. The name is very common throughout Scandinavia from very early onwards. Found in Old Danish as the personal name Fin and as a by-name, Find. Also found in Old Swedish as Fin, and in OW.Norse as Finnr or Fir. Runic examples include the nominative forms finr, fir and the accusative form fin. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fin, Finni, Fyn. GB p. 9 s.nn. Finnr, Fir, Finni; FJ pp. 82, 348 s.nn. Finnr, -finnr; NR s.nn. Finnr/Fir, Finn-
Finnbjrn For the first element Finn- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 9 s.n. Finnbjrn; FJ pp. 348 s.nn. -bjrn, -finnr; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Finn-, -birn, Biarni
Finnbogi For the first element Finn- see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Finnbogi; FJ pp. 348 s.n. -finnr; CV p. 72 s.v. bogi; NR s.nn. Finn-
Finngeirr For the first element Finn- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Finngeirr; FJ pp. 348, 349 s.nn. -finnr, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. Finn-, -giRR
Finnlfr For the first element Finn- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Found in Old Danish as Finulf and in OW.Norse as Finnlfr. Occurs in the runic genitive form finulfs. FJ pp. 348, 351 s.nn. -finnr, -ulfr; NR s.n. FinnulfR, Finn-, -ulfR
Finnvarr For the first element Finn- see above. For the second element -varr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Finnvarr; FJ pp. 348, 351 s.nn. -finnr, -varr; CV p. 722 s.v. vrr; NR s.n. Finn-
Finnvir Found in Old Danish as Finwith, in Old Swedish as Finvidh, and in OW.Norse as Finnvir. For the first element Finn- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms finir, finuir (5 instances), [finuir], finuirR, the genitive forms finuiaR, finuaR and the accusative form finui. FJ pp. 348, 352 s.nn. -finnr, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Finnvir, Finn-, -vir
Fjallgeirr For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Fjallgeirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Fjlmr Found in OW.Norse as the name of a fictional character, Fjlmr. Compare with the Continental Germanic feminine names Filomuot, Felemoda, and the masculine name Filimuth. The OW.Norse name may be interpreted as "courageous " (from fjl- "full-, exceedingly-" and mr "emotional; courageous; wrathful"). In Runic Swedish this name may be understood as a variation of names formed with a second element in -m or -mr and a personal name element Fil- corresponding to Continental Germanic names in Filu- (from Germanic *felu- "full-, exceedingly-"). Found in the runic accusative form fiul:mu. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mr; NR s.nn. Film(r)
Fjlvarr Found in OW.Norse as the name of a mythological character, Fjlvarr. From the OW.Norse adjective fjlvarr "very careful". Compare with the derivation of Modern Icelandic Fjlvar, which has its first element from fjl- "full-, exceedingly-", and the second element -ar (-arr). In Runic Swedish this name may be understood as a form of or a variation of names formed with a second element in -varr. Runic examples include the nominative form fiuluar and the genitive form fiuluars. NR s.nn. Filvarr, -arr
Flmingr Originally a by-name indicating a man from Flanders. Frequent as a by-name in Norway. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Flemeng. FJ pp. 83 s.n. Flmingr
Fleinn Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic fleinn "pike, shaft", or to Modern Norwegian flein, "the grinning one and may have the sense of "sharp-tongued man." A few instances are recorded in West Scandinavia as both a personal name and as a by-name. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Flain, Flane. GB p. 9 s.n. Fleinn; FJ pp. 82-83 s.n. Fleinn
Flk, Flikkr Originally a by-name, perhaps related to Old Icelandic flk, "tatter," which may have the sense of "gaping wound." Occurs in Denmark as Flik. Anglo-Scandinavian forms are found in the place-names Flichesburg, Fleustone, Flixton. FJ pp. 83 s.n. Flk, Flikkr
Flki Originally a by-name, perhaps related to Modern Norwegian floke, "outspoken and enterprising man." Found in West Scandinavia as a personal name from the 800s on, soon dropped out of use in Norway except for a few instances as a by-name from the 900s. May occur in a Danish place name. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Flocheton, Floketun. GB p. 9 s.n. Flki; FJ pp. 83 s.n. Flki
Flosi   GB p. 9 s.n. Flosi
Foli, Fli Foli is originally a by-name, "foal." Occurs a couple of times in West Scandinavia. Found in Denmark as both a by-name and as a personal name. The name Fli is not found in Scandinavia but may originally be a by-name meaning "fool." Anglo-Scandinavian forms are found in the place-names Folesbi, Foletorp, Folebi. FJ pp. 84 s.n. Foli, *Fli
Folkar The first element Folk- is from OW.Norse folk "people, group of people, a folk" perhaps meaning "warriors." For the second element -ar see above. Found in the runic nominative form fulkahr. A short form of masculine names in Folk- is Folki. NR s.nn. Folkar, Folk-, -ar, Folki
Folkbjrn For the first element Folk- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms faylkbiurn, fulkbiurn and the accusative form fulkbiarn. A short form of masculine names in Folk- is Folki. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Folkbirn, Folk-, -birn, Biarni, Folki
Folkgeir May occur as Old Swedish Folkar. For the first element Folk- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form [fulkir]. A short form of masculine names in Folk- is Folki. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. FolkgiRR, Folk-, Folki, -giRR
Flki This name originated as a short form of names beginning in Folk-. For the first element Folk- see above. This name occurs in Old Danish as Folki, in Old Swedish as Folke, and in OW.Norse as Flki. Runic examples include the nominative forms folki and fulkin. This name occurs in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Fulcheton, Folchetun, Fuchebruge, Fulkebrig, Fulkeholm, Folkerode. GB p. 9 s.n. Flki; FJ p. 84 s.n. Flki; NR s.n. Folki, Folk-
Folkmrr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Folkmar. For the first element Folk- see above. For the second element -marr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms fulkmar. A short form of masculine names in Folk- is Folki. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mrr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr; NR s.nn. Folkmarr, Folk-, Folki, -mrr
Folksteinn Found in Old Swedish as Folksten. For the first element Folk- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Found in the runic nominative form fulk(s)tin. A short form of masculine names in Folk- is Folki. FJ p. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Folkstinn, Folk-, Folki, -stinn
Folkvir Found in Old Swedish as Folkvidh and in OW.Norse as Flkvir. For the first element Folk- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Found in the runic nominative form fulkuir. A short form of masculine names in Folk- is Folki. FJ p. 352 s.n. -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Folkvir, Folk-, Folki, -vir
Forkunnr, Forkur, Forkundr Found in Old Swedish as Forkun. From the OW.Norse adjective *forkunnr "one who knows something in advance, far-sighted." Runic examples include the nominative forms forkur, [forku-r], furkuntr, furkur, [furkur]forkun. NR s.n. Forkunnr/-kur/-kundr
Forni Originally a by-name meaning "the old one" or "old-fashioned." Found in Iceland from the late 900s onward. Found only rarely and very late in Norway. Found in one Swedish place name and possibly some Danish place-names. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Forno, Forna, Forne, Forni, Forn. GB p. 9 s.n. Forni; FJ pp. 84-85 s.n. Forni
Forsall From the OW.Norse adjective forsjll "careful, cautious". Found in the runic accusative case form forsihl. NR s.n. Forsall
Fstlfr For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Fstlfr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -ulfr
Fthrar Compounded from ft- "foot" and the OW.Norse adjective hrar "fast, fleet, speedy." Found in the runic nominative case form futrar. NR s.n. Fthrar
Ftr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Fot, and in OW.Norse as by-name Ftr from OW.Norse ftr "foot".Several instances in West Scandinavia. Recorded as the name of a Swedish rune-engraver. Runic examples include the nominative forms [fair], fotr (6 instances), [futr], the genitive form fots and the accusative form fut. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fod, Fot and appear in the place-names Fdrebi, Fodrebi, Fotrebi, Foztune, Fodstone, Fotston. FJ pp. 85 s.n. Ftr; NR s.n. Ftr
Frakki Found in OW.Norse as Frakki, and in both Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Frakke. Formed from the OW.Norse adjective frakkr (from *frank-) "unafraid, courageous." Occurs in the runic accusative case form fro(k)(a). NR s.n. Frakki
Frni A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation, possibly originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic frnn, "gleaming, flashing." Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Frane. FJ pp. 85-86 s.n. *Frni
Freistingr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation, possibly originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic freista, "tempt, make trial," hence "the venturesome one." Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include Freistin, Fraisting, or these may be derived from Freysteinn. FJ pp. 86 s.n. *Freistingr
Freybjrn The first element Frey comes from Primitive Scandinavian *fraujaR "lord." As with other words in the Scandinavian languages, this word became a god's name (OW.Norse Freyr: Old Danish and Old Swedish Fr). As a personal name-element, Frey- means in part "lord," but also signifies the god. For the second element -bjrn see above. Found in Old Swedish as Frbiorn and in OW.Norse as Freybjrn. Runic examples include the nominative forms fraibiarn, fraubiarn, fraybiarn, fraybiurn, frebiurn, freybiurn, f(r)(y)biorn and the accusative form frabiorn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 343, 348 s.nn. Frey-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Frybirn, Fry-, -birn
Freygeirr Found in Old Swedish as Frger. For the first element Frey- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms faraukiR, fraikaiR, fraykaiR, the genitive forms frekis, frihas, frikis, the dative form fraukiRi and the accusative forms faruki, [fraukiR], frikiR, fryke. FJ pp. 343, 349 s.nn. Frey-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. FrygiRR, Fry-, -giRR
FreyrkR For the first element Frey- see above. For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Occurs in the Latinized Old Swedish Frricus. Found in the runic nominative form fryrikr. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Frey-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. FryrkR, Fry-, -rkR
Freysteinn For the first element Frey- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Found in OW.Norse as Freysteinn. Borne by one of the Landnmamenn in Iceland, with a few later instances in West Scandinavia. Later Danish and Swedish instances in Old Danish and Old Swedish have Frsten. Runic examples include the nominative forms [foraystain], frau:stain S232, fraustin, fraystain, fraystin, fresen, freystin, frkstin, frustin, [frustin], frystain, frysten, frystin, [frystin], the genitive form fristns and the accusative forms firist(in)n, fraistain, fraitRn, [fraustain], fraystain, frayst[ain], [frustain], frustin, frystin. Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include Freistin, Fraisting, or these may be derived from Freistingr. GB p. 9 s.n. Freysteinn; FJ pp. 86, 343, 351 s.nn. Freysteinn, Frey-, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. Frystinn, Fry-, -stinn
Freyvir For the first element Frey- see above. For the second element -vir see above. GB p. 9 s.n. Freyvir; FJ pp. 343, 352 s.nn. Frey-, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Fry-, Vi-, -vir
Fribjrn The first element Fri- is from OW.Norse frir, which in turn comes from Primitive Scandinavian *friuR, "love, peace." As a name-element, this may have the sense of "protection, defense." For the second element -bjrn see above. Found in Old Danish as Frithbiorn. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Occurs in the runic accusative form fri:beon. FJ pp. 343, 348 s.nn. Fri-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Fribirn, Fri-, Frii/Frei, -birn
Frigeirr For the first element Fri- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Found in Old Danish as Frithger, in Old Swedish as Fridhger, and in OW.Norse as Frigeirr. Occurs in the runic nominative form [in-l]ki[R]. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. GB p. 9 s.n. Frigeirr; FJ pp. 343, 349 s.nn. Fri-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. FrigiRR, Fri-, Frii/Frei, -giRR
Frigestr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian name. For the first element Fri- see above. The second element -gestr is derived from *gastiR, "guest." This name is not found in West Scandinavia. A Fredegst is found in a Danish source from 1419. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fredegest, Friguist, Fredgist, Frithegist. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. FJ pp. 86, 343, 349 s.nn. *Frigestr, Fri-, -gestr; NR s.nn. Fri-, Frii/Frei
Frii A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer. For the first element Fri- see above. Found in Old Danish as Frethi and in Old Swedish as Fridhi. Runic examples include the nominative forms frai, frii and the accusative form froa. Anglo-Scandinavian forms appear in the place-names Frideton, Fritun, Fryton, Fritheby, Fredebi. FJ pp. 86-87, 343 s.nn. Frii, Fri-; NR s.nn. Frii/Frei, Fri-
Frileifr For the first element Fri- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Found in Old Danish as Frithlef and in OW.Norse as Frileifr. occurs in the runic genitive form fri(l)ifs. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. GB p. 9 s.n. Frileifr; FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Fri-, -leifr; CV p. 381 s.v. leif; NR s.nn. FrilifR, Frii/Frei, Fri-, -lifR
Frimundr For the first element Fri- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Found in Old Swedish as Fridhmund and in OW.Norse as Frimundr. Occurs in the runic nominative form [fri(m)un-r]. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 9 s.n. Frimundr; FJ pp. 343, 350 s.n. Fri-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Frimundr, Fri-, Frii/Frei, -mundr, Mundi
Frirekr For the first element Fri- see above. For the second element -rekr see above. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. GB p. 9 s.n. Frirekr; FJ pp. 343, 350 s.n. Fri-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. Fri-, Frii/Frei, RkR, -rkR
FriulfR, FreulfR For the first element Fri- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Thought to occur in Old Swedish as *Fridhulf. Occurs in the runic accusative form fraulf. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. Fri-, -ulfr; NR s.n. FriulfR, Fri-, Frii/Frei, -ulfR
Frijfr For the first element Fri- see above. For the second element -jfr see above. A short form for masculine names in Fri-, -frer is Frii. GB p. 9 s.n. Frijfr; FJ pp. 343, 351 s.n. Fri-, -jfr; NR s.n. Fri-, Frii/Frei, -ulfR
FriR, FiriR Of uncertain etymology. Several proposed interpretations are given. Occurs in the runic accusative case form firi. NR s.n. FriR(?), FiriR(?)
Frrekr For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Frrekr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Fri Originally a by-name, "the wise one." Probably a Danish personal name, very common in Denmark and found in Old Danish as Frothi. Occasionally found in Sweden, where it occurs in Old Swedish as both the name and the by-name Frodhe. Found rarely in Norway and very rare in Iceland, occurring in OW.Norse as the name and by-name Fri. From the OW.Norse adjective frr "wise, learned". Runic examples include the nominative form frui and the accusative form frua. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Frode. GB p. 10 s.n. Fri; FJ pp. 87 s.n. Fri; NR s.n. Fri
Frkn From the OW.Norse adjective frœkn "courageous, bold, brave, daring." Runic examples include the genitive form froknaR and the accusative form frokn. NR s.n. Frkn
Frosti Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic frost, "frost." Occurs in West Scandinavia as the name of fictional characters, for example, in ch. 6 of orsteins ttr bjarmagns, or in ch. 12 of Sturlaugs saga starfsama, and in a few place-names in Norway. Found as both a name and a by-name in Old Danish as Frosti, in Old Swedish as Froste and in OW.Norse as the fictional character Frosti. Derived from OW.Norse frost "frost". Runic examples include the nominative form frusti and the accusative forms frusta, [frusta], furusta. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Frost, Froste. GB p. 10 s.n. Frosti; FJ pp. 87 s.n. Frosti; NR s.n. Frosti
Frostulfr For the first element Frost- see above. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Frostolcroft. FJ pp. 88, 343, 351 s.nn. *Frostulfr, Frost-, -ulfr
Fugl Originally a by-name derived from OW.Norse fugl "fowl, bird." Found once as a personal name in West Scandinavia in Norway for a man from the Orkneys, ca. 1150, with additional instances as a by-name. Also found in Denmark and Sweden. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Fugel, Fughel, Fugell. FJ pp. 88 s.n. Fugl
Fugli Found in Old Swedish as Fughle, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Fugli. Derived from OW.Norse fugl "fowl, bird." In Old Swedish and OW.Norse this element may also represent place-names in *Fugla-. Occurs in the runic accusative form fukla. NR s.n. Fugli
Fuldarr Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England. The first element Fuld- is from OW.Norse fold "plain, land," found in the OH.Germ. first element Fuld- and the Old English first element Fold-, and also appears in the OW.Norse feminine name Foldheir. For the second element -arr see above. Occurs in the runic genitive form fultars. NR s.n. Fuldarr
Fll, Fullr, Fyl It is not certain what name is intended by the runic evidence, from which we have the runic accusative form ful. The first possibility would be Fll, which may possibly be found in Old Danish as the by-name Ful and as a name probably originates as a by-name from the OW.Norse adjective fll "foul, nasty, rotten, stinking." The second possibility may be that the name being shown is Fullr, from the OW.Norse adjective fullr "full." The third possibility is that the inscription represents the name Fyl, from OW.Norse fyl "foal, young horse". NR s.nn. Fll, Fullr, Fyl
Fullhugi, Fullugi Found in Old Swedish as Fullughe. From OW.Norse fullhugi "he who is full, with a brave mind." Runic examples include the nominative forms fuilhR, fulugi, fuluhi (4 instances), [fuluhi], fuluik, f[uluiki], fuluki (4 instances), [fuluki], fulukui, fulyki and the accusative form fuluka. NR s.n. Full(h)ugi
FlniR This name is found in OW.Norse as Flnir, a name from mythology. It is derived from the OW.Norse adjective fll "foul, nasty, rotten, stinking." Occurs in the runic accusative case form fu(l)n(e). NR s.n. FlniR
Fundinn Found in Old Swedish as Fundin, in Old Danish as the by-name Fundin, and in OW.Norse as Fundinn as both a personal name and as a by-name. From OW.Norse fundinn "foundling." Runic examples include the nominative forms funtin, futan, futin and the accusative form futin. NR s.n. Fundinn
Fsi A diminuitive form of Vgfss. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Fux, Fox Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Fux and in OW.Norse as the by-name Fox (etymology uncertain). From a word corresponding to Swedish fux and German Fuchs "fox." Occurs in the runic nominative form fuks. NR s.n. Fux
 
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Name Notes Source
Gaddi This name is found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish in the form Gadde as both a personal name and as a by-name. Derived from OW.Norse gaddr "spike, point." This name may occur in the runic accusative form kata, but this inscription might instead represent the name Kti. NR s.n. Gaddi
GlfR Contracted form of Geirulfr or GeirleifR. Runic examples include the genitive case form kilfs and the accusative case form kilf. NR s.n. GlfR
GslingR Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Gsling, and in OW.Norse as by-name Gslingr. From OW.Norse *gslingr (Old Swedish gslinger) "gosling, baby goose". Occurs as a personal name in an accusative case form keslik in an inscription reading, "Tosti raised this stone in memory of Gslingr, his father." NR s.n. GslingR
Gagarr This name is found in OW.Norse as the by-name Gagarr. From OW.Norse gagarr "hound, dog." The runic evidence is not certain: the runic accusative case inscription kakr may represent Gagarr, GagR, KagR or KkR. NR s.n. Gagarr
Gagi This may be a weak form of of the name GagR. The runic evidence is not certain: the runic accusative case inscription g-ha may represent Gagarr, GagR, KagR or KkR. NR s.n. Gagi
GagR This name may be derived from an adjective identical to medieval Norwegian gag "bowed back, with head high and bowed back," or the Swedish dialect word gager "extravagant, thoughtless, rash, impudent." Runic examples include the nominative forms [kahu], kakr and the accusative forms kak, kakr. The runic evidence is not certain: the inscriptions may represent Gagarr, GagR, KagR or KkR. NR s.n. GagR
Galinn This name is found in Old Danish as the personal name Galin and in both Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Galen. Found in OW.Norse as the by-name Galinn. From OW.Norse galinn "bespelled, wild, crazy" (from the OW.Norse verb gala "to croak or chant magic songs"). Occurs in the runic nominative form [kalia]. NR s.n. Galinn
Galmann Originally a by-name, "mad-man." There are a few instances in West Scandinavia and in Denmark. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Galmanh, Galmonelid. FJ pp. 89 s.n. Galmann
Galmr, Glmr Originally a by-name related to the Swedish dialect verb galma, "to shriek." Borne by one of the Landnmamenn in Iceland and found as an element in two Norwegian place-names. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Galmeton, Galmethorp, Gameltorp. Galmeswad. GB p. 10 s.n. Glmr; FJ pp. 89 s.n. Galmr
Galli Found in Old Swedish as a personal name and as a by-name in the form Galle, found in Old Danish as the by-name Galle, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Galli. From OW.Norse galli "mistake, wrong, disability." The runic evidence is unclear: the runic accusative case inscription kala may instead represent the names Kali or Kalli. NR s.n. Galli
Galmi Related to the Swedish dialect verb galma "to shriek, make noise"; compare with the OW.Norse masculine name Galmr. The runic evidence is unclear: the runic nominative case inscription kalmi may instead represent the name Gamli. NR s.n. Galmi
Galti   GB p. 10 s.n. Galti
Gamall Originally a by-name, "old one." Frequent in Norway from 1000s onward. Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as both a personal name and as a by-name, Gamal. Occurs in OW.Norse as Gamall From the OW.Norse adjective gamall "old." Runic examples include the nominative forms kamal (6 instances), k[a]mal, k=lamal, komal and the accusative forms gam--, kamal, [kamal].Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gamel, Gamal, Gamelin, Gamelus, Gemell, Gamell. FJ pp. 89-95 s.n. Gamall; NR s.n. Gamall
Gamalbarn "Young Gamall." A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from the personal name Gamall and the second element -barn, "child, young man." A Gamalbearn was mentioned by Florence of Worcester as one of the leaders of the Northumbrian insurrection in 1065. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gamelbar, Gamelber, Gamebar. FJ pp. 89-95 s.nn. Gamall, *Gamalbarn
Gamalkarl, Gamalkarli "Old Karl; Old Karli." A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from Gamall + Karl or Karli. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gamalkarle. FJ pp. 89-95 s.nn. Gamall, *Gamalkarl(i)
Gamli Found in OW.Norse as both a personal name and a by-name, Gamli. Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Gamble. From the OW.Norse adjective gamall "old." The runic evidence is unclear: the runic nominative case inscription kalmi may instead represent the name Galmi. GB p. 10 s.n. Gamli; NR s.n. Gamli
Gandlfr The first element in this name, Gand- is from OW.Norse gandr, a word of obscure origin that means "anything enchanted; an object used by sorcerors;" by extension it can mean "monster, fiend." This name appears as the names of one of the dwarves in the Old Norse Eddaic poem Dvergatl. It also appears as a human name in chapter 1 of Haraldar saga hrfagra as Gandlfr konungur, King Gandlfr. GB p. 10 s.n. Gandlfr
GangulfR This name is found in Old Danish as Gangulf. The first element, Gang-, is from OW.Norse gangr "going, walking." For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. This name is related to the Old High German name Gangulf, which some scholars see as referring to berserkergang. Found in the runic nominative form kakulfr. FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; NR s.n. GangulfR
Gansi Found as the OW.Norse by-name Gansi. Derived from a diminutive with the second element -si related to the Swedish and Norwegian dialect word gant "fool, one who is mocked." Occurs in the runic accusative case form kans-. NR s.n. Gansi
Gapi Found in OW.Norse as the mythological name Gapi and as a by-name. Derived from the OW.Norse verb gapa "to yell, to shriek." The runic evidence is not certain: the runic nominative case inscription kabi may instead represent Kabbi, Kampi, or Kappi. NR s.n. Gapi
GapR This name originated as a by-name: it is found in Old Swedish as the by-name Gap (etymology uncertain), and in Old West Norse as the by-name Gapr, and is from a word corresponding to Nynorsk gap, "chatterbox, mockingbird". The runic evidence shows the nominative form kabR, where it seems to be used as a personal name, though this is not certain. NR s.n. Gapr
Gararr For the first element Gar- see above. For the second element -arr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Gararr; FJ pp. 96, 342, 348 s.nn. Garr, Gar-, -arr
Garr Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic garr, "yard" but may have the older sense of "protection." Common in Norway in the later period. Not found in Iceland. Examples are found in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Garth. GB p. 10 s.n. Garr; FJ pp. 96 s.n. Garr
Garulfr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian name. For the first element Gar- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gardulf, Garolf. FJ pp. 96, 343, 351 s.nn. Garr, *Garulfr, Gar-, -ulfr
Gsi Found in Old Danish as the personal name, Gasi, and as a by-name, Gassi; occurs in Old Swedish as a personal name, Gase, and as a by-name, Gasse; found in Old West Norse as a personal name, Gsi (though it is rare as a personal name in Western Scandinavia), and as a by-name in the forms Gsi or Gassi. From Old West Norse *gsi "goose-boy". Runic examples include the nominative forms asi, kase, kasi and the genitive form kosa. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gasou. FJ pp. 96 s.n. Gsi; NR s.n. Gsi
Gaukr Originally a by-name meaning "cuckoo," but compare the Modern Norwegian sense of the word which means "simple person, a fool." Found as a personal name in Iceland in the late 900s, and possibly in some Norwegian place-names. Occurs as a by-name in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gauke, Gouck, Gouc, Gouk, Goki, Gok, Goky, Gousla. GB p. 10 s.n. Gaukr; FJ pp. 96-98 s.n. Gaukr
Gauss   GB p. 10 s.n. Gauss
Gautarr This name is found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Gtar, and in OW.Norse as Gautarr. The first element Gaut- is derived from the OW.Norse gautar, "inhabitant of Gtland, Gtlander." For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form [kitar]. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. FJ pp. 343, 348 s.nn. Gaut-, -arr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. Gautarr, Gautr, Gaut-, -arr
GautdiarfR The form of this name is uncertain. It is known from a runic inscription in the nominative case, kutirfR, which may instead represent GudiarfR. For the first element Gaut- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. FJ p. 343 s.n. Gaut-; CV pp. 100, 193 s.v. djarfr, Gautr; NR s.n. GautdiarfR, Gaut-, Gautr, GudiarfR, -diarfR
Gauti This name originated as a short form of names in Gaut-, and later also found as a by-name meaning "Gtlander, man from Gtland" (see above). Occurs in in Old Danish as Gti, Old Swedish Gte, and OW.Norse Gauti, and all three forms are also found as by-names. This name is thought to appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Goutebi, Gautebi, Gauthscou. Runic examples include the nominative forms [kauti], kuti, and the accusative form kauta. GB p. 10 s.n. Gauti; FJ pp. 98, 348-349 s.nn. Gauti, Gautr, Gaut-, -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. Gauti, Gaut-, Gautr
Gautr The name Gautr is found in Old Danish as Gt, in Old Swedish as Gt (also found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as Gautr (also found as a by-name) Appears in the singular form as well as the plural or OW.Norse gautar "inhabitant of Gtland, Gtlander". The Cleasby-Vigfusson dictionary notes that the masculine name Gautr is a poetical name for inn, and suggests that it may mean "father". Runic examples include the nominative forms kaut, kautr, kotr, kut, kutr, the genitive form kaus, the dative form kuti and the accusative forms kaut, [kut]. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. FJ pp. 98, 348-349 s.nn. Gauti, Gautr, Gaut-, -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. Gauti, Gaut-, Gautr
Gautrr For the first element Gaut- see above. For the second element -rr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kutrar. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. FJ pp. 98, 345, 348-349 s.nn. Gauti, Gautr, Gaut-, -gauti, -gautr, Ra-; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. Gautrr, Gaut-, Gautr, Gauti, -rr
Gautrekr For the first element Gaut- see above. For the second element -rekr see above. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. GB p. 10 s.n. Gautrekr; FJ pp. 98, 348-349, 350 s.nn. Gauti, Gautr, Gaut-, -gauti, -gautr, -rkr; CV pp. 193, 499 s.v. Gautr, rkr; NR s.nn. Gaut-, Gautr, Gauti, RkR, -rkR
GautulfR The name GautulfR is found in Old Swedish as Gtolf and in OW.Norse as Gautlfr. For the first element Gaut- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form [kit=ulfR]. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. FJ pp. 98, 348-349, 351 s.n. Gauti, Gautr, Gaut-, -gauti, -gautr, -ulfr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. Gaut-, Gautr, Gauti
Gautvir For the first element Gaut- see above. For the second element -vir see above. This name occurs in the Latinized Old Swedish Gautwidus and in OW.Norse as Gautvir. For the first element Gaut- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form koutuir. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. GB p. 10 s.n. Gautvir; FJ pp. 98, 348-349, 352 s.n. Gauti, Gautr, Gaut-, -gauti, -gautr, -vir; CV pp. 193, 703-704 s.v. Gautr, vir; NR s.nn. Gaut-, Gautr, Gauti, Vi-, -vir
Gedda Found in Old Danish as Gedda (also found as a by-name), Old Swedish Gdda (also found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as the by-name Gedda (all masculine names). From the OW.Norse noun gedda "pike-fish". Runic examples include the nominative form kita (which represents a by-name), and the genitive form kitu. NR s.n. Gdda
Gefialdr, Gjafvaldr This name is found in Old Swedish as Gevald and in OW.Norse as Gjafvaldr. The first elements Gef-, Giaf- and Gjaf- are derived from Germanic *Geba-, and are related to the OW.Norse verb gefa "to give" and OW.Norse gjf "gift". For the second element -valdr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kefialtr. FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. Gjaf-, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Gefialdr, Gef-/Giaf-, -valdr
GeflaugR, Gjaflaugr Found in Old Swedish as Giflgh and in OW.Norse as Gjaflaugr. For the first elements Gef-, Giaf- and Gjaf-, see above. For the second element -laugr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kefluk. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Gjaf-, -laugr; CV pp. 374 s.v. laug def. IV; NR s.nn. GeflaugR, Gef-/Giaf-, -laugR
GefulfR For the first elements Gef-, Giaf- and Gjaf-, see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kifulfR. FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. Gjaf-, -ulfr; NR s.n. GefulfR, Gef-/Giaf-, -ulfR
Gegnir   GB p. 10 s.n. Gegnir
Geilir Originally a by-name meaning "firey one, hot-tempered," compare to Modern Norwegian geil , *geilask, "vehemence." Found once in Norway in 1357. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Gailisthorp, Gelesthorp. Gilset Close, Geleswath. FJ p. 98 s.n. Geilir
Geiralfr This name is found for the OW.Norse fictional character Geiralfr and in a fragmentary runic inscription which may represent a normal human name. The first element Geir- is identical to the Old Icelandic geirr, "spear." The second element -alfr is identical with Old Icelandic alfr, "elf, a type of subterranean being, ancestral spirit." It occurs in one runic inscription in which the case is uncertain as kairalf.... A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ p. 343 s.n. Geir-; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. GiRalfR, GiR-, GiRi, -alfR
Geirbjrn Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Gerbiorn, and in OW.Norse as Geirbjrn. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative forms kaiRbiarn, [kaiRbiurn], khiRbiarn, kiRbiarn, the genitive form geiRbiarnaR, and the accusative forme gaiRbern, irbrn, kairbirn, kaiRbiarn, (k)aiRbiarn, kaiRbiurn, keRbiarn, kiRbiarn, kiRbi(a)rn, [kribior-], [trbiorn]. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ pp. 343, 348 s.n. Geir-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 196 s.v. bjrn, geirr; NR s.n. GiRbirn, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -birn
Geirdiarfr For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form [kaiRtiarfr]. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ p. 343 s.n. Geir-; CV pp. 100, 196 s.v. djarfr, geirr; NR s.n. GiRdiarfR, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -diarfR
Geirfastr Found in Old Swedish as Gervast. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kaiRfast(r), kaiRf...tr, karfastr and the accusative forms kaiRfast, [kaiRfast], kerfast, kiRfast. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 343 s.n. Geir-; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. GiRfastr, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -fastr, Fasti
Geirfinnr For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -finnr see above. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirfinnr; FJ pp. 343, 348 s.n. Geir-, -finnr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -finnr, Finnr/Fir
Geirhjlmr For the first element Geir- see above. The second element -hjlmr is from the OW.Norse noun hjalmr "helmet". Runic examples include the nominative forms kiRhimR, kiRialmR and the accusative form (k)aiRielmR. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ p. 343 s.n. Geir-; CV pp. 196, 266-267 s.v. geirr, hjlmr; NR s.n. GiRhialmR, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, HialmR, -hialmR
Geirhvatr Found in Old Swedish as Gerhvat and in OW.Norse as Geirhvatr. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -hvatr or its weak side-form -hvati see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kaiRuatr, keiruatr and the genitive form kaiRuataR. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ pp. 343, 349 s.nn. Geir-, -hvatr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. GiRhvatr, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -hvatr
Geiri Found in Old Danish as Geri, in Old Swedish as Gere, and in OW.Norse as Geiri. This name is a short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr, and also occurs as a weak side form of the name Geirr. For the first element Geir- see above. Frequent in Iceland. Occurs rarely in Norway. Found in the Danish and Swedish runic inscriptions. Runic examples include the nominative forms giRi, [kairi], (k)iari, kiRi, [kiRi], kiR... and the accusative forms haiRa, hiRa, kaiR[a], keir(a), kiRa. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Geri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geiri; FJ pp. 98, 343 s.nn. Geiri, Geir-; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. GiRi, GiRR, GiR-
Geirleifr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Gerlef, and in OW.Norse as Geirleifr. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kaiRl-ifR and keiRlifR. May also be found in a contracted form GlfR. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirleifr; FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Geir-, -leifr; CV pp. 196, 381 s.v. geirr, leif; NR s.n. GiRlifR, GiRR, GiR-, GlfR, GiRi, -lifR/-lafR
Geirleikr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Gerlak, and in OW.Norse as Geirleikr. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -lakR see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms ke-lak-, kirlak, kirlak-. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. FJ pp. 185-186, 343, 350 s.nn. Geir-, -leikr, Leikr; CV pp. 196, 382-383 s.v. geirr, leika, leikr; NR s.n. GiRlakR, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -likR/-lakR
Geirmrr Found in Old Danish as Germar. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -marr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [keirmar], kiRmar and the accusative form kaiRmar. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Geir-, -mrr; CV pp. 196, 418, 443 s.v. geirr, -mr, mrr; NR s.n. GiRmarr, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -marr
Geirmr For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -mr see above. May occur in a fragmentary runic inscription in the accusative case form ...(R)mu. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Geir-, -mr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. GiRmr, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -mr
Geirmundi For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -mundr or its weakened side-form -mundi see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form kaiRmunta. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 99, 343, 350 s.nn. Geirmundr, Geir-, -mundr; CV pp. 196, 437-438 s.v. geirr, mundr; NR s.nn. GiRmundi, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -mundi, Mundi
Geirmundr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Germund, and in OW.Norse as Geirmundr. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Borne by the grandfather of one of the Landnmamenn in Iceland, but was not common in Iceland until after 1300. Found in several Norwegian place names. Appears in Danish runic inscriptions, as well as in later Danish sources. Runic examples include the nominative forms [kairmuntr], kaiRmuntr, keiRmu...(r), kermunr, ke(r)munt(r), kiRmutr, ki-mutr, and the accusative forms kaiRmunt, [kaiRmunt], kermut, kimut, [kirmun], kiRmut. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Ghermud, Germud, Germund, Gemun. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirmundr; FJ pp. 99, 343, 350 s.n. Geirmundr, Geir-, -mundr; CV pp. 196, 437-438 s.v. geirr, mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. GiRmundr, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -mundr, Mundi
Geirni Perhaps a short form of Geirnitr. This name may occur in the runic accusative form karna, which might instead represent the names Garni or Krni. FJ p. 343 s.n. Geir-; NR s.n. GiRni, GiRR, Garni, Krni, GiRi
Geirnitr Found in Old Danish as Gerniot, and in Old Swedish possibly as Ginniut. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -nitr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kaiRaiau(t)-. A short form of this name may be Geirni. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ p. 343 s.n. Geir-; CV pp. 196, 456 s.v. geirr, njta; NR s.n. GiRnitr, GiRR, GiR-, GiRni, GiRi, -nitr
Geirlfr, Geirlfr Found in Old Danish as Gerulf, occurs in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Gerulphus, and found in OW.Norse as Geirlfr. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -olfr see above. Frequent in West Scandinavia from the mid 900s onward. Appears in a Swedish runic inscription in the accusative form kaiRulf. Appears once in Denmark. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gerulf. May also be found in a contracted form GlfR. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirlfr; FJ pp. 99, 343, 351 s.n. Geirulfr, Geir-, -ulfr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. GiRulfR, GiRR, GiR-, GlfR, -ulfR
Geirr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Ger, and in OW.Norse as Geirr (also found as a by-name). From the OW.Norse noun geirr "spear". Runic examples include the nominative forms |kair, (k)(a)(in)r, kaiR, kaR and the accusative form [kR]. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirr; FJ pp. 343 s.n. Geir-; NR s.n. GiRR, GiRi
Geirrar For the first element Geir- see above. The second element, -rr, is derived from the OW.Norse verb ra "to steer, to advise; to give counsel," and is thus "one who steers" or "one who gives counsel." A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirrar; FJ pp. 343 s.n. Geir-; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. Geirrar, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -rar
Geirrekr For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -rekr see above. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirrekr; FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Geir-, -rkr; CV pp. 196, 499 s.v. geirr, rkr; NR s.nn. GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, RkR, -rkR
Geirrr For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -(f)rer/(f)rr see above. Runic examples include the accusative form kiru, and the name may also be found in the runic nominative form erir (which may instead represent rfrer, rfrr or rr). A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirrr; FJ pp. 343, 348 s.nn. Geir-, -frr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Geirsteinn For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Borne by two of the Landnmamenn in Iceland, but doesn't appear in Iceland after that. A few instances are found in Norway from 1050s onward. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include the Latinized Garstinus. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirsteinn; FJ pp. 99, 343, 351 s.nn. Geirsteinn, Geir-, -steinn; CV pp. 196, 591 s.v. geirr, steinn; NR s.n. GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -stinn
Geirjfr For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -jfr see above. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. GB p. 10 s.n. Geirjfr; FJ pp. 343, 351 s.n. Geir-, -jfr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. GiRR, GiR-, GiRi
Geirvarr For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -varr see above. There are some doubtful instances in Sweden and Denmark, but this may be an Anglo-Scandinavian formation. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gerward and are found in the place-name Geruezbi. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ pp. 99-100, 343, 351 s.nn. Geirvarr, Geir-, -varr; CV pp. 196, 722 s.v. geirr, vrr; NR s.nn. GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -varr
Geirvarr Found in Old Danish as Gerwar. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -varr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kRrua, which may instead represent either Gra or GiRvr. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ pp. 343, 351-352 s.nn. Geir-, -varr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. GiRvarr, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -varr, Gra, GiRvr
Geirvir This name is found in Old Swedish as Gervidh and in OW.Norse as Geirvir. For the first element Geir- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kaiRuir. A short form of masculine names in Geir- or -geirr is Geiri. FJ pp. 343, 352 s.nn. Geir-, -vir; CV pp. 196, 703-704 s.v. geirr, vir; NR s.nn. GiRvir, GiRR, GiR-, GiRi, -vir
Geitingr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Geting; compare with the OW.Norse by-name Geitungr. From OW.Norse *geitingr (compare with geitungr) "wasp". Found in the runic nominative form kitikr, apparently as a personal name, in an inscription reading, "Geitingr raised this stone in memory of Geirmundr, his brother, a good thegn. May God help." NR s.n. GitingR
Geitir Found in Old Danish as Getir and in OW.Norse as Geitir. Derived from the OW.Norse noun geit "goat". Occurs in the runic dative form kaeti. GB p. 10 s.n. Geitir; NR s.n. GitiR
Gellir   GB p. 10 s.n. Gellir
Gestr See -gestr, above. GB p. 10 s.n. Gestr; FJ pp. 349 s.n. -gestr
Gerarr, Gjararr This name is found in Old Swedish as Grdhar and in OW.Norse as Gjararr. The first element Ger-/Gjar- is derived from the stem of the Germanic verb *geran "(re)made, (re)constructed." (It has also been suggested that the first element should be interpreted as a form of Gar-, from OW.Norse garr "fence, defence". For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms karar, kerar (5 instances), kiarar, kiaar, the genitive form karars and the accusative forms [karar], kerar, kerer, kiarar. NR s.n. Gerarr/Giararr, Ger-/Giar-, -arr
Gialli Occurs in Old Swedish as Glle. This name is derived from the OW.Norse verb gjalla "to yell, to shout". Runic examples include the nominative forms kiali and [kial]in. NR s.n. Gialli
Gibbon Christian GB p. 10 s.n. Gibbon
Ggr Originally a by-name related to Modern Norwegian giga, "to stagger." Found once in West Scandinavia in 1324. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Ghigesburg, Gighesburg, Chigesburg, Giseborne. FJ p. 100 s.n. Ggr
Gildi Found in Old Danish as Gildi, and in Old Swedish as Gilde and possibly Gille. From Runic Swedish gildi "guild brother". There are two runic examples of this name in the nominative case, ki(l)t[a] and kil..., and both refer to the same person. NR s.n. Gildi
Gilli Short form of Irish names in Gilli-, meaning "servant." Found in Iceland at the time of the Settlement, probably occurs mostly in persons of Celtic descent, such as Haraldr gilli, whose Irish name was Gillikristr, "servant of Christ." Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gille, Ghile, Gil. GB p. 10 s.n. Gilli; FJ pp. 100-101 s.n. Gilli
GillingR This name is found in OW.Norse as the fictional character Gillingr in ch. 1 of Gautreks saga. The name is derived from the OW.Norse verb gjalla "to yell". Found in the runic nominative form kilinR. NR s.n. GillingR
Ginnfastr The first element in this name, Gnn-, is of uncertain etymology. It is believed to be a Continental Germanic name, perhaps related to the OW.Norse verb ginna "to deceive, to enchant"; compare with OW.Norse mythological character Ginnarr. For the second element -fastr see above. Found in the runic nominative form kinfast(r). A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. NR s.n. Ginnfastr, Ginn-, -fastr, Fasti
Gils For the second element gsl or gils see above. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 10 s.n. Gils; FJ p. 349 s.n. -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
Gilsbrikt For the first element Gls- or Gsl- see below. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 10 s.n. Gilsbrikt; FJ p. 349 s.n. -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
Gimp Originally a by-name related to the Norwegian and Swedish dialect term gimpa, "to sway one's buttocks." Occurs as a by-name in Sweden. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gimpi, Gympe. FJ pp. 101 s.n. Gimp
Gpr, Gippi Originally a by-name related to Modern Norwegian gip, "jaw." A few instances of Gpr are found in Norway. Gippi is not found in Scandinavia and appears Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gippe, Gip, Ghippe. FJ pp. 101Gpr, *Gippi
Gsi Occurs as a short form of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils. Found in Old Swedish and possibly Old Danish as Gise. Occurs in the runic genitive case form kisa. CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
GiskingR This name is of uncertain etymology and is found one in a runic inscription as the accusative case form kiskik. NR s.n. GiskingR
Gsl, Gsli Occurs both as a short form of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils and as an original by-name Gsl and its weak side-form Gsli. Gsli was popular in Iceland in the 900s and after 1300. Not recorded in Norway until 1400s, and remained rare there. The forms Gsl and Gils are also common in Iceland but rare in Norway. The name Gsl is found in Old Danish as Gisl and possibly as a by-name, Gissel. It occurs in Old Swedish as a by-name, Gisl, and in OW.Norse as Gsl. The first element, Gs(l)-, is related to Longobard gsil, "arrow-shaft" OW.Norse geisl "staff", and Old Icelandic geisli, "sun-shaft, sun beam". Overall this name-element has a sense of "a shaft typical of a weapon or a part of a weapon." The name-element may also be linked to OW.Norse gsl "hostage". Runic examples include the nominative forms gisl, keisl, kisl (10 instances), [kisl], the accusative forms gisl, kisl, and in one instance in which the case is uncertain, gisl. The name Gsli occurs in Old Danish as Gisli, Old Swedish as the by-name Gisle, and in OW.Norse as Gsli. Runic examples include the nominative form kisli and the accusative form kisila. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gisle, Gisel, Gisla, Gysel. GB p. 10 s.nn. Gsl, Gsli; FJ pp. 102, 349 s.nn. Gsli, Gsl, -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
Gsmundr This name is found in Old Swedish as Gismund. For the first element Gsl- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form kismuntr and the genitive form kismuntaR. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ p. 349 s.n. -gsl; CV pp. 196, 437-438 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, mundr; NR s.nn. Gsmundr, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils, -mundr, Mundi
Gsstinn For the first element Gsl- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kistein. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. FJ p. 349 s.n. -gsl; CV pp. 196, 591 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, steinn; NR s.nn. Gsstinn, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils, -stinn
GilkR This name may represent either GilkR or KilkR, and is of uncertain etymology. Runic examples include the nominative forms giulakr U287, kiulakr, [kiula(in)...] and the accusative form kiulik. NR s.n. GilkR
Gizurr   GB p. 10 s.n. Gizurr
Gjafvaldr The first element Gjaf- is related to the stem in gjafari and gjafmildr, and means "gift." For the second element -valdr see above. A few instances are found in Iceland after 1000. more common in Norway after the end of the 1100s. Possibly appears in an Anglo-Scandinavian place-name. GB p. 10 s.n. Gjafvaldr; FJ pp. 102-103, 343, 351 s.nn. Gjafvaldr, Gjaf-, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
Gjalfvr The first element Gjalf- is related to Old Icelandic gjalfr "surf". For the second element -vr or -vir see above. Only found in its shortened form, Gylfi. FJ pp. 120, 343, 352 s.n. Gylfi, Gjalf-, -vr
Gjallandi   GB p. 10 s.n. Gjallandi
Gjfull A hypothetical form. Originally a by-name, "munificent." Not found in Scandinavia. Possibly appears in an Anglo-Scandinavian place-name, Cheuelestune. FJ pp. 103 s.n. *Gjfull
Glggi Related to the Old Swedish adjective glgger and OW.Norse glggr "sharp-eyed, clear-sighted, clever." Runic examples include the nominative form glaki and the accusative form klaka. NR s.n. Glggi
Glmr   GB p. 10 s.n. Glmr
GlippiR This name, found in the runic nominative form klibiR, is uncertain, and may instead represent the name KleppiR or KlippiR. If the inscription does intend GlippiR, then it may be related to the Swedish dialect word glippa "often opening a door". NR s.n. GlippiR
Gla This name is known from the nominative case runic inscription kulua, where it could instead represent the name Kylfa. If this is Gla, it is derived from the OW.Norse verb gla "to glow, glisten, shine." NR s.n. Gla
Gli The name Gli is derived from the OW.Norse noun gl "ember, glow". It is found in the runic accusative case form [kloa]. NR s.n. Gli
Glœir   GB p. 10 s.n. Glœir
GlggR This name is known from the runic nominative case inscription klakR, which may instead represent the name KlakkR. If this is GlggR, then it is from the OW.Norse adjective glggr "sharp-eyed, clear-sighted, clever". NR s.n. GlggR
Glmr Originally a by-name related to Modern Norwegian glum, "a person with a glowering expression." Borne by one of the Landnmamenn in Iceland and found fairly frequently there later. Found during the early period in Norway. A few instances as a personal name are found in Denmark and Sweden. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Glumesker. GB p. 10 s.n. Glmr; FJ pp. 103 s.n. Glmr
Gluniarain An Irish adaptation of the Scandinavian by-name Jrnkn, "iron knee." Anglo-Scandinavian forms include the Glonieorn who took place in a rebel gemot in York in 1065, as well as Glunier. FJ pp. 103 s.n. *Gluniairnn
Gneisti   GB p. 10 s.n. Gneisti
Gnauimar The first element in this name may be connected to OW.Norse gnau "noise, din, alarm," compounded with the OW.Norse second element mar "man". Occurs in the runic nominative form knauimanr. NR s.n. Gnauimar
Gnpa This name is found in Old Danish as Gnupa, and in OW.Norse as both the name and the by-name Gnpa. The name is derived from a side-form of the OW.Norse noun gnpa "slope, leaning mountain-peak" (also see the OW.Norse noun gnpr). Runic examples include the nominative form gnubha and the genitive form knubu. NR s.n. Gnpa
Gnpr Found as the OW.Norse name Gnpr, from the OW.Norse noun gnpr "slope, leaning mountain-peak." Runic examples include the nominative forms knubr and nubR. A diminuitive form of this name is Gnpli. GB p. 10 s.n. Gnpr; NR s.n. GnpR, Gnpli
Gnpli Diminuitive form of GnpR with the -l-second element or a direct derivative from the same root-word. Occurs in the runic nominative form knubli. NR s.n. GnpR, Gnpli
GnggiR This name comes from a genetive case runic inscription, knikis, which might represent either GnggiR or KnikiR. If GnggiR, the name would then be derived from the OW.Norse verb gneggja "neigh, whinny". NR s.n. GnggiR
Gogestr The first element Go- is a side-form of Gu-, which is related to Old Icelandic gu, go, "god, the gods." For the second element -gestr see above. FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Gu-, -gestr
Goin, Gowini, Guini This name, adopted from Old English Godwin, is found in Old Danish as Godwin, in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Godwinus, and in OW.Norse as Goin and Guini. Runic examples include the nominative forms kouini (3 instances), kowin, kowini. GB p. 10 s.n. Guini; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Gu-; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.n. Gowini
GingR Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Gdhing Derived from the OW.Norse adjective gr "good". Found as a personal name in the genitive case form [kui(k)]s in an inscription reading "sgautr raised this stone in memory of Ernfastr, his mother's brother, GingR's son, and in memory of lf his wife. sgautr made these monuments." NR s.n. GingR
Golfr For the first element Go- see above. For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Golfr; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.nn. Gu-, -ulfr
Goormr, Guormr For the first element Go- see above. The second element -ormr is identical with Old Icelandic ormr, "serpent, snake, dragon." See also the discussion under Gormr, below. FJ pp. 344, 350; CV pp. 468-469 s.v. ormr; NR s.n. GrmR, Gu-, -ormr
Gorekr For the first element Go- see above. For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Gorekr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.n. Gu-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Godsveinn A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian hybrid name. The first element comes from Old English God-, "good." For the second element -sveinn see above. This may instead be a Scandinavian adaptation of the Old English name Godswan. FJ pp. 103, 351 s.n. *Godsveinn, -sveinn
Goldsteinn A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian hybrid name. The first element comes from Old English Gold-, "gold." For the second element -steinn see above. This may instead be a Scandinavian adaptation of the Old English name Goldstan, or a corrupt form of Kolsteinn. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Golstaindale. FJ pp. 103, 351 s.n. *Goldsteinn, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. -stinn
Gormr This name is found in Old Danish as Gorm and in OW.Norse as Gormr. It is derived from *Go-ormR or *Go-ormR, which are from Primitive Scandinavian *Gua- "god" + *wurmaR "worm, serpent, dragon," or may also be related to the OW.Norse verb yrma "to revere, to honor". Compare with Old Danish Guththorm, Old Swedish Gudhthorm, OW.Norse Guormr, Guormr. Runic examples include the nominative form kurmR, the genitive form kurms, and the accusative forms kurm, kurR. GB p. 10 s.n. Gormr; FJ pp. 112, 344, 350 s.n. Guormr, Gu-, -ormr; CV pp. 468-469 s.v. ormr; NR s.n. GrmR, Gu-, -ormr
Goti   GB p. 10 s.n. Goti
Gri Originally a by-name derived from grlyndr, "evil-tempered." Borne by one of the Landnmamenn in Iceland and fairly frequent later in West Scandinavia. May be related to the Danish personal name Graa, which is a late occurrence from South Jutland. FJ pp. 103-104 s.n. Gri
Grni   GB p. 10 s.n. Grni
Granmrr For the second element -mrr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Granmrr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -mrr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr
Grannkall   GB p. 10 s.n. Grannkall
Grsteinn For the second element -steinn see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Grsteinn; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. -stinn
Grgrs Christian, Gregory. GB p. 10 s.n. Grgrs
Greii A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation related to Old Icelandic greir, "clear, ready to serve". From the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Greibi. FJ pp. 104 s.n. *Greii
Greifi Originally a by-name, related either to a Continental Germanic loan word greifi, the title "graf" or "count," or else related to Modern Norwegian greive used to describe a ram with a characteristic horn configuration. Appears as a by-name once in Iceland. Found in some Norwegian place-names. The form Greve is common as a by-name in Denmark after 1200. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Greve. FJ pp. 104 s.n. Greifi
Grein Originally a by-name. Found in Old Danish as Gren (also found as a by-name), as the Old Swedish by-name Gren, and the OW.Norse by-name Grein. From the OW.Norse noun grein, "branch; division". Occurs in the runic accusative case form krein. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Grein, Grain. FJ pp. 104 s.n. Grein; NR s.n. Grinn
Grentir A form of Grettir. A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation found in the place-name Grentwith and the names Grent, Grente. FJ pp. 104 s.n. *Grentir
Greipr Greipr was originally a West Scandinavian by-name. Found in Old Danish as Grep (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as the mythological character name Grep (also found as a human by-name), and in OW.Norse as Greipr (also found as a by-name). From OW.Norse noun greip "hand" or from the OW.Norse verb grpa "to grasp". Greppi is believed to be a weak side-form of Greipr and may occur in some Norwegian place-names. Grep occurs in East Scandinavia as both a by-name and a personal name. Occurs in the runic accusative case form krib. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Greppe. GB p. 10 s.n. Greipr; FJ pp. 104-105 s.n. Greppi; NR s.n. GripR
Grenjar   GB p. 10 s.n. Grenjar
Grettir Originally a by-name meaning "he who shows his teeth or grins," related to gretta sik, "to make a wry face." GB p. 10 s.n. Grettir; FJ pp. 104 s.n. *Grentir
Grma From OW.Norse grma "mask", with a secondary meaning as "a helm which hides the face". Found in the runic accusative form [krimu]. NR s.n. Grma
Grmarr This name is found in Old Danish as Grimar and in OW.Norse as Grmarr. The first element Grm- is related to Old Icelandic grma, "mask", and may refer to a helm which masks the face, also Grmr was one of the names of the god inn. For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form krimar and the accusative form krima.... GB p. 10 s.n. Grmarr; FJ pp. 343, 348 s.n. Grm-, -arr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. Grmarr, Grm-, -arr
Grmbjrn A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. For the first element Grm- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. May instead be a loan from the Continental germanic name Grimbert. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Grimber, Grimbert. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 107, 343, 348 s.n. *Grmbjrn, Grm-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 216 s.v. bjrn, grma; NR s.nn. Grm-, -birn, Biarni
Grmketill, Grmkell Found in Old Danish as Grimkil, in Old Swedish as Grimkil, and in OW.Norse as Grmkell. For the first element Grm- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Borne by one of the Landnmamenn in Iceland and coninued to be fairly popular in West Scandinavia. Runic examples include the nominative forms krimkil, krimk-l, [mkitil]. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Grinchel, Grinchil, Grimchel, Grimchil, Grimcetel, Grimkel, Grimkil, Grimketel, Grinkel, Grimkell. GB p. 10 s.n. Grmkell; FJ pp. 107-108, 343, 349 s.n. Grmketill, Grm-, -ketill; CV pp. 216, 337-338 s.v. grma, ketill; NR s.n. Grmkll, Grm-, -k(ti)ll
Grmmundr For the first element Grm- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form kri(m)ut. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Grm-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Grmmundr, Grm-, -mundr, Mundi
Grmlfr This name is found in Old Danish as Grimulf, in Old Swedish as Grimolf, and in OW.Norse as Grmlfr. For the first element Grm- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms |krimulfR, [krimulfu], [krimuluf] and the accusative form krimulf. GB p. 10 s.n. Grmlfr; FJ pp. 349, 351 s.nn. Grm-, -ulfr; CV pp. 216, 668 s.v. grma, lfr; NR s.mn. GrmulfR, Grm-, -ulfR
Grmr, Grmi Found in Old Danish as Grim (found as a by-name), Old Swedish Grim (found as a by-name), and OW.Norse Grmr. (Instances in Old Danish and Old Swedish by-names may be derived from the OW.Norse adjective grimmr "grim, cruel, atrocious".) Originally a by-name, related to Old Icelandic grma, "mask", and may refer to a helm which masks the face, also Grmr was one of the names of the god inn. This name is common in Norway and Iceland through the whole medieval period, and is frequent in Denmark and Sweden. The weak form Grmi is found in Denmark, and as a place-name in both Denmark and Sweden. Runic examples include the nominative forms kiRimr, krim, [k](r)in(m), [krimbr], krimr, (k)rimr, krim-, [krur], the genitive forms kirims, (k)rims, and the accusative forms [irim], kirm. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Grim, Grym, Grime Grm, Guyum. A diminuitive form of Grmr is Grmsi. GB p. 10 s.n. Grmr; FJ pp. 105-107 s.n. Grmr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. GrmR, Grm-
Grmsi A diminuitive form of Grmr. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Grimvarr For the first element Grm- see above. For the second element -varr see above. May be an Anglo-Scandinavian formation, Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Grimward. FJ pp. 108, 349, 351 s.n. *Grmvarr, Grm-, -varr; CV pp. 216, 722 s.v. grma, vrr; NR s.n. Grm-
Grpr, Grpi Originally a by-name related to the OW.Norse verb grpa "to seize, to grasp" or from OW.Norse greip "hand". In Iceland the name Hrmundr Grpsson is also found as Greipsson and his brother referred to as Grepsson. Grip is found in Denmark. Occurs in the runic genitive case form krib-. GB p. 10 s.n. Grpr; FJ pp. 108 s.n. Grpr, *Grpi; NR s.nn. Gripi/Gripi
Grss Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic grpa, "piglet, young pig." Found rarely as a personal name in Iceland. Frequent in both Iceland and Norway as a by-name. A few instances as a personal name are found in Jutland. The by-name is common in Denmark. Occurs in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Grisebi, Gristorentun, Grisethorntune, Grisethorp, Grisethwayth. GB p. 10 s.n. Grss; FJ pp. 109 s.n. Grss
Grjtgarr Occurs as OW.Norse Grjtgarr. The first element from the OW.Norse noun grjt, from Germanic *greuta "stone". For the second element -garr see the name Garr above. It is uncertain if the first element occurs in other names. Occurs in the runic nominative form kriutkarr. GB p. 10 s.n. Grjtgarr; NR s.n. Gritgarr
Grmr Originally a by-name related to Modern Icelandic grm, "dirt." A single instance is found in West Scandinavia. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Grumeshenges. FJ pp. 109 s.n. Grmr
Grubbi Originally a by-name meaning "man with the rough, wrinkled face." May occur once in Norway as a place-name. Found in Denmark as both a personal name and a by-name. Occurs in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Grubhale. FJ pp. 109 s.n. Grubbi
Grmr, Grmi, Grummi Originally a by-name Grummi meaning "cruel one." The personal name Grmi (Latinized to Grummo) occurs frequently in Denmark, especially in West Jutland. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Grumeshenges. FJ pp. 109 s.nn. Grum(m)i, *Grmr
Grytingr   GB p. 10 s.n. Grytingr
Gubbi Gubbi is a short form of the name Gubjrn. Also found in Old Swedish as both a name and as a by-name, Gubbe, in which the derivation may also be from Old Swedish gubbe "old man". Runic examples include the genitive form [(in)ku]ba and the accusative forms [guba], [k]uba. NR s.nn. Gubbi, Gubirn, Gu-, -birn
Gubjrn Found in Old Danish as Guthbiorn, in Old Swedish as Gudhbiorn, and in OW.Norse as Gubjrn. The first element Gu- and its side-form Go- are related to OW.Norse gu, go, which are derived from the Germanic noun *gua "god, god-like being." The oldest form of this first element lies in the root go, and Cleasby-Vigfusson mentions that even in late Christian poetry words in gu were made to rhyme with o, suggesting that the pronunciation should still be as if the first element were go. In Iceland the pronunciation underwent further change, so that the g in Gu- is pronounced as gw in Christian names. For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kubian, kubiarn, kubirn, kubiurn, [kuriuin], ...-b-urn; the genitive forms kuabiarnao, kubiona-, kubirnaR; and the accusative forms k(u)(in)(b)an, kubiarn, kubiurna. A short form of Gubjrn is Gubbi. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 344, 348 s.nn. Gu-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 207-208 s.v. bjrn, go; NR s.nn. Gubirn, Gu-, -birn, Gubbi, Gui, Guki, Biarni
Gubrandr Found in Old Danish as Guthbrand, in Old Swedish as Gudhbrand, and in OW.Norse as Gubrandr. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. A diminuitive form of Gubrandr is Gutti. GB p. 10 s.n. Gubrandr; FJ pp. 344, 348 s.n. Gu-, -brandr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 76, 207-208 s.v. brandr, go; NR s.nn. Gubrandr, Gu-, -brandr, Gui, Guki
GudiarfR The form of this name is uncertain. It is known from a runic inscription in the nominative case, kutirfR, which may instead represent GautdiarfR. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ p. 344 s.n. Gu-; CV pp. 100, 207-208 s.v. djarfr, go; NR s.nn. GudiarfR, GautdiarfR, Gaut-, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -diarfR
Gufastr Found in Old Danish as Guthfast, in Old Swedish as Gudhfast and Gudhvast, and in OW.Norse as Gufastr. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kuastr, kufast, kufastr (7 instances), [ku]()fast[r], [kufastr], ...fastr, the genitive form kufastaR, and the accusativeforms kufast, kufast, ku:fast, [kufast]. A short form of Gufastr is Gufi. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 344 s.n. Gu-; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. Gufastr, Gu-, -fastr, Gui, Guki, Fasti
Gufinnr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -finnr see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form kufins. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 344, 348 s.nn. Gu-, -finnr; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. Gufinnr, Gu-, -finnr, Gui, Guki
Gufrir, Gufrr, Gurr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -frir see above. Gufrr occurs as a legendary name in West Scandinavia, and there is one instance of a Gufrir, who was however German in origin. The name is common in Denmark, where it appears as Godefrid, which may represent a Continental German borrowing. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Godeuert. A short form of the names Gufrir, Gufrr or Gurr is Gyrr. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 110, 344, 348 s.n. Gufrir, Gu-, -frir; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. Gu-, Gui, Guki, Gyrr, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Gui Found in Old Danish as Guthi, in Old Swedish as Gudhi, and in OW.Norse as Gui. Gui is a short form of masculine names in Gu. Runic examples include the nominative forms kui, [ku-] and the accusative form kua. FJ p. 344 s.n. Gu-; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. Gu-, Gui
Guini See the discussion of this name above. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. GB p. 10 s.n. Guini; FJ p. 344 s.n. Gu-; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.n. Gowini, Gu-, Gui, Guki
GuiR This name is found in Old Danish as Guthir and in Old Swedish as Gudhir. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -vr or -vir see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form kuis. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ p. 352 s.n. Gu; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. GuiR, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -veR
Guki Found in Old Danish as Guthki. This name is a diminuitive of masculine names in Gu- with the -k- second element. Occurs in the runic nominative form kuki. FJ p. 352 s.n. Gu-; NR s.n. Guki, Gu-
Gulaugr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -laugr see above. Very common in Iceland from the time of the Settlement. Found fairly frequently in Norway. A few instances appear in Sweden as Gudhlgh. A possible Anglo-Scandinavian form of the name appears in the place-name Guldlagesarc. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. GB p. 10 s.n. Gulaugr; FJ pp. 110, 344, 350 s.nn. Gulaugr, Gu-, -laugr; CV pp. 207-208, 374 s.v. go and laug def. IV; NR s.nn. Gu-, Gui, Guki, -laugR
Guleifr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms |kulaifr, kulefR, the genitive form [kulifs] and the accusative forms kulaf, k(u)(l)(in)f. A short form of Guleifr is Gulli. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. GB p. 10 s.n. Guleifr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.n. Gu-, -leifr; CV pp. 207-208, 381 s.v. go, leif; NR s.nn. GulafR, GulifR, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -lifR/-lafR
Guleikr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -leikr or -lkr see above. Frequent in Norway after 1017. Found occasionally in Sweden and Denmark. A possible Anglo-Scandinavian form of the name appears in the place-name Guldlagesarc. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. GB p. 10 s.n. Guleikr; FJ pp. 110, 185-186, 344, 350 s.n. Guleikr, Gu-, -leikr, Leikr; CV pp. 207-208, 382-383 s.v. go, leika, leikr; NR s.nn. Gu-, Gui, Guki, -likR/-lakR
Gumrr This name is found in Old Danish as Guthmar, in Old Swedish as Gudhmar, and in OW.Norse as Gumarr. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -marr see above. Runic examples include the accusative forms kurmar, kufar, kumar, [kumar], ku-ar. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Gu-, -mrr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr; NR s.nn. Gumarr, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -marr
Gumr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -mr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kumur. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Gu-, -mr; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. Gumr, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -mr
Gumundr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. This name is specifically mentioned in Cleasby-Vigfusson as being pronounced with a gw sound in Iceland, as if it were Gwumundr, and there are abbreviated forms of this name, Gvendr and Gvndr. One of the most common Icelandic names from the 900s onwards. Appears frequently in Norway after 1300. Several instances are recorded in Swedish and Danish runic inscriptions. This name occurs in Old Danish as Guthmund, in Old Swedish as Gudhmund, and in OW.Norse as Gumundr. Runic examples include the nominative forms komontr, kumytr, kumund, kumuntr, |ku[muntr], [kumuntr], kumuntro, kumutr, kuusutr, the genitive forms kumutaR, kumu-r, and the accusative forms kumrt, kumunt, kumut, kuuMut, k-munt. A short form of Gumundr is Gummi. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gudmunt, Guthmund. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 10 s.n. Gumundr; FJ pp. 110-111, 344, 350 s.nn. Gumundr, Gu-, -mundr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 207-208, 437-438 s.v. go, mundr; NR s.nn. Gumundr, Gu-, -mundr, Gummi, Gui, Guki, Mundi
Gunitr Found in Old Swedish as Gudhniut and in OW.Norse as Gunitr. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -nitr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kuniutr. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ p. 344 s.n. Gu-; CV pp. 207-208, 456 s.v. go, njta; NR s.nn. Gunitr, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -nitr
Gurir, Gurr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. The second element -rir or -rr actually come from -frir, -frr (see above). Gurr was a popular name for Viking Age Norwegian kings and several Viking leaders. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. GB p. 10 s.n. Gurr; FJ pp. 111-112, 344, 348 s.n. Gurr, *Gurir, Gu-, -frir, -frr; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. Gu-, Gui, Guki
Gurkr This name is found in Old Danish as Guthrik, in Old Swedish as Gudhrik, and in OW.Norse as Gurkr. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms korik, kurikr, the genitive form [kuriks], and tha accusative forms kurik, kurikr, kusrik, --rik, ...(u)rik. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 343, 350 s.nn. Gu-, -rkr; CV pp. 207-208, 499 s.v. go, rkr; NR s.nn. GurkR, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -rkR
Gusteinn This name is found in Old Swedish as Gudhsten and in OW.Norse as Gusteinn. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative form kuisen and the accusative form [kustin]. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. Gu-, -steinn; CV pp. 207-208, 591 s.v. go, steinn; NR s.nn. Gustinn, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -stinn
Guormr, Guttormr For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. The second element is either -ormr, which is related to the verb yrma, "to protect, show respect to," or else comes from -ormr, which is identical with Old Icelandic ormr, "serpent, snake, dragon." Common in Norway from the earliest times. Occurs somewhat less frequently in Iceland. Also found in Sweden and Denmark. The first Danish King of East Anglia was named Guormr, usually anglicized as Godrum. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Godram, Goderam, Godran, Gutheramus, Gutherun, Gutherum, Guthrum. See also the discussion under Gormr, above. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. A diminuitive form of Guormr or Guttormr is Gutti. GB p. 10 s.nn. Guormr, Guttormr; FJ pp. 112, 343, 350, 351 s.nn. Guormr, Gu-, -ormr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 207-208, 468-469 s.v. go, ormr; NR s.n. GrmR, Gu-, -ormr, Gui, Guki
Guorn Guorn. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. The second element -orn is from the OW.Norse noun orn, "thorn, thorn-bush". Runic examples include the nominative forms [kuurn]. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ p. 343 s.n. Gu-; CV pp. 207-208, 742 s.v. go, orn; NR s.nn. Guorn, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -orn
Gulfr This name is found in Old Swedish as Gudholf and in OW.Norse as Gulfr. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form [kuulfR]. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 343, 351 s.nn. Gu-, -ulfr; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. GuulfR, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -ulfR
Guvarr Found in OW.Norse as Guvarr. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -varr see above. A few instances are recorded in Iceland. Occurs in the runic nominative form kuuar. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gutteworth. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 112, 344, 351 s.n. Guvarr, Gu-, -varr; CV pp. 207-208, 722 s.v. go, vrr; NR s.nn. Guvarr, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -varr
Guvarr Found in Old Swedish as Gudhvar. For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. The etymology of the second element, -varr, is unclear. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon states that a Viking Age Scandinavian masculine personal name element -varr is doubtful. One such could nevertheless be postulated, as a name derived from either Germanic *warn "to be vigilant" (OW.Norse adj. varr "vigilant") or Germanic *warjan "defend, protect" (compare with the second element -warjaR in proto-Scandinavian runic inscriptions) or both. An alternative is that -varr is derived through a slight change from a name such as Bvarr, Ingvarr or Svarr, where the -v- belongs to the first element. Additionally one alternative is that the interpretation of Runic Norwegian names in -varr results from a phonetic development of -varr. Runic examples of the name Guvarr include the nominative forms kuar, kuuar and the accusative form kufar. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 344, 351-352 s.nn. Gu-, -varr; CV pp. 207-208, 722 s.v. go, vrr; NR s.nn. Guvarr, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -varr
GuvR For the first element Gu- and its side-form Go- see above. For the second element -vr or -vir see above. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon interprets this name as originally being a compound "god-priest". Runic examples include the nominative forms [kusu]ir, kuuiR, the genitive form kuuis and the accusative form (k)u()ui. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 344, 352 s.nn. Gu-, -vr; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.nn. GuvR, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -vR
Gufi The name Gufi is found in Old Swedish as Guve or Gove, and represents a short form of the name Gufastr. Runic examples include the nominative form kufi (4 instances) and the accusative form kufa. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Guue, Goue. GB p. 10 s.n. Gufi; FJ pp. 113 s.n. Gufi; CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go; NR s.n. Gufi, Gufastr, Gu-, -fastr
Gufubeinn A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. Originally a by-name. The first element gufu- is related to either Old Icelandic gufa, "smoke, haze," or to Norwegian guva, "to cower, squat." The second element -beinn is identical to Old Icelandic bein, "bone, leg." Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Guuebein. FJ pp. 113, 348 s.n. *Gufubeinn, -beinn
Gulli This name, found in Old Swedish as Gulle or Golle, and in OW.Norse as Gulli, is a short form of Guleifr. Runic examples include the nominative forms kuli, kuhli and the accusative form kula. NR s.n. Gulli
GullifR The first element is actually Gu-, which sometimes loses the when combined with the second element (for Gu- and its side-form Go- see above). For the second element -leifr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kulaifr, kulefr, kulifr, ulaifr, the genitive form kulifs, and the accusative form kulaif. A short form of Guleifr is Gulli. A short form of names in Gu- is Guki or Gui. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.n. Gu-, -leifr; CV pp. 207-208, 381 s.v. go, leif; NR s.nn. GullifR, GulafR, GulifR, Gu-, Gui, Guki, -lifR/-lafR
Gummi Found in Old Danish and OW.Norse as Gummi, and in Old Swedish as Gumme. Gummi is a short form of Gumundr. Runic examples include the nominative forms |kumi, kum[in] and one in the accusative case form kum.... CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Gummi, Gumundr, Gu-, -mundr
Gunnarr This name is found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Gunnar, and in OW.Norse as Gunnarr. The first element Gunn- is derived from OW.Norse gunnr or gur, which in turn are from Primitive Scandinavian *guni-, which is derived from *guni-, "war, battle". For the second element -arr see above. Common in West Scandinavia from the Icelandic Settlement onwards. Common in Danish sources, including runic inscriptions. Found in Sweden. Runic examples include the nominative forms gunar, kuanr, kunar (27 instances), kunaR, (k)unor, the genitive forms kunas, kunars and the accusative forms kunar (15 instances), kunnr, kunor, ku(n)-r. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gunerus, Gunner, Guner, Gunnere, Gunre. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnarr; FJ pp. 113-114, 344, 348 s.nn. Gunnarr, Gunn-, -arr; CV p. 221 s.v. gunnr; NR s.nn. Gunnarr, Gunn-, Gunni, -gunnr, -arr
Gunnbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Gunbiorn and in OW.Norse as Gunnbjrn. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kunbiarn (4 instances), kunbirn, kunbiur, k(u)nbiurn, kunborn, the accusative forms kun:birn, kun:brn, and one in which the case is uncertain, -kun(b)(a).... A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnbjrn; FJ pp. 344, 348 s.n. Gunn-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 221 s.v. bjrn, gunnr; NR s.nn. Gunnbirn, Gunn-, Gunni, -birn, Biarni
GunndiarfR For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. Runic examples include the nominative form kuntiarfr and the accusative form kuntiarf. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ p. 344 s.n. Gunn-; CV pp. 100, 221 s.v. djarfr, gunnr; NR s.nn. GunndiarfR, Gunn-, Gunni, -diarfR
Gunnfarr This form likely represents a scribal error: see discussion under Gunnvarr. For the first element Gunn- see above. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnfarr; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Gunn-; CV pp. 221, 722 s.v. gunnr, vrr; NR s.nn. Gunnvarr, Gunn-, Gunni
Gunnfrr, Gunnfrir, Gunnrr For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -frr or -frir see above. Gunnrr is found in West Scandinavia from the Icelandic Settlement onwards. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gunford, Gouerd. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ pp. 114, 344, 348 s.nn. Gunnfrr, *Gunnfrir, Gunn-, -frir, -frr; CV p. 221 s.v. gunnr; NR s.nn. Gunn-, Gunni, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Gunnfss For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -fss see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form kunfus. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ p. 344 s.n. Gunn-; CV pp. 178-179, 221 s.v. fss, gunnr; NR s.nn. Gunnfss, Gunn-, Gunni, -fss
Gunnhvatr, Gunnhvati This name is found in Old Danish as Gunhwat, in Old Swedish as Gunhvat, and in OW.Norse as Gunnhvatr. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -hvatr or its weak side-form -hvati see above. One instance is found in Iceland in 1218. A few instances appear in Norway after 1431. A Danish source records the form Gunuuatr. The name is also recorded in Swedish, with the side-form appearing in the Swedish place-name Gunwatabothum. Runic examples include the nominative form kunuatr, the genitive form (k)unuata- and the accusative forms kunuat, [kunuat]. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gunnewate, Gonnewate, Gonneeate, Gunwat, Gunnewat. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnhvatr; FJ pp. 116, 344, 349 s.nn. Gunnhvatr, *Gunnhvati, Gunn-, -hvatr; CV pp. 221, 297 s.v. gunnr, hvatr; NR s.nn. Gunnhvatr, Gunn-, Gunni, Hvatr, -hvatr
Gunni This name, found in Old Danish and OW.Norse as Gunni and in Old Swedish as Gunne, is a short form of masculine names in Gunn-. For the first element Gunn- see above. Found in Norway from the early 1000s onward. A few instances appear in Iceland. Runic examples include the nominative forms [kuin], kuni (11 instances), kun[in], the genitive form kuna (4 instances), and the accusative forms kuna (12 instances), kuno. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gunne, Guue, Gune, Gunni, Gunny. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunni; FJ pp. 116-117, 344 s.nn. Gunni, Gunn-; CV p. 221 s.v. gunnr; NR s.nn. Gunni, Gunn-
Gunnketill, Gunnkell For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Not found in West Scandinavia. Recorded in Danish sources, for instance appearing in Latin as Gunkildus and in Old Danish appearing in the form Gunkil. Occurs in the runic nominative form kun(t)(k)el. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gonchel, Gunchil, Gonchetel. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ pp. 118, 344, 349 s.nn. Gunnketill, Gunn-, -ketill; CV pp. 221, 337-338 s.v. gunnr, ketill; NR s.nn. Gunnkll, Gunn-, Gunni, -k(ti)ll
Gunnlaugr For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -laugr see above. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. A diminuitive form of Gunnlaugr is Laugi. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnlaugr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Gunn-, -laugr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 221, 374 s.v. gunnr and laug def. IV; NR s.n. Gunn-, Gunni, -laugR
Gunnleifr This name is found in Old Danish as Gunlef and in OW.Norse as Gunnleifr. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kunlaifR, kunlifR and the accusative form kunlaif. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Gunn-, -leifr; CV p. 221, 381 s.v. gunnr, leif; NR s.n. GunnlifR, Gunn-, Gunni, -lifR/-lafR
Gunnmarr Found in OW.Norse as Gunnmarr. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -marr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [kunimar] or [kuni:mar]. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Gunn-, -mrr; CV pp. 221, 418, 443 s.v. gunnr, -mr, mrr; NR s.n. Gunnmarr, Gunn-, Gunni, -marr
Gunnmundr Found in Old Swedish as Gunmund and in OW.Norse as Gunnmundr. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form [kunmut]. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Gunn-, -mundr; CV pp. 221, 437-438 s.v. gunnr, mundr; NR s.n. Gunnmundr, Gunn-, Gunni, -mundr, Mundi
Gunnlfr Found in Old Danish as Gunnulf, in Old Swedish as Gunnolf, and in OW.Norse as Gunnlfr or Gunnlfr. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kunulfR, [kunulfR], the genitive forms kunulfs, kun(u)--s, and the accusative form kunulf. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnlfr; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.n. Gunn-, -ulfr; CV p. 221 s.v. gunnr; NR s.n. GunnulfR, Gunn, Gunni, -ulfR
GunnrifR For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -rifR see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kuntraifr. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ p. 344 s.n. Gunn-; CV pp. 221, 490 s.v. gunnr, reifr; NR s.n. GunnrifR, Gunn-, Gunni, -rifR
Gunnsteinn This name is found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as Gunsten, and occurs in OW.Norse as Gunnsteinn. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Found in the runic nominative form [k]u[n]sein. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnsteinn; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.n. Gunn-, -steinn; CV pp. 221, 591 s.v. gunnr, steinn; NR s.nn. Gunnstinn, Gunn-, Gunni, -stinn
Gunnvaldr Found in Old Danish as Gunwald, in Old Swedish as Gunvald, and in OW.Norse as Gunnvaldr. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms (k)hunaltr, khu[nal-](r), the genitive form kun'uAlts| and the accusative form kunuat. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. GB p. 10 s.n. Gunnvaldr; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.n. Gunn-, -valdr; CV pp. 221, 675 s.v. gunnr, valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Gunnvaldr, Gunn-, Gunni, -valdr
Gunnvarr For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -varr see above. This name is found in Old Danish as Gunward and in OW.Norse as Gunnvarr. West Scandinavian sources record this name for a foreign priest named Gvnnfardr and one instance in 1448, Gunnvardher. Danish has a single occurrence of Gunwerd, which may be a loan from Continental German Gunduard. Runic examples include the nominative forms kunua[r] and kunu[ar]. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gunneword, Gonword. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ pp. 118, 344, 351 s.n. Gunnvarr, Gunn-, -varr; CV pp. 221, 722 s.v. gunnr, vrr; NR s.n. Gunnvarr, Gunn-, Gunni, -varr
Gunnvarr The name Gunnvarr is known from runic evidence, which may instead represent the masculine name Gunnvarr or the feminine name Gunnvr. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -varr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kunua[r], kunu[ar] and the accusative form kunuar. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ pp. 344, 351-352 s.nn. Gunn-, -varr; CV pp. 221, 722 s.v. gunnr, vrr; NR s.nn. Gunnvarr, Gunn-, Gunni
Gunnvir This name occcurs in Old Swedish as Gunvidh. For the first element Gunn- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kunuir, kunur and the accusative form [kunu(in)]. A short form of names in Gunn- is Gunni. FJ pp. 344, 352 s.nn. Gunn-, -vir; CV pp. 221, 703-704 s.v. gunnr, vir; NR s.nn. Gunnvir, Gunn-, Gunni, -vir
Gusi Originally a by-name. Fellows-Jensen thinks that it is possibly related to Old Icelandic gusa, "to splash water about," or gusa, "short snow-storm," or the Danish dialect guse, "shiver," or Swedish dialect guse, "fool." Gusir appears as a fictional West Scandinavian character in ch. 3 of Ketils saga hngs, and also appears in place-names in Norway. Gusi appears as a by-name in Norway. Guse is found in Sweden as both a by-name and a personal name, and as a by-name in Denmark. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon says that this name is derived from a verb related to Nynorsk gusa "to groan, to sigh," which also may be related to OW.Norse gjsa "break from, stream out". The runic evidence is unclear, since the nominative form kusi may represent any of Gusi, Gussi, or Ksi. Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include Guse, Gusa, Gusse. FJ pp. 119 s.nn. Gusi, Gussi; NR s.nn. Gusi, Gussi, Ksi
Gussi Short form of names such as Gudhsten, Gudhsrk, Gunnsteinn. Gussi is found as a personal name in Sweden, with a single instance in Denmark as a by-name. It is found in Old Danish as Guzi and in Old Swedish as Guze or Gus(s)e. This name is a short form created by adding the second element -si to a name in Gu-. The runic evidence is unclear, since the nominative form kusi may represent any of Gusi, Gussi, or Ksi. Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include Guse, Gusa, Gusse. FJ pp. 119 s.nn. Gusi, Gussi; NR s.nn. Gusi, Gussi, Ksi
Goti, Guti Found in Old Danish as Goti and as the by-name Gute. Occurs in Old Swedish as Guti and as the by-names Gote, Gute. In OW.Norse, Goti is found as a by-name. From OW.Norse goti "Gtlander". Runic examples include the nominative forms kuti and [kuti] and the accusative forms kuta, [kuti]. NR s.n. Guti
GutiR Of uncertain etymology. Occurs in the runic genitive case form kutis. NR s.n. GutiR
Gutti Diminuitive form of Guormr, Guttormr or occasionally Gubrandr. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Gvendr, Gvndr Short form of Gumundr. CV pp. 207-208 s.v. go
GyingR Of uncertain etymology. Found in the runic genitive case form [kui(k)]s. Note: The Old Danish gything "man from Ginge" is found as a by-name, but is not related to this name. NR s.n. GyingR
Gi Of uncertain etymology, perhaps a formation from the feminine name Gya or Gyrr. Runic examples include the nominative forms ku, kui, ky. NR s.n. Gi
Glaugr For the second element -laugr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Glaugr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -laugr; CV pp. 374 s.v. laug def. IV; NR s.n. -laugR
Gylfi, GylfiR This name is found in OW.Norse as the fictional names Gylfi or GylfiR, best-known from "Gylfaginning" (The Deluding of Gylfi), a part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda. The name is derived from Germanic *gulb-, which is also found in OW.Norse gylfr, a poetical name for "stream, small river" and is derived from a root-word meaning "rippling sea which yells and roars". Fellows-Jensen thinks that the name is a short form of Gjalfvr. Occurs as a human name in the runic nominative form kiulfiR, in an inscription detailing various land and estates owned by Gylfir. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gilfit. FJ pp. 120 s.n. Gylfi; NR s.n. GylfiR
Gylli This name, of uncertain etymology, also occurs in Old Swedish as by-name Gylle. It may occur in the runic kiuli, however, the inscription may instead represent the name Kili. It has been suggested that Gylli may be a short form of Guleifr, and if this interpretation is correct, then the Old Swedish by-name is not related. NR s.n. Gylli, Kili, Gulifr
GylliR Occurs in OW.Norse as the mythological character name Gyllir. It is derived from the OW.Norse noun gull "gold" or the OW.Norse verb gjalla "one who makes a loud noise; to shriek." Occurs in the runic nominative form kyliR as the name of a human man in an inscription that reads, "Geirbjrn and Gyllir and Jgeirr and ... the stone raised in memory of Geirmundr, ... man." NR s.n. GylliR
Gyrr This name is found in Old Danish as Gyrth, in Old Swedish as Giordh, Giurdh, or Gyrdh, and in OW.Norse as Gyrr. It is formed as a contracted form of OW.Norse Gurr, which is derived from *GufriuR. Frequent in Norway after 1300. Found in Danish sources including runic inscriptions and possibly in some place-names. Also found in Sweden. Runic examples include the genitive form [guraR] and the accusative form (g)yr. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Girth, Gird, Guert, Guerd, Girz, Gerdus. GB p. 10 s.n. Gyrr; FJ pp. 120; NR s.nn. Gyrr, Gu-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Gyrgir   GB p. 10 s.n. Gyrgir
 
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Name Notes Source
Hbeinn A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. Here the first element H- is derived from Primitive Scandinavian *hauha, related to Old Icelandic hr, "high." For the second element -beinn see above. This name is related to numerous -beinn by-names, and to Hleggr. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Aben. FJ pp. 121, 344, 348 s.nn. *Hbeinn, H-, -beinn
Habi, Habbi Anglo-Scandinavian short form of names such as Hbjrn, Hbeinn, Hagbarr. A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation, but may represent instead Old English name forms such as *Habba, Heahneorht or Heardbeorht. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Habbe and place-names Habetun, Abbetune. FJ pp. 121 s.nn. *Habi, *Habbi
Haddr, Haddi Originally a by-name, "man with abundant hair." A few instances are found in Norway. The form Hadde is found in Denmark and Sweden. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Hadde. GB p. 10 s.n. Haddr; FJ pp. 121 s.nn. Haddr, Haddi
Hski Derived from an adjective related to the OW.Norse noun h "scorn, disgrace, insult," with a sense of "the surprised" or "the scornful." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form haska in an inscription which reads, "Freysteinn raised this stone in memory of Hski, his father." NR s.n. Hski
Hgwin Although this name is not documented in Old English, it may represent an English name. Runic examples include the nominative forms hik'uin. NR s.n. Hgwin
Hngr   GB p. 12 s.n. Hngr
Hra Found as both a name and a by-name in Old Swedish in the form Hra. Occurs in OW.Norse in the form Hra as a feminine name and as a masculine mythological name. From OW.Norse hra "grey-haired; elderly". It is definitely shown as a human masculine name in the runic inscriptions, for example: "Erinvardhr had this stone raised in memory of Heggi, his father and Hra, his (i.e. Heggi's) father, and Karl, his (i.e. Hra's) father and Hra, his father and Thegn, his father and in memory of these five forefathers." Runic examples include the accusative form heru, iru. NR s.n. Hra
Hringr Originally a by-name, "hoary one, white-haired man." One or two instances are found in West Scandinavia. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Henrithorp, Heringthorp, Heryngrodeyng. GB p. 12 s.n. Hringr; FJ pp. 147-148 s.n. Hringr
HttingR Derived from OW.Norse hattr, httr "hat, hood". Occurs in the runic nominative form hat(in)kr. NR s.n. HttingR
Hafgrmr The first element Haf- is identical with Old Icelandic haf, "sea." For the second element -grmr see above. A few instances are found in the Faroe Islands, one settler in Greenland and a few Icelanders. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Hauegrim. GB p. 10 s.n. Hafgrmr; FJ pp. 122, 344, 349 s.nn. Hafgrmr, Haf-, -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.n. -grmR
Haflii For the first element Haf- see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Haflii; FJ p. 344 s.n. Haf-
Hafljtr For the first element Haf- see above. For the second element -ljtr see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Hafljtr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Haf-, ljtr
Hafr Found in Old Swedish as Haver, occurs in OW.Norse as Hafr (also found as a by-name). Originally a by-name, derived from the OW.Norse noun hafr "buck, he-goat". Common in West Scandinavia as both a personal name and a by-name. May be found in some Danish place-names. Found in the runic genitive case form habrs. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Hauergate. GB p. 10 s.n. Hafr; FJ p. 121 s.n. Hafr; NR s.n. Hafr
Hafrsteinn For the first element Hafr- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Hafrsteinn; FJ pp. 121, 344, 351 s.nn. Hafr, Haf-, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. Hafr, -stinn
Hafrir, Hafrr For the first element Haf- see above. For the second element -rr see above. At times the second element -rr may represent a contacted form of -rir, which is also found as the OW.Norse name rir, from *unra-whaR (compare with the first element r- and the second element -vr) or perhaps *unra-iaR. Several researchers see this as a compound with an original meaning of "Thrr's priest". An alternative explanation is that *unra-iaR is created by the occurrence of a second element in -rr. In the secondary element, a weak inflected side-form seems to be how this compound developed. GB p. 10 s.nn. Hafrir, Hafrr; FJ pp. 121, 344, 347, 351 s.nn. Hafr, Haf-, r-, -rr; CV p. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. rr, -rr, -riR, riR
Hagbarr Found in Old Danish as Haghbarth, in Old Swedish as Haghbardh, and in OW.Norse as Hagbarr. Originally a German name (OH.German Hagupart, from *hag- "enclosed pasture" or the adjective *hag- "comfortable; capable" and *bar- "beard), imported early into Scandinavia with the saga of Hagbard and Signe. Runic examples include the nominative forms ahbar, iahbar. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Hacberd, Haberd, Agword. GB p. 10 s.n. Hagbarr; FJ p. 122 s.n. Hagbarr; NR s.n. Hagbarr
Hagni, Hgni Found in Old Danish as Haghni or Hoghni, found in Old Swedish as Haghne or Hghne, and found in OW.Norse as Hgni. Originally a German name (Old High German Hagano), Derived from *Hagan-, *Hagun- (from *hag- "enclosed pasture"); or may be "protect, defend." This name was imported early into Scandinavia with the Hjaning sagas. Occurs in the runic nominative form hkni. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Haghne, Hagne, Hangen, Hagen. FJ pp. 122 s.nn. Hagni, Hgni; NR s.n. Hagni
Hagnvir The first element Hagn- may be related to Hagni. For the suffix -vir see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form haknuir. FJ p. 352 s.n. -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Hagnvir, Hagn-, -vir
Hagsteinn The first element Hag- is, despite the presence of the imported name Hagbarr, unknown in the Viking Age materials but occurs in domestic names in Old Swedish. For the second element -steinn see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form hakstain. FJ p. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Hagstinn, Hgstinn
Haki Found in Old Danish as the personal name Haki and as a by-name, Hake. Found in OW.Norse as Haki, both as a personal name and as a by-name. Occurs in Old Swedish as the by-name Hake. From the OW.Norse noun *haki "hook," although the Old Danish by-name may be derived from Old Danish *haka, "chin." Appears frequently in legendary history. Occurs as a personal name and as a by-name in Norway. In Denmark mainly found in South Jutland from the end of the 15th century, but also as a place-name in some early Danish sources. Occurs in Swedish runic inscriptions as a personal name. Some forms may represent a short form of Hkon. Occurs in the runic nominative form ha(k)-. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Hake, Haket, Hacat, Hachet, Haget. GB p. 10 s.n. Haki; FJ pp. 123-124 s.n. Haki; NR s.n. Haki
Hakikarl A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from Haki and the second element -karl (see above). Found in the name Richard Hacekarl. FJ pp. 123-124 s.nn. Haki, *Hakikarl
HaklangR This name is found in Old Danish as Haklang, and occurs in OW.Norse as the name of a fictional character, Haklangr, in ch. 19 of Haraldar saga hrfagra, as well as being found as a by-name. The etymology of this name is uncertain. It is interpreted as "tall and hare-lipped person," but may also be related to hak "to score, to cut." Whether the first element in this name is from hak or a stem in haka, "chin," is uncertain. Runic examples include the genitive form haklaks (found as a by-name), and in the accusative case form h(k)(l)ak. NR s.n. HaklangR
Hkon Found in Old Danish as Hakun, occurs in Old Swedish as either Hakon or Hakan, and found in OW.Norse as Hkon. The first element H- comes from one of three possible origins: the first is Primitive Germanic *hanha< Primitive Scandinavian*hanhista, "horse", related to Old Icelandic hestr; the second is Primitive Scandinavian *hauha, related to Old Icelandic hr, "high"; the third is Primitive Scandinavian *hau, related to Old Icelandic h, "battle". It is almost impossible to determine which of these three elements is present in any given name with the H- first element. The second element is probably from -konr, "son, descendant", or may be from <-kyn, related to Old Norse kyn, "kin". The name Hkon is rare in Iceland, but very common in Norway after 1000. This name is common in Danish and Swedish sources. Runic examples include the nominative forms akhun, a[k]un, [akun], hakun (6 instances), haku(n), hakuno, hkun, hokun, the genitive case forms hakunar, hakunaR, hkunaR, and the accusative forms [akun], hakun. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Hacon, Hacun. GB p. 11 s.n. Hkon; FJ pp. 124-126, 344 s.nn. Hkon, H-; NR s.n. Hkon, H-
Hkr Originally a by-name meaning "a kind of fish." Occurs occasionally as a fictional name and as a by-name in West Scandinavia. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Ach, Hax, Hac. FJ p. 123 s.n. Hkr
Hleygr Man from Hlogaland. GB p. 11 s.n. Hleygr
Halfburinn From *halfburinn "half-born", in the sense of "(give birth to) a half-brother." Runic examples include the nominative forms halburin, halfburin. NR s.n. Halfburinn
Hlfdan, Halfdan Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Halfdan, and in OW.Norse as Hlfdan. From OW.Norse *halfdanr "half-Danish, one who has a Danish mother or father." Runic examples include the nominative forms alfnthan, alfton, althrn, halfntan, halftan (10 instances), ha(l)ftan, [halft-], hal(t)an, [haltan], haltin, [hefton], ...ftan, [...lfton], --ltan, the genitive forms halfanar, half..., halt..., hlftahaR, and the accusative forms alfntan, haftan, halftan (7 instances), hal(f)tan, [halfti...], haltan, halton, [hlftain], hlftan, [hlftan], hltan. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Aldene, Alden, Aldean, Aldan, Haldan, Halden, Haldanus, Haldein, Haldeng, Haltein, Haltain, Altain, Halfdene, Hautayn, Hauteyn. GB p. 11 s.n. Hlfdan; FJ pp. 126-129 s.n. Halfdan; NR s.n. Halfdan
Hlfgeirr For the first element Hlf- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hlfgeirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Hlfr See Hlf- above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hlfr
Hallar The first element Hall- is identical to OW.Norse hallr "(flat) stone, slab." For the second element, -ar, see above. GB p. 10 s.n. Hallar; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Hall-; CV pp. 235 s.v. hallr; NR s.nn. Hallr, Hall-, -ar
Hallbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Halbiorn and in OW.Norse as Hallbjrn. For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Frequent in early period Norway, becoming popular again in the 1300's. Not recorded in Denmark, but found in Sweden. Runic examples include the nominative forms halburin and hilbiarn. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Halbtoft, Habirtoft, Halbertoft. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 10 s.n. Hallbjrn; FJ pp. 129, 344, 348 s.nn. Hallbjrn, Hall-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 235 s.v. bjrn, hallr; NR s.nn. Hallbirn, Hallr, Hall-, -birn, Biarni
Halldrr, Hallrr For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -rr see above. A common name in Norway and Iceland. Also found in Sweden, but rare in Denmark. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Haltor, Altor, Heltor, Eltor, Althor, Halthor. GB p. 10 s.n. Halldrr; FJ pp. 129, 344, 347, 351 s.nn. Halldrr, Hall-, r-, -rr; CV pp. 235, 743 s.v. hallr, rr; NR s.nn. Hallr, Hall-
Hallfrer, Hallfrr Found in Old Swedish as Halffred and in OW.Norse as Hallfrr. For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -frr see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form halfr.... GB p. 10-11 s.nn. Hallfrer, Hallfrr; FJ pp. 344, 348 s.n. Hall-, -frr; CV pp. 235 s.v. hallr; NR s.nn. Hallfrr, Hallfrr, Hallr, Hall-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Hallgeirr Found in OW.Norse as Hallgeirr. For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form hlkaiR. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallgeirr; FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Hall-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 235 s.v. geirr, hallr; NR s.nn. HallgiRR, Hallr, Hall-, GiRR, GiR-, -giRR
Hallgils For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallgils; FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Hall-, -gsl; CV pp. 196, 235 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, hallr; NR s.nn. Hallr, Hall-, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
Hallgrmr For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallgrmr; FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Hall-, -grmr; CV pp. 216, 235 s.v. grma, hallr; NR s.n. Hallr, Hall-, -grmR
Halli This name is a diminuitive form of Hallr. For the first element Hall- see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Halli; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Hall-; CV pp. 235 s.v. hallr; NR s.n. HallR, Hall-
Hallkell For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallkell; FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Hall-, -ketill; CV pp. 235, 337-338 s.v. hallr, ketill; NR s.n. Hallr, Hall-, -k(ti)ll
Hallmundr For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Hall-, -mundr; CV pp. 235, 438-438 s.v. hallr, mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Hallr, Hall-, -mundr, Mundi
Hallormr For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -ormr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallormr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Hall-, -ormr; CV pp. 235, 468-469 s.v. hallr, ormr; NR s.nn. Hallr, Hall-, OrmR
Hallr The name Hallr is found in OW.Norse both as a personal name and as a by-name. From OW.Norse hallr "(flat) stone, slab". Occurs in the runic accusative form al. A diminuitive form of this name is Halli. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallr; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Hall-; CV p. 235 s.v. hallr
Hallsteinn Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Halsten, occurs in OW.Norse as Hallsteinn. For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms alsten, [halstain], halstun. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallsteinn; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.nn. Hall-, -steinn; CV pp. 235, 591 s.v. hallr, steinn; NR s.nn. Hallstinn, Hallr, Hall-, -stinn
Hallvarr Found in Old Danish as Halwarth, in Old Swedish as Halvardh, and in OW.Norse as Hallvarr. For the first element Hall- see above. For the second element -varr see above. Very common in Norway, though less so in Iceland. Frequent in the Halland area of Sweden. Runic examples include the nominative form hal(u)arr and the accusative form aluar. Anglo-Scandinavian forms of the name may include the place-name Alwariding and the personal names Hlwr, Aluuard, although these may be derived from the Old English names Alweard, lfweard, elweard, etc. GB p. 11 s.n. Hallvarr; FJ pp. 129-130, 344, 351 s.nn. Hallvarr, Hall-, -varr; CV pp. 235, 722 s.v. hallr, vrr; NR s.nn. Hallvarr, Hallr, Hall-, -varr
Halmi Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic hlmr, "straw". Borne by the father of one of the Landnmsmenn, as well as a few others in Iceland. FJ pp. 130 s.n. Halmi
Hls Found in Old Danish as Hals (also found as a by-name), in OW.Norse as Hls (also found as a by-name), and in Old Swedish as the by-name Hals. From OW.Norse hals "neck". Runic examples include the nominative form hals and the accusative form hals. GB p. 11 s.n. Hls; NR s.n. Hals
Halti Originally a by-name. Fairly common as a personal name in Iceland and found occasionally in Norway as well. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Halte, Malte, and the place-name Haltecroftes. FJ pp. 130 s.n. Halti
Hamall A few instances occur in West Scandinavia in the early 1000's. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Hamethwayt, Hamelswaith, Hamestheieth. GB pp. 11 s.n. Hamall; FJ p. 130 s.n. Hamall
Hamarr Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic hamarr, used for both "hammer" and also in place-names describing a hammer-shaped crag or steep rock. Occurs a few times in West Scandinavia as a by-name. There are a few late occurrences of the name in Denmark, and it may possibly occur in the earlier Danish place-name Hammerstrup or Hammarsorp, though this may also refer to the worship of the god rr. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place name Toft Hameri. FJ p. 130-131 s.n. Hamarr
Hamr A name assumed by the hero Helgi Hlfdanarson in Hrlfs saga kraka ok kappa hans. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Hamethwayt, Hamelswaith, and Hamestheieth, or these may derive instead from Hamall. FJ p. 130 s.n. Hamr
Hmundi, Hmundr The first element H- here derives either from Primitive Germanic *hanha, "horse", or from Primitive Scandinavian *hauha, related to Old Icelandic hr, "high". For the second element -mundr or the weak side-form -mundi see above. Hmundr is found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Hamund and in OW.Norse as Hmundr. Hmundr occurs in West Scandinavia from the time of the settlement of Iceland, and remained popular in Iceland though it became less-used in Norway, and was also found in Denmark, and fairly frequent in Sweden. Runic examples of Hmundi include the nominative form hamunti and the accusative form hamnta. Hmundr occurs in the runic nominative form hamunr. Hmundr may occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Hamund, Hammund, Hamond. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB pp. 11 s.n. Hmundr; FJ pp. 131-132, 344, 350 s.nn. Hmundr, H-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Hmundi, Hmundr, H-, -mundr, Mundi
Handi Originally a by-name, "with deformed hands". occurs once in Iceland in 1222, and perhaps in some West Scandinavian place-names. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Handebek, Handtoftgate, Handebec. FJ pp. 132 s.n. Handi
Hand Found in Old Swedish as by-name Hand. From OW.Norse noun hnd "hand". Runic examples include the nominative form hont and as by-names in the genitive forms hantaR, han[t]aR. NR s.n. Hand
Hnefr Originally a by-name. The first element H- here may derive either from Primitive Germanic *hanha, "horse", or from Primitive Scandinavian *hauha, related to Old Icelandic hr, "high". GB pp. 11 s.n. Hnefr; FJ pp. 344 s.n. H-; NR s.n. H-
Hani Found in Old Danish as Hani (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as the by-name Hane, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Hani. From OW.Norse hani "cock". Occurs in the runic nominative form hani. NR s.n. Hani
Hr The OW.Norse name Hr appears in the mythology as an alias of the god inn. From the OW.Norse adjective hr, hr, hr, which derived from *hauhaR, "high". Occurs in the runic nominative form HauR. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon classes this among human names. NR s.n. HR
Haraldr, Harvaldr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Harald, and in OW.Norse as Haraldr. The first element Har- or Her- comes from *harja and is related to Old Icelandic herr, "army, military force," derived from Germanic *harjaz. The side-form Har- occurs before non-palatal vowels. For the second element -valdr see above. The name probably was borrowed into Danish from the Continental Germanic area, and was borrowed from there by the Norwegian royal house. The name became popular in Norway in the 1200's. Also common in Sweden and Denmark. A single early instance occurs in Normandy as Haralt. The absent sound in the first element may be explained by the name being brought into Scandinavia after the i-sound period. Runic examples include the nominative forms aratr, haraltr, haralt(r), [haralt(R)], the genitive forms harals, harats, hrhls and the accusative forms haralt, [haralt]. Related to Old English Hereweald. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Harold, Harald, Herold, Arald. GB pp. 11 s.n. Haraldr; FJ pp. 132-134, 351 s.nn. Haraldr, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Haraldr, Har-, Hr(in)-, -valdr
Harnni The first element Har- is from the OW.Norse adjective hrr "hard, strong". Perhaps compounded with OW.Norse enni "forehead": "one who has a hard forehead". Occurs in the runic accusative case form [harin(a)]. NR s.nn. Harnni, Har-
Harakntr For the first element Har- see above. Found in Denmark as a king's name. The Anglo-Scandinavian form appears as Hardecnut. FJ pp. 134 s.n. Harakntr; NR s.n. Har-
Harbeinn For the first element Har- see above. For the second element -beinn see above. GB pp. 11 s.n. Harbeinn; FJ pp. 348 s.n. -beinn; NR s.n. Har-
Hargeirr For the first element Har- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form [arkaiR]. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. HargiRR, Har-, -giRR
Hargrpr Originally a by-name, "firm grasp." For the first element Har- see above. Occurs in the mythological sources in West Scandinavia and as the by-name hargreipi. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian form Ardegrip. FJ pp. 134 s.n. Hargrpr; NR s.n. Har-
Hari Found in Old Swedish as Hardhe (also found as a by-name), in Old Danish as by-name Harthe, and in OW.Norse as the by-name of a fictional character, Hari. From the OW.Norse adjective hrr "hard, strong". Occurs in the runic nominative form hari. NR s.nn. Hari, Har-
Harnefr For the first element Har- see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Harnefr; NR s.n. Har-
Harr, Hrr Found both as a name and by-name, including Old Danish Harth, Old Swedish Hardh, and OW.Norse Hrr. From the OW.Norse adjective hrr "hard, strong." OW.Norse Hrr is interpreted as "man from Hordaland". Runic examples include the nominative form [hruR], the genitive forms harar, [hariR] and the accusative form har. NR s.nn. Harr, Har-
Harsteinn May occur in Old Danish as Horsten. Found both as a name and as a by-name in Old Swedish in the form Hardhsten, though it is thought that the by-name is not identical to the personal name. For the first element Har- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms arsten, hartstain. FJ p. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Harstinn, Har-, -stinn
Hrekr For the first element H- see above. For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrekr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. H-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Hri Originally a by-name related to hrr, "gray-haired, hoary", or may derive from an Old Danish and Swedish by-name hare, "hare, rabbit". A few early instances are found in West Scandinavia. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Harebi, Harehou, Haretoft, or these may derive instead from Old English hr, "a heap of stones". FJ pp. 134-135 s.n. Hri
Harmsorgi The derivation of this name is uncertain. May be derived from an OW.Norse compound *harmsorg, from harmr "sorrow, grief" and sorg "sorrow, grief". Occurs in the runic accusative form [haramsrka]. NR s.n. Harmsorgi
Harri   GB pp. 11 s.n. Harri
HrukR Found in Old Swedish as Harok. May be related to OW.Norse Hrekr, Found in Old Danish as Harek. In this case the first element is from H- and the second element comes from -rkR (For the suffix -rkr or -rekr see above.) or *-hruk- (from the stem *hreuk-, *hrauk-, *hruk- "small pile, stack, hill" etc., ordinarily found in place-names). It is also conceivable that this name originates in the compound *hhrukR. Runic examples include the genitive form haruks and the accusative form haruk. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. H-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. HrukR, RkR, -rkR
Hsteinn Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Hasten, and in OW.Norse as Hsteinn. Here the first element H- is probably derived from *hauha, related to Old Icelandic hr, "high", but also see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Found in Norway and Iceland during the Viking Age, occurs later in Denmark and Sweden. Runic examples include the nominative form hastain and the accusative forms hastain, hastin. Recorded as Hastenchus in Normandy. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Hestynschate. GB pp. 11 s.n. Hsteinn; FJ pp. 134-135, 344, 351 s.nn. Hsteinn, H-, -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Hstinn, H-, -stinn
Hattr Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic httr, hattr, "hat, hood". The form Httr occurs in West Scandinavian fictional sources, for example in ch. 33 of Hrlfs saga kraka ok kappa hans, and as the Norwegian by-name Hattr. Found also in Sweden and Denmark. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Hatterberga and Haterwic. FJ pp. 135
Haukr Originally a by-name from OW.Norse haukr "hawk". Common as a personal name in West Scandinavia, especially in Iceland, where it also occurs as a by-name. Found in Old Swedish and Old Danish as both a personal name and as a by-name in the form Hk. Occurs in OW.Norse as Haukr, where it also is found as both a personal name and as a by-name. Runic examples include the nominative forms [hauk|], haukR, [hauk-], hukR. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Houcbyg, Hokeswra, Houcheswell, Hochesuuic, Houkeswic, Haukeswic, Haukesgard, Haukescou, Houkeshill, Haukscrode, and the names Hoc, Haukerin, though these may instead be derived from Old English hafoc, "hawk" as either a by-name, a personal-name, or the animal name. GB pp. 11 s.n. Haukr; FJ pp. 135-136 s.n. Haukr; NR s.n. Haukr
Haukreii A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation, from a by-name, "ready as a hawk." Found in the place-name Haukeraytheker. FJ pp. 135-136 s.nn. Haukr, *Haukreii; NR s.n. Haukr
Hulfr, Hlfr Here the first element H- is probably derived from either *hanha, related to Old Icelandic hestr, "horse" or from *hauha, related to Old Icelandic hr, "high", but also see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Also found in OW.Norse in the form Hlfr (a fictional character, for example in Hlfs saga og Hlfsrekka or in Norna-Gests ttr ch. 2). Occurs in the runic accusative form haulf. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Holfdale, and in the name Haulf. FJ pp. 136, 344, 347, 351 s.nn. Hulfr, H-, -ulfr; NR s.nn. HulfR/HlfR, H-, -ulfR
Haurr From Primitive Scandinavian *haburaR "buck, he-goat." Runic examples include the nominative form haur and the accusative form haur. NR s.n. Haurr
Haursi Found in Old Swedish as Hsse. From Primitive Scandinavian *haburaR "buck, he-goat" plus the diminuitive suffix -si. Runic examples include the nominative form haursi and the accusative forms aursa, haursa, mursa. NR s.nn. Haurr, Haursi
Hvarr Found in Old Danish as Hawarth, in Old Swedish as Havardh, and in OW.Norse as Hvarr. Here the first element H- is probably derived from either *hauha, related to Old Icelandic hr, "high" or from *hau, related to Old Icelandic h, "battle", but also see above. For the second element -varr see above. Found in Iceland at the time of the Settlement and common in Norway from 1200 onwards. Also found in Sweden and Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative forms auarR, hu(a)r(r) and on example in which the case is uncertain as auar. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Howard, Haward, Hawar, Hauuard, Hauuart and the place-names Awartorp, Hawardeshou Wapentac, Hawardebi, Hawardabi, Houwardmar. GB pp. 11 s.n. Hvarr; FJ pp. 136-137, 344, 351 s.nn. Hvarr, H-, -varr; CV p. 722 s.v. vrr; NR s.nn. Hvarr, H-, -varr
Hvarr For the first element H- see above. For the second element -varr see above. GB pp. 11 s.n. Hvarr; FJ pp. 344, 348 s.n. H-, -varr; NR s.n. H-, -varr
Heinn The name-elements Hein-, -heinn and the single-element name Heinn are of disputed derivation. The name may have come into Scandinavia as a Continental Germanic loan from the Hjaninga saga, related to Continental German Hetan. There is a discrepancy in pronunciation between medieval West Scandinavian forms (Hein-, -heinn) and medieval East Scandinavian forms (Hiin-, -hiinn). The OW.Norse form with /e/ is assumed to have been formed along the pattern of OW.Norse heinn "fur, pelt," but the discrepancy between the East Scandinavian /i/ and the West Scandinavian /e/ may also be explained as a change according to normal phonetic priciples. The Viking Age runic examples seems to occur both as /i/ and /e/. Common in Norway, especially during the Viking Age and common in Iceland. Occasionally found in Sweden and Denmark as well. Runic examples include the nominative forms [hain], hein, (h)ii(n), and the accusative forms hiin, iin. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Edeshale, Heensale, Hednesleya, Hedinslaie. GB pp. 11 s.n. Heinn; FJ pp. 137 s.n. Heinn; NR s.nn. Hein-/Hiin-, -heinn/-hiinn, Heinn/Hiinn
Heinbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Hidhinbiorn. For the first element Hein- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative form [hiibiarn] and the accusative form hiinbiurn. FJ pp. 137, 348 s.n. Heinn, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Hein-/Hiinbirn, Hein-/Hiin-, -birn
Heinfastr Found in Old Swedish as Hidhinvast. For the first element Hein- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case forms heinfast, hiinfast. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 137 s.n. Heinn; CV p. 145 s.v. fastr; NR s.nn. Hein-/Hiinfastr, Hein-/Hiin-, -fastr, Fasti
Heingeirr For the first element Hein- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms hiinkair, hiinka... FJ pp. 137, 349 s.nn. Heinn, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. Hein-/HiingiRR, Hein-/Hiin-, -giRR
Hefnir Compare with Old Danish as Hefni, Old Swedish Hmne. From OW.Norse hefnir "avenger, heir, son." Runic examples include the nominative forms hafnir and the accusative form hefni. NR s.n. HfniR
Hegbjrn The first element, Heg- is from the OW.Norse noun heggr "bird-cherry tree (Prunus padus)" (derived from Germanic *hazjaz). When this word appears as an element in a personal name, *Hazj(a)-, has a /j/ pronunciation and the other ordinary changes such as /z/ becomes /gg/. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative forms hakbiarn. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Hgbirn, Hg-, -birn
Heggi, Hggi Found in Old Danish as Heggi (also found as a by-name), and in Old Swedish as Hgge. This is either a name derived from OW.Norse heggr "bird-cherry tree (Prunus padus)" or else it is a short form of masculine names in Heg-. Occurs in the runic accusative form heka. NR s.n. Hggi
Heggr, Hekkr Originally a by-name, from OW.Norse heggr "bird-cherry tree (Prunus padus)". Found by the time of the Settlement of Iceland in West Scandinavia as a personal name and as a by-name. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Estorp, Hexthorpe, Hextorp. GB p. 11 s.n. Heggr; FJ pp. 137
Hegsteinn For the first element Heg-above. For the second element -steinn see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form hakstain. CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Hgstinn, Hg-, -stinn
Heglfr Found in Old Swedish as Hgholf. For the first element Heg-above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form higulfr. NR s.nn. HgulfR, Hg-, -ulfR
Hegvaldr Found in Old Swedish as Hghvald. For the first element Heg-above. For the second element -valdr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form hegualtr. CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Hgvaldr, Hg-, -valdr
Hegvir Found in Old Swedish as Hghvidh. For the first element Heg-above. For the suffix -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms hahuRr, hikuir and the accusative forms ehui, heui. CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Hgvir, Hg-, -vir
Heirekr The first element Hei- is identical to Old Icelandic heir, "heath". For the second element -rekr see above. FJ pp. 350; CV pp. 247, 499 s.v. heir, rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Heilfss The first element Heil- is from the OW.Norse noun heill "happiness, luck" or the OW.Norse adjective heill "happy, lucky". For the second element -fss see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form [hair:-os]. CV pp. 178-179 s.v. fss; NR s.nn. Hilfss, Hil-, -fss
Heilgeirr Found in Old Swedish as Helger. For the first element Heil- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form hilkaiR and the accusative form hailkaiR. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. HilgiRR, Hil-, -giRR
Heimkell Found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as Henkil. The first element Heim- is from the OW.Norse noun heimr "home." For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Runic examples include the nominative form [emki...], the genitive form emkels and the accusative form hemkil. FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. Himkll, Him-, -k(ti)ll
Heinrekr For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Heinrekr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Helf Found in Old Danish as Helf and in Old Swedish as Hlf. Contracted form of Herjlfr or OW.Norse Herleifr. Occurs in the runic nominative form [hilf]. NR s.n. HlfR
Helgi Found both as a personal name and as a by-name: in Old Danish as Helghi, in Old Swedish as Hlghe, and in OW.Norse as Helgi. From the OW.Norse adjective heilagr "holy", which during heathen times also had the sense of "dedicated to the gods." Common throughout Scandinavia in the medieval period, with some instances recorded in Normandy as well. Runic examples include the nominative forms ehlhi, hailki, halgi, halki, [halki], helgi, heli, helki, (h)ilhi, the genitive form halka, and the accusative forms [ailki], hailka, helga, helka, [helka], hilha, ilka. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Helghetorp, Ellethorp, Elgthorp, Elgendon, Elgedon, Helgeton, Helguic, Heluuic, Hlgefeld, Helgefeld. GB p. 11 s.n. Helgi; FJ pp. 138; CV pp. 254-255 s.v. Helgi, helga; NR s.n. Hlgi
Helgulfr The first element Helg- is from the OW.Norse adjective heilagr "holy," during heathen times "dedicated to the gods." For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms ailkulfR, helgulfR, hikkulfr, hilguflr. NR s.n. HlgulfR, Hlg-, -ulfR
Hella From OW.Norse hella f. "flat stone". Occurs as a personal masculine name in the runic nominative form hala in an inscription reading, "<hala>, <litu>'s son, raised this stone in memory of sulfr/sleifr, his brother." NR s.n. Hlla
Helmingr   GB p. 11 s.n. Helmingr
Hemingr, Hemmingr This name is found in Old Danish as Heming, in Old Swedish as Hming, and in OW.Norse as Hemingr. Of disputed derivation. Sources often give the meaning of this name as being identical to OW.Norse hemingr "skin from the back foot of a beast" (used in judicial ceremonies). This explanation nevertheless relies upon the assumption that this word is derived from OW.Norse hamr. "form, shape". This name could be assumed to be a a loan from Continental Germanic Haming, but Nordiskt runnamnslexikon says that this would be unlikely. Runic examples include the nominative forms emigr, emikr, eminkr, hemik, [hemik], heminkr, henmikr, henminkr, himikr, [himikr], himinkr, hominkr, and the accusative forms emink, himik, -emik. Frequent in West Scandinavia after 1300. GB p. 11 s.n. Hemingr; FJ pp. 138-139 s.n. Hem(m)ingr; NR s.n. HmingR
Herbjrn Found in Old Danish as Herbiorn, in Old Swedishas Hrbiorn, and in OW.Norse as Herbjrn. For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative form hirbiarn and the accusative form herbiurn. FJ pp. 344 s.n. Her-; CV pp. 66, 258 s.v. bjrn, herr; NR s.nn. Hrbirn, Hr-, -birn
Herburt For the first element Her- see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Herburt; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Her-; CV pp. 258 s.v. herr; NR s.n. Hr-
Herfir For the first element Her- see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Herfir; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Her-; CV pp. 258 s.v. herr; NR s.nn. Hr-, Finnr/Fir
Herfinnr For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -finnr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Herfinnr; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Her-; CV pp. 258 s.v. herr; NR s.nn. Hr-, Finnr/Fir, -finnr
Hergeirr For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. A few instances are recorded in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Herigerbi. FJ pp. 139, 344, 349 s.nn. Hergeirr, Her-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 258 s.v. geirr, herr; NR s.nn. Hr-, -giRR
Hergils For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 11 s.n. Hergils; FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Her-, -gsl; CV pp. 196, 258 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, herr; NR s.nn. Hr-, Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
Hergrmr For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hergrmr; FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Her-, -grmr; CV pp. 216, 258 s.v. grma, herr; NR s.nn. Hr-, -grmR
Herjarr For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -arr see above. Occurs in the nominative forms hiriaR, hiri...R, though the inscriptions in which they occur do not make it absolutely clear that these are personal names. For example: "Geirfastr and and Hrafn and Folkbjrn and rir had the stones erected in memory of Geiri, their father. May God help his spirit. smundr carved and ." FJ pp. 344 s.n. Her-; CV pp. 258 s.v. herr; NR s.nm. Hriarr, Hr-, -arr
Herkingr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from a by-name related to the verb herkja "to drag oneself along" and Old Icelandic herki, "lazy person". May occur in the place-names Hergyncrofte, Hargingcrofte, Harkincrofte. FJ pp. 139
Herjlfr, Herilfr Found in Old Danish as Herulf, in Old Swedish as Hriolf, and in OW.Norse as Herjlfr. For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. Helf may represent a contracted form of this name. Runic examples include the nominative forms hairulfR, heriulfR, he(r)lfR, the genitive forms Hari(w)ulfs, Hari()ulfs, and the accusative forms hariulf, [hk]rulf. GB p. 11 s.n. Herjlfr; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.nn. Her-, -ulfr; CV pp. 258, 668 s.v. herr, lfr; NR s.nn. Hr(in)ulfR, Hr-, HlfR, -ulfR
Herlaugr Found in Old Danish as Herlugh, in Old Swedish as Hrlgh, and in OW.Norse as Herlaugr. For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -laugr see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form herluks. GB p. 11 s.n. Herlaugr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.n. Her-, -laugr; CV pp. 258, 374 s.v. herr, laug def. IV; NR s.nn. HrlaugR, Hr-, -laugR
Herleifr For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Fairly common in Norway after 1300.Found in Denmark. Occurs in Sweden, including the runic isncription harlaif. May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Herleustorp, Helestorp, Herlethorpe. Helf may represent a contracted form of this name. FJ pp. 139-140, 344, 350 s.nn. Herleifr, Her-, -leifr; CV pp. 258, 381 s.v. herr, leif; NR s.n. Hr-, -lifR, HlfR
Hermr Found in Old Danish as Hermoth, in Old Swedish as Hrmodh, and in OW.Norse as Hermr. For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -mr see above. Several instances are found in Norway, but none in Iceland. Found also in Sweden and Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative forms hermor, hermur and the accusative form [hrmu]. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Her-, -mr; CV pp. 258 s.v. herr; NR s.nn. Hrmr, Hr-, -mr
Hermundr For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 11 s.n. Hermundr; FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Her-, -mundr; CV pp. 258, 437-438 s.v. herr, mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Hr-, -mundr, Mundi
Herrr, Herfrir Found in OW.Norse as Herrr. May occur in Old Danish as Hereth. For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -frir or -frr see above. Herfrir occurs in the runic nominative form (h)[a]rfri[r], while Herrr is found in the runic nominative form herur. GB p. 11 s.n. Herrr; FJ pp. 344, 348 s.nn. Her-, -frr; CV pp. 258 s.v. herr; NR s.nn. Hrfrer, Hrrr, Hr-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Hersir Found in Old Swedish as the personal name Hrse(r) and as the by-name Hrse, occurs in OW.Norse as Hersir. From OW.Norse hersir "(district) chieftain, lord." Occurs in the runic nominative form [harsR]. NR s.n. HrsiR
Hersteinn For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hersteinn; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.nn. Her-, -steinn; CV pp. 258, 591 s.v. herr, steinn; NR s.nn. Hr-, -stinn
Hervarr Found in Old Danish as Herwarth, in Old Swedish as Hrvardh, and in OW.Norse as Hervarr. For the first element Her- see above. For the second element -varr see above. Found frequently in West Scandinavian mythology, and is recorded as a human name in 1483. Found in the Swedish runic nominative case form (h)a(r)(u)arr, and possibly in the Latinized Danish form Herewardus. GB p. 11 s.n. Hervarr; FJ pp. 344, 351 s.n. Her-, -varr; CV pp. 258, 722 s.v. herr, vrr; NR s.nn. Hrvarr, Hr-, -varr
Hervi   GB p. 11 s.n. Hervi
Hildibjrn The first element Hildi- or Hild- (used before a vowel) come from Primitive Scandinavian *heldi-, "battle" and are related to Old Icelandic hildr, "battle". For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 11 s.n. Hildibjrn; FJ pp. 344, 348 s.nn. Hild-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 261 s.v. bjrn, hildr; NR s.nn. Hild-, -birn, Biarni
Hildibrandr For the first element Hildi- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hildibrandr; FJ pp. 344, 348 s.nn. Hild-, -brandr; CV pp. 76, 261 s.v. brandr, hildr; NR s.nn. Hild-, -brandr
Hildiger For the first element Hildi- see above. For the second element -ger see -geirr, above. A few instances of this name occur in Denmark, where they may instead represent the Continental Germanic name Hildigar. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Hildegarescroft, Hilgertorp, Hilgretorp, Hildertorp. FJ pp. 343, 344, 349 s.nn. Hildiger, Hild-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 261 s.v. geirr, hildr; NR s.n. Hild-, -giRR
Hildiglmr For the first element Hildi- see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hildiglmr; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Hild-; CV pp. 261 s.v. hildr; NR s.n. Hild-
Hildigrmr For the first element Hildi- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Sild-, -grmr; CV pp. 216, 261 s.v. grma, hildr; NR s.nn. Hild-, -grmR
Hildingr The second element -ing denotes a descendant. This name occurs in West Scandinavia as the plural Hildingar, "the sons or descendants of Hildir" and also as a character in OW.Norse fictional character Hildingr from Frijfs saga ins frkna ch. 1. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Hildingeslei. FJ pp. 141, 344 s.nn. Hildingr, Hild-; CV pp. 261 s.v. hildr; NR s.n. Hild-
Hildir See Hild- above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hildir; FJ pp. 141, 344 s.nn. Hildingr, Hild-; CV pp. 261 s.v. hildr; NR s.n. Hild-
Hildlfr, Hildulfr Found in Old Danish as Hildulf, in Old Swedish as Hildolf, and in OW.Norse as Hildlfr. For the first element Hild- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Found throughout Scandinavia. Occurs in the runic nominative forms hiltu(-)-R. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Heldouestun, Heldeuueston, Hildoueston. FJ pp. 141, 344, 347, 351 s.nn. Hildulfr, Hild-, -ulfr; CV pp. 261 s.v. hildr; NR s.nn. HildulfR, Hild-, -ulfR
HildungR "Hildr the Young." Derived from OW.Norse hildr "battle"; compare with the OW.Norse fictional character Hildingr from Frijfs saga ins frkna ch. 1. Occurs in the runic nominative form hiltu(-)-R. FJ p. 141 s.n. Hildingr; NR s.nn. HildungR, Hild-
HildvgR Corresponds to the Old High German name Hiltiwic. For the first element Hild- see above. The second element, -vgR (from the OW.Norse noun vg, "battle") seems to be found rarely as a native Scandinavian name element but instead is West Germanic. Occurs in the runic nominative form hiltu(-)-R. FJ pp. 344 s.nn. Hild-; CV pp. 261 s.v. hildr; NR s.nn. HildvgR, Hild-, -vgR
Hjalli This name is found in OW.Norse as Hialli, a fictional character from Atlaml in grnlenzku. From OW.Norse hjalli "ledge, terrace on the mountain-side" or derived from OW.Norse hjallr "construction frame; scaffold". Occurs in the runic nominative form hiali in an inscription reading, "Hrefningr and Gjalli and Brynjulfr and Gjafulfr placed this stone in memory of Ftr, their father, a very good thegn. Thus has sa made, as no other wife in memory of (her) husband will. Hjalmr and Hjalli cut the runes." NR s.n. Hialli
Hjallkrr   GB p. 11 s.n. Hjallkrr
Hjalti Originally a by-name, "man from Hjaltland" or Shetland. Found in West Scandinavia as both a personal name and a by-name. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Helte. FJ pp. 142
Hjlmarr The first element Hjlm- is from OW.Norse hjlmr, "helm, helmet". For the second element -arr see above. FJ p. 348 s.n. -arr; CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.nn. Hialm-, -arr
Hjlmfastr Found in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Helmuastus. For the first element Hjlm- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [hialfast...], [hiulmfastr], hiulmfas..., iolfast and the accusative form hiulmfast. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. CV p. 145, 266-267 s.v. fastr, hjlmr; NR s.n. Hialmfastr, Hialm-, -fastr
Hjlmgeirr Found in Old Swedish as Hilmger. For the first element Hjlm- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form iolmkeR and the accusative form hialmger. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV pp. 196, 266-267 s.v. geirr, hjlmr; NR s.nn. HialmgiRR, Hialm-, -giRR
Hjlmgrmr For the first element Hjlm- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. FJ pp. 349; CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.n. Hialm-, -grmR
Hjlmgunnarr For the first element Hjlm- see above. For the second element -gunnarr see the name Gunnarr. CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.n. Hialm-, Gunnarr
Hjlmlfr For the first element Hjlm- see above. For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hjlmlfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.n. Hialm-, -ulfR
Hjlmr Found in OW.Norse as both the name and by-name Hjlmr. Found as a by-name in Old Danish as Hielm, and in Old Swedish as Hilm. This name is from OW.Norse hjlmr, "helm, helmet". Runic examples include the nominative form hialmR, the genitive form hialms and the accusative form (h)ialm. GB p. 11 s.n. Hjlmr; CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.n. Hialmr, Hialm-
Hjlmtr For the first element Hjlm- see above. CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.n. Hialm-
Hjlmvir For the first element Hjlm- see above. For the suffix -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms hialmuir, hialmui(r). CV pp. 266-267, 703-704 s.v. hjlmr, vir; NR s.n. Hialmvir, Hialm-, -vir
Hjarni, Hjrne Originally a by-name made by shortening a longer by-name, hiarrandi, "the man with the grating voice". Appears as Hjrne in Sweden as a personal name and as a by-name. Related to the Danish name Hiarni. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Hernesbi. FJ pp. 142
Hjarrandi See Hjarni, above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hjarrandi; FJ pp. 142
Hjrleifr The first element, Hjr- is from OW.Norse hjrr, derived from Primitive Scandinavian *heruR, "sword". For the second element -leifr see above. Recorded in West Scandinavia. May also be found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Herleuestorp. GB p. 11 s.n. Hjrleifr; FJ pp. 142, 344, 350 s.nn. Hjrleifr, Hjr-, -leifr; CV pp. 268, 381 s.v. hjrr, leif
Hjrr Identical to Old Icelandic hjrr, "sword". GB p. 11 s.n. Hjrr; FJ p. 344 s.n. Hjr-; CV pp. 268 s.v. hjrrl NR s.n. Hir-
HjrlfR Found in OW.Norse as Hjrlfr, the name of a fictional character from ch.9 of Hlfs saga og Hlfsrekka. Compare with hAeruwulafiR from the Istaby Stone (ca. 600). For the first element Hjr- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs as a human personal name in the runic accusative form iurulf in an inscription which reads, "... raised the stone in memory of Hjrulfr, his brother ..." FJ pp. 344, 351 s.nn. Hjr-, -ulfr; CV pp. 268 s.v. hjrr; NR s.nn. HirulfR, Hir-, -ulfR
Hjrtr Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic hjrt, hjartar, "hart". Found in Iceland. Found in Denmark as both a personal name and as a by-name. May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Herteregate. GB p. 11 s.n. Hjrtr; FJ p. 142 s.n. Hjrtr
Hjrvarr Found in OW.Norse as Hjrvarr.For the first element Hjr- see above. For the second element -varr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms hioruarr, [hioruarr]. FJ pp. 344, 351 s.nn. Hjr-, -varr; CV pp. 268, 722 s.v. hjrr, vrr; NR s.nn. Hirvarr, Hir-, -varr
Hlenni   GB p. 11 s.n. Hlenni
Hlfsteinn Found in Old Swedish as Lifsten. The first element Hlf- is from OW.Norse hlf, "defence, protection; byrnie, shield". For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms lefstein, lfsten, lifstain, lifsten (5 instances), lifsen and the accusative form lifstin. FJ p. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. Hlfstinn, Lfsteinn, Hlf-, -stinn
Hlfundr For the first element Hlf-, see above. The second element may be -hundr, from OW.Norse hundr "dog, hound" (compare with OW.Norse Hlflfr) or the second element may instead be from -undr/-vindr (see above). Occurs in the runic nominative form lhifuntr. FJ p. 352 s.n. -vindr; NR s.n. Hlfundr, Hlf-, -hundr, -undr/-vindr
Hlver, Hlvir For the second element -vr or -vir see above. GB p. 11 s.nn. Hlver, Hlvir; FJ pp. 352
Hnaki   GB p. 11 s.n. Hnaki
Hnefi Perhaps present in Old Swedish Nve, occurs in OW.Norse as Hnefi, possibly also as a by-name. Found in Old Danish as the by-name Nwe. From OW.Norse hnefi "fist, hand". The runic examples are not absolutely clear, and include the accusative case forms nafa, nfa (see also Nefi). NR s.n. Hnfi, Nfi
Hneitr   GB p. 11 s.n. Hneitr
Hœkill   GB p. 12 s.n. Hœkill
Hggvandi, Hggvandill Originally a by-name from primitive Scandinavian *haggwan, related to Old Icelandic hggvandi, "hewer, executioner". Occurs several times as a by-name in West Scandinavia. Appears as the personal name of the father of one of the Landnmsmenn in Iceland, and also was borne by a Danish man. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Hagedebi, Haghedenebi, Hegendebi, Hagandeby, Hagandehou. GB p. 12 s.n. Hggvandill; FJ pp. 148
Hggvari A postulated Anglo-Scandinavian name, originally a by-name from the Old Norse verb hggva, "to hew, hack, chop". There is scant evidence for this even as a by-name in Scandinavia. There is a rare, late Danish by-name hugger, related to Old Danish hugger, "wood-cutter", and the name is postulated in Sweden as *Hugge from the place-name Huggens. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Huggesside. FJ pp. 148
Hgni A Scandinavian adaptation of the Continental German name, Haguno. Hgni is frequent in Iceland and in Norway, especially in the early period. The form Hoghni appears in Denmark, while Hgne appears in Sweden. Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include Haghne, Hagne, Hangen, Hagen. FJ pp. 122
Holfi Short form of Hlmfastr. Occurs in the runic nominative form [hulfi] in an inscription which reads, "Holfi made this monument in memory of Jarl(?), his father's brother, and in memory of skell, (his) brother." FJ p. 344 s.n. Holm-; CV pp. 145, 280-281 s.v. fastr, hlmr; NR s.nn. Holfi, Holmfastr, Holm-, -fastr
Hlmbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Holmbiorn. The first element Hlm- is identical to Old Icelandic hlmr, "island". For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [hoburi...], hulbiorn, humbiurn, ulbiarn, u(l)biarn and the accusative forms hulbi(o)(r)[:n], ulb[in]ar.... A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Holmbirn, Holmi, Holm-, -birn
HlmdiarfR For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form [h]ultiu[in]. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. CV p. 100 s.v. djarfr; NR s.nn. HolmdiarfR, Holmi, Holm-, -diarfR
Hlmdrr For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -drr or -rr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form hultur. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. Hafr, Haf-, r-, -rr; CV p. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. Holmdrr, Holmi, Holm-, r-, -rr
Hlmfastr Found in Old Swedish as Holmfast or Holmvast, occurs in OW.Norse as Hlmfastr. For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [au-mfast...], [hiulmfastr], hiulmfas..., [hulfast], hulfastr (4 instances), [hulfastr], hulfatr, [hulfa...], [hulmfastar], hulmfastr, hulm[fastr], hulmnfastr, [ulmfa]st[r], the genitive form hulmfas-- and the accusative forms hiulmfast, hulfast, [hulf]ast, hulmfast, (h)(u)lmf(a)str, ulfast, ulfas. A short form of Hlmfastr is Holfi. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 344 s.n. Holm-; CV pp. 145, 280-281 s.v. fastr, hlmr; NR s.nn. Holmfastr, Holm-, -fastr, Holfi, Holmi, Fasti
Hlmgeirr Found in Old Danish as Holmger, in Old Swedish Holmger or Holger, and in OW.Norse as Hlmgeirr. For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms (h)ulker, hulmaiR, hulmkair, hulmkaiR (4 instances), hulmk[a]iR, [hulm]kir, hulmkiR, hulm(k)iR, hulm[kiR], hulmk..., iolmkeR, the genitive forms hulmkirs, hulmkiRs, hulmkis, and the accusative forms [huikaiR], hulmkair, hulmkaiR, (h)ulmkiR, [hulmkiR], hulmkR, hulR(g)..., [ulmk]a[R]. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. GB p. 11 s.n. Hlmgeirr; FJ pp. 344, 349; CV pp. 196, 280-281 s.v. geirr, hlmr; NR s.n. HolmgiRR, Holmi, Holm-, -giRR
Hlmgautr For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -gautr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form hulmkoetr and the accusative form hulmkut. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. FJ pp. 348-349 s.nn. -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.n. Holmgautr, Holmi, Holm-, -gautr
Hlmi Found in Old Swedish as Holme. A short form of masculine names in Holm-. Runic examples include the nominative forms hulmi (3 examples), [hulmi], (h)-lmi, ulmi and the accusative forms hulma, [hulma], (h)(u)---..., ulmo. NR s.n. Holmi
Hlmkell, Hlmketill For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. This name was borne by an Icelander at the time of the Settlement (Hlmkell in ch. 29). Most names in Hlm- do not appear in West Scandinavia until late, where they appear to be a loan from Swedish. This name is not found in either Sweden or Denmark, and it is assumed that the Icelandic instance must have been formed on the pattern of the name Hlmsteinn. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. GB p. 11 s.n. Hlmkell; FJ pp. 143, 344, 349 s.nn. Holmketill, Holm-, -ketill; CV pp. 280-281, 337-338 s.v. hlmr, ketill; NR s.nn. Holm-, -k(ti)ll
Hlmlaugr For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -laugr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form [holmlauk]...u-mlaug. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. FJ pp. 344, 350 s.nn. Holm-, -laugr; CV pp. 374 s.v. laug def. IV; NR s.nn. HolmlaugR, Holm-, -laugR
Hlmr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish both as the name and the by-name Holm. Found in OW.Norse as Hlmr, which also occurs as both a name and as a by-name. From OW.Norse hlmr "island". Occurs in the runic nominative form hulmbR. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. NR s.n. HolmR
Hlmsteinn Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Holmsten, occurs in OW.Norse as Hlmsteinn. For the first element Hlm- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms hlmstain, holmste[n], hulmstain (4 instances), hulms[tain], hulmstein, hulmstin, hulm:stin, [hu=lmstin], [hulRstan], uhlmstan, ulmstin, umsten, [ylmstn], the genitive forms hulmstains, hulmst...[n]s, ...ulmstains, and the accusative forms holmstain, hulmstain (3 instances), hulm:stain, hulmstin, [hulmstin], [hulms].... A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. GB p. 11 s.n. Hlmsteinn; FJ pp. 143, 344, 351; CV pp. 280-281, 591 s.v. hlmr, steinn; NR s.nn. Holmstinn, Holmi, Holm-, -stinn
Hlmvir, Hulvir Found in Old Danish as Holmwith, in Old Swedish as Holmvidh or Hunvidh, and in OW.Norse as Hulvir. For the first element Hlm- see above. For the suffix -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms hulmuir, [hulmuir] and the accusative form hulmui. A short form of masculine names in Holm- is Hlmi. CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Holmvir, Holmi, Holm-, -vir
Holti Found in Old Swedish as the personal name Holte and as the by-names Holte or Hulte. Occurs in OW.Norse as Holti and in Old Danish as the by-name Holte. Derived from OW.Norse holt "tree-filled copse, small forest, woodland" or a place-name formed from this term meaning the "man from the farm named Holt or Holtar or Holtir" etc. Runic examples include the nominative form hulti and the accusative form hulta. Occurs in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Boltebi and Holtebi. GB p. 11 s.n. Holti; FJ p. 143 s.n. Holti; NR s.n. Hulti
Hnefr Found in Old Swedish as Honf. This name is compounded from the noun corresponding to Modern Icelandic hr "kettle-hook" and OW.Norse -nefr, "nose, nostril." Compare with Modern Icelandic hnefur "hook for hanging a kettle", which carries a disparaging sense of "wretch, wastrel, rascal." Runic examples include the nominative form haunefR and the accusative form hunef. NR s.n. HnfR
Hrr See Harr above. GB p. 12 s.n. Hrr
Hrgi   GB p. 12 s.n. Hrgi
Hornboi Hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian name, may be related to a West Scandinavian name, Holdboi. The first element Horn- means "horn, cow-horn". May be represented in the place-name Horenbodebi. FJ p. 143 s.n. *Hornboi
Hornbori Found in OW.Norse in Dvergatal, a section of the Eddaic poem Vlusp, as Hornbori, a dwarf . Compounded from horn and a name-element related to the OW.Norse verb bera "to bear, to carry" and this has the sense of "horn-bearer, horn-blower." It may appear as a human personal name in the genitive case form HurnburA in an inscription that reads, "Hornbori's stone, of Svidhi's line." NR s.n. Hornburi
Horni Hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian name, originally a by-name meaning "horn, cow-horn". The name Horn was borne by the grandfather of one of the Landnmsmenn, as well as a few others. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Hornebi. FJ p. 143 s.n. *Horni
Horsefni Compounded from the OW.Norse noun hors, hross "horse" and OW.Norse efni "matter, substance, material." Compare with the name Karlsefni, found in Old Danish and OW.Norse, or the OW.Norse by-names Konungsefni, Mgsefni. Occurs in the runic accusative case form hursefn(in), used as a human personal name in an incription that reads, "Gunnhildr ... in memory of her son Horsefni, and Hvthfdhi. May God help(?)". NR s.n. Horsfni
Hskuldr Found in OW.Norse as Hskuldr. Several proposals for the etymology of this name have been put forward. Originally it was thought that this came from hss-, "gray" and -kuldr, related to -kollr, "skull, head, pate", but linguistically this is not feasible. Current thinking is that the name is derived from a Primitive Scandinavian name Hagu-staldaR, ca. 500, which then would have evolved first to *Hogstaldr, *Hkstaldr and finally Hskuldr, which is supported by the runic inscriptions Valsfjord and Kjlevik, Norway (compare with OH.Germ. hagustalt, "owner of an enclosed area"). Alternatively, the name may be compounded from the OW.Norse noun h "battle" and the OW.Norse adjective skyldr "responsible, under an obligation, owing". This name is common in Norway, where it appears early, and is found in Norway at the time of the Icelandic Settlement, but fell out of use there soon thereafter. Occurs in the runic nominative form a-s(k)(u)ltr. May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Ascheltorp, Aschiltorp, Haschelthorp. GB p. 12 s.n. Hskuldr; FJ pp. 148-149 s.n. Hskuldr; NR s.n. Hskuldr
Hsvi Formed from the OW.Norse adjective hss, "grey". Runic examples include the nominative forms haosui, [hasui]. NR s.n. Hsvi
Hrai, Rai Found in Old Danish as Rathi (also found as a by-name), occurs in OW.Norse as both the name and the by-name Hrai. Formed from the OW.Norse adjective hrar "quick, fast." The West Scandinavian form, Hrai, appears as the name of on of the Landnmsmenn in Iceland. The name may occur in a Danish runic inscription. Runic examples include the nominative form (r)ai and the accusative form raa. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrai; FJ p. 210 s.n. Rai
Hrafn, Rafn, Rampn Occurs as both a personal name and as a by-name throughout SCandinavia, found as Old Danish Rafn, Old Swedish Ramn, and OW.Norse Hrafn. From the OW.Norse noun hrafn "raven." The form Hrafn is very common in Iceland throughout the medieval period, and occurs in Norway as well, less frequently. Runic examples include the nominative form [hrafn] and the accusative forms rafn, raf-. There are a large number of Anglo-Scandinavian place-names in Raven-, Rauen-, Reven-, etc., but these are more likely to derive from Old English hrfn, "raven". GB p. 11 s.n. Hrafn; FJ pp. 210-212 s.n. Rafn; CV pp. 281 s.v. hrafn; NR s.n. Hrafn
Hrafni Found in Old Swedish as Ramne. Derived from OW.Norse hrafn "raven" or a diminuitive form of Hrafn. Occurs in the runic nominative form hrafni. CV pp. 281 s.v. hrafn; NR s.n. Hrafni
HrafningR "Of the lineage of Hrafn." Derived from OW.Norse hrafn "raven". Runic examples include the nominative forms hrifnkR, rifnikR. Also occurs as a prefixed by-name, Hrafnunga-Tfi, the masculine name Tfi prefixed with the by-name in the genitive form *hrafnungaR "descendant of Hrafn", with runic examples including the nominative forms rafnuka:tufi, rhafnukatufi, ...fnukatufi. NR s.n. HrfningR, Hrafnunga-Tfi
Hrafnkell, Hrafnketill, Rafnketill For the first element Hrafn- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Found in Iceland as the name of one of the Landnmsmenn and other men as well. Occurs in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Rauechil, Ranchil, Rauenchel, as well as the names Ravenkil, Rankil, Rainkill, Ravankil, Rauenkil, Ramkil, Ranchil, Ramkell. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrafnkell; FJ pp. 212-213, 349 s.nn. Rafn, Rafnketill, -ketill; CV pp. 281, 337-338 s.v. hrafn, ketill; NR s.nn. Hrafn, -k(ti)ll
Hrafsi   GB p. 11 s.n. Hrafsi
Hrani Found in Old Danish as Rani (which may also occur as a by-name), in Old Swedish as Rane, and in OW.Norse as Hrani. From a name corresponding to Modern Icelandic hrani "boisterous, noisy, coarse person" (of uncertain etymology). Runic examples include the nominative forms harani, rani. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrani; NR s.n. Hrani
Hrappr   GB p. 11 s.n. Hrappr
Hreiarr, Reiarr The first element may be Hrei-, possibly related to the OW.Norse noun hreir, "(bird) nest" in the sense of "home, home-place". Alternately, may represent a contracted form of Hreigotar, or may be derived from hrr (see below). Here the second element -arr is possibly derived from *harjaR, herr, "army, warrior". Found early in Norway and common there, but occurs only in a few instances in Iceland. Common is Sweden from the 1300s's onward. Several instances are found in Denmark as personal names and as by-names from the end of the 1300's. Occurs in the runic accusative form hriar. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Reresbi, Redrestorp, redestorp, and the names Reider, Reder. GB p. 11 s.n. Hreiarr; FJ pp. 216-217 s.n. Reiarr; CV pp. 287 s.v. hrr; NR s.nn. Hriarr, Hri-, -arr
HreiiR For the first element Hrei- see above). For the second element -vr or -vir see above. May occur in the runic accusative form hrii, or this may instead represent the name HriR. CV pp. 287 s.v. hrr; NR s.nn. HriiR, Hri-, -vR, HriR
Hreimrr For the first element Hrei- see above). For the second element -marr see above. FJ pp. 350 s.n. -marr; CV pp. 287, 418, 443 s.v. hrr, -mr, mrr; NR s.nn. Hri-, -mrr
Hreilfr Possibly found in Old Swedish as Redholf, occurs in OW.Norse as Hreilfr. For the first element Hrei- see above). For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form riulf, the genitive forms Hari(w)ulfs, Hari()ulfs, hriulfs|. FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 287, 668 s.v. hrr, lfr; NR s.nn. HriulfR, Hri-, -ulfR
Hreinn, Reinn Originally a by-name meaning "reindeer". Several instances are found in Iceland, many among members of the same family. GB p. 11 s.n. Hreinn; FJ pp. 217-218 s.n. Reinn
Hreppir Found in OW.Norse as Hreppir. Related to the OW.Norse verb hrapa "to throw down, overthrow, fall down", "hasten, hurry." Compare with Modern Icelandic hrappur "rascal, scamp." Occurs in the runic genitive case form hrabis|. NR s.n. HrppiR
HriR Compare with OW.Norse Hrir, a sword-name, derived from the OW.Norse noun hr "attack, assault." May occur in the runic accusative form hrii, or this may instead represent the name HreiiR. NR s.n. HriR, HriiR
Hrifla, Hrifli This name is derived from the OW.Norse verb hrfa "rend, scratch." Hrifli is a side-form of Hrifla. Compare with the OW.Norse masculine name Hriflingr. Hrifli is found in the runic accusative form Rifla. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrifla; NR s.n. Hrifli
Hriflingr Occurs as the OW.Norse masculine name Hriflingr. NR s.n. Hrifli
Hringr Occurs as both a personal name and a by-name across Scandinavia, as Old Danish and Old Swedish Ring, and as OW.Norse Hringr. From OW.Norse hringr "ring", as in an arm-ring, a piece of jewelry. The OW.Norse name may also be interpreted as "man from Ringerike". Runic examples include the nominative forms rikr, r(in)kr and the accusative form hrenki. GB p. 11 s.n. Hringr; FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)ring-; NR s.n. HringR
Hringulfr, Ringulfr For the second element -ulfr see above. Occurs as the name of a Danish moneyer c. 1080. Not found at all in West Scandinavia. May occur in a single place-name in Denmark and another in Sweden. May be the source of the Anglo-Scandinavian names Rongolf, Ringulf, Ringulphi, or these may instead derive from Old English Hringwulf. FJ pp. 219, 346, 351 s.nn. Ringulfr, (H)ring-, -ulfr
Hraldr, Raldr, Hraldi Hraldr is the OW.Norse form of the name, which occurs in Old Swedish as Roald. The first element is from the OW.Norse noun hrr "praise, fame," derived from Primitive Scandinavian *hriR. For the second element -valdr or -valdi see above. The oldest instance of this name in Scandinavia comes from a Norwegian runestone, ca. 800's where it appears as the runic inscription rhoaltR. Hraldr is one of the most common names throughout the period in Norway. Frequent in Iceland during the 900's, but dropped out of use thereafter. Appears in Denmark as the possessive form in the runic inscription ruhalts, evidence for the name is early, and it drops out of use quickly. Runic examples of Hraldr include the nominative forms [hrualtr], rual=tr the genitive form ruHalts and the accusative form rualt. The side-form Hraldi occurs in Old Swedish as Roalde and is found in the runic accusative case form [rual(t)](a). Anglo-Scandinavian forms may include Rold, Ruald, Roald, Roaud, Ruhalt, Rowald, though some may be due to borrowing from Continental Germanic Hrodowald. FJ pp. 219-221, 346, 351 s.nn. Raldr, (H)r-, -valdr; CV pp. 287, 675 s.v. hrr, valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Hraldr, Hraldi, Hr-, -valdr, -valdi
Hrarr, Hrarr, Rarr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Roar, and in OW.Norse as Hrarr. The first element is from Hr-, see above. Here the second element -arr is likely to be derived from -geirr, thus < Primitive Scandinavian *Hroi-gaiRaR > *Hro-gaRR > *Hrowarr > Hrarr. Alternatively might derive from -*hariR, "army" (*Hroi-harjaR, see -arr, above) or possibly -*warjaR, -varr, "men of Viken" (*Hroi-warjaR). Found early in Iceland, but never common there. Several instances occur in Norway after 1100. A few instances are recorded in Sweden, and several late instances in Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative forms hruar, ruar, ruaR and possibly the accusative form ruah. Related to the name of the Old English king Hrogar from Beowulf. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrarr; FJ pp. 221, 346, 348 s.nn. Rarr, (H)r-, -geirr, -varr; CV pp. 196, 287 s.v. geirr, hrr; NR s.nn. Hrarr, -arr, -giRR
Hrbjartr The first element is from Hr-, see above. The second element is probably related to Old Icelandic bjartr, "bright". Related to the modern English name Robert. FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)r-; CV pp. 65, 287 s.v. bjartr; hrr (includes entry for Hrbjartr)
Hrarr May occur in Old Danish as Rother and in Old Swedish as Rodher. Related to Hrarr, above. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -arr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form roar. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. (H)r-, -geirr, -varr; CV pp. 196, 287 s.v. geirr, hrr; NR s.nn. Hrarr, Hri, Hr-, -arr
Hrbjrn The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative forms robiarn, ro(b)iern. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. (H)r-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 287 s.v. bjrn, hrr; NR s.nn. Hrbirn, Hri, Hr-, -birn
Hrfss The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -fss see above. Runic examples include the genitive case form rofoaR and the accusative case form rofos. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)r-; CV pp. 178-179, 287 s.v. fss, hrr; NR s.nn. Hrfss, Hri, Hr-, -fss
Hrgeirr Found in Old Danish as Rothger, in Old Swedish as Rodhger, and in OW.Norse as Hrgeirr. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Related to Hrarr, above. Runic examples include the genitive case form rokais and the accusative case forms hr(u)kaiR, raukar, rokaiR. Also related to the name of the Old English king Hrogar from Beowulf. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrgeirr; FJ pp. 221, 346, 349 s.nn. Rarr, (H)r-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 287 s.v. geirr, hrr; NR s.nn. HrgiRR, Hri, Hr-, -giRR
Hrgautr The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -gautr see above. occurs in the runic nominative form rokutr. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ pp. 346, 348-349 s.nn. (H)r-, -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193, 287 s.v. Gautr, hrr; NR s.nn. Hrgautr, Hri, Hr-, -gautr
Hrgsl, Hrsl, Hrvsl Found in Old Swedish as Rodhils. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the suffix -gsl or -gils see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms rouisl, ruuisl and the accusative form roisl. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. (H)r-, -gsl; CV pp. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, hrr; NR s.nn. Hr(g)sl/Hrvsl, Hri, Hr-, -gsl/-gils
Hrhvatr The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -hvatr or its weak side-form -hvati see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form rouat. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. (H)r-, -hvatr; CV pp. 287, 297 s.v. hrr, hvatr; NR s.n. Hrhvatr, Hri, Hr-, -hvatr
Hri Short form of masculine names in Hr-, see above. Occurs in te runic genitive case form hrua. FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)r-; CV pp. 287 s.v. hrr; NR s.n. Hri, Hr-
HringR May occur in Old Swedish as Rdhing. If the runic evidence actually indicates the name HringR, then it is probably derived from OW.Norse hrr "praise, fame." Occurs in the runic nominative form ryikr, or this insciption may instead represent the name HrrkR or RyingR. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)r-; CV pp. 287 s.v. hrr; NR s.n. HringR, Hri, Hr-
Hrlaugr The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -laugr see above. May occur in the runic nominative form rolau.... A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrlaugr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. (H)r-, -laugr; CV pp. 287, 374 s.v. hrr, laug def. IV; NR s.nn. Hrlaug(R), Hri, Hr-, -laugR
Hrmrr, Rmarr Found in Old Danish as Rothmar, in Old Swedish as Rodhmar, and in OW.Norse as Hrmrr. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -mrr see above. Recorded as the name of a single historical person in the 800's (Hrmrr Hraldsson, from Landnmabk ch. 3), with a few fictional instances, including the Eddaic poem Helgakvia Hjorvarssonar, and a possible Norwegian place-name. Found in Sweden in the runic inscription rumar (King Hrmarr). A few late instances occur in Denmark. Occurs in the runic accusative form [hrum...(r)]. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrmarr; FJ pp. 221, 346, 350 s.nn. Rmarr, (H)r-, -marr; CV pp. 287, 418, 443 s.v. hrr, -mr, mrr; NR s.nn. Hrmarr, Hri, Hr-, -marr
Hrmundr, Rmundr, Hrmundr Found in Old Swedish as Romund and in OW.Norse as Hrmundr. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Several instances are recorded in Norway and Iceland, but only very rarely later on. A few instances are found in Sweden. Runic examples include the nominative forms hrumunt, hrumuntr, hru:muntr, hrumun- and the accusative forms r[mun]t, romunt, rum(u).... A form appears in Old English as well, for example Hromund in Beowulf. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrmundr; FJ pp. 221-222, 346, 350 s.nn. Rmundr, (H)r-, -mundr; CV pp. 287, 437-438 s.v. hrr, mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Hrmundr, Hri, Hr-, -mundr, Mundi
Hrsteinn Found in Old Danish as Rosten and in Old Swedish as Rodhsten. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms rostein, rustin. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ pp. 346, 351 s.nn. (H)r-, -steinn; CV pp. 287, 591 s.v. hrr, steinn; NR s.n. Hrstinn, Hri, Hr-, -stinn
Hrlfr, Hrulfr, Rulfr Found in Old Danish as Rodulf and in Old Swedish as Rodholf. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -lfr see above. In West Scandinavia this name is used in the contracted form Hrlfr. Runic examples include the nominative forms rHuulfR, ruulfR, [ruul(f)(R)] and the accusative form ruulf. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrlfr; FJ pp. 222-223, 346, 351 s.nn. *Rulfr, (H)r-, -ulfr; CV pp. 287, 668 s.v. hrr, lfr; NR s.nn. HrulfR, HrlfR, Hri, Hr-, -ulfR
Hrvaldr, Hraldr Found in Old Swedish as Rodhvald or Rovald. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -valdr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form roanr. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)r-; CV pp. 287, 675 s.v. hrr, valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Hr(v)aldr, Hri, Hr-, -valdr
Hrœrekr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Rrik, found in OW.Norse as Hrœrekr. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -rekr see above. The sound in the first element is affected by the second element. Runic examples include the nominative forms hruRikR, rorikR, ruRikr, ryikr and the genitive form ryR:iks. Related to the Old English name Hreric and modern English Roderick. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrœrekr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. (H)r-, -rkr; CV pp. 287, 499 s.v. hrr, rkr; NR s.nn. HrrkR, Hr-, RkR, -rkR
Hri Found in Old Danish as Roi and in OW.Norse as Hri, derived from *HriwhaR. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -vr or -vir see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form rui. GB p. 11 s.n. Hri; FJ pp. 346, 352 s.nn. (H)r-, -vr; CV p. 287 s.v. hrr; NR s.n. HriR, Hr-, -vR
Hrkr, Rkr, Rki From the OW.Norse noun hrkr "rook, crow". Found in OW.Norse as Hrkr Svilsson, a fictional character from Hrlfs saga kraka ok kappa hans. Two possible instances are found in Denmark as a personal name and as a by-name, Rok. Appears as Rog in Sweden. The hypothetical weak side-form Rki is derived from place-names in Denmark and Sweden. Occurs in the runic accusative case form rok. Possible Anglo-Scandinavian occurrences include the place-names Roxebi, Roscebi, Rochesbi, Rochesham, Roxton and the names Rc and Roc, however these may instead derive from Old English name Hroca or the bird, which is either hrkr (Old Norse) or hroc (Old English). GB p. 11 s.n. Hrkr; FJ p. 223 s.nn. Rkr, Rki; NR s.n. HrkR
Hrlfr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Rolf, occurs in OW.Norse as Hrlfr. Contraction of Hrlfr. For the second element -lfr see above. Also found in the Danish runic inscriptions rhuulfR, ruulfR, rulfR, rolfr. Runic examples include the nominative forms hrulfR, hurulfr, rhulf, [rolfr], r[ol]u[fr], rufRa, rulfR, rulufR, ru[-]f[-] and the accusative forms hrulf, (h)rulf, (r)ulf. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Rolf, Rolft, Roolf, Roulf. The name of the Norman leader Rollo was a Latinized version of this name. Related to the German name Rudolph and the modern English name Ralph. GB p. 11 s.nn. Hrlfr, Hrlfr; FJ pp. 222-223, 346, 351; CV pp. 287, 668 s.v. hrr, lfr; NR s.n. HrlfR, HrulfR, Hr-, -ulfR
Hrollaugr The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -laugr see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrollaugr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. (H)r-, -laugr; CV pp. 287, 374 s.v. hrr, laug def. IV; NR s.n. -laugR
Hrolleifr Found in Old Danish as Rolef, in Old Swedish as Rollef, and in OW.Norse as Hrolleifr. The first element is from Hr-, see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms rulaifR, rulef, [rulefr], [rulifr], rulifR and the accusative form rolif. A short form of masculine names in Hr- is Hri. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrolleifr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.n. (H)r-, -leifr; CV pp. 287, 381 s.v. hrr, leif; NR s.nn. HrlifR, Hri, Hr-, -lifR/-lafR
HrmingR This name is found in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Rmingus. Derived from the Old High German first element (H)ruom-, "praise, fame, reputation." Occurs in the runic accusative case form rymik. NR s.n. HrmingR
Hrnarr   GB p. 11 s.n. Hrnarr
Hrngvir For the second element -vir see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrngvir; FJ p. 352 s.n. -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.n. Vi-, -vir
Hrossbjrn The first element Hross- is identical with Old Iceandic hross, "horse". For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrossbjrn; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. (H)ross-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni
Hrosskell, Rossketill Found in OW.Norse as Hrosskell. For the first element Hross- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. A few instances are recorded in West Scandinavia. The name is hypothesized in Sweden from place-name evidence. Occurs in the runic nominative form roskitil. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Roscheltorp, Roskilgate, Roskilleber, Roskelholm and the names Roscetel, Roschel, Roschil, Ruschil, Roskel, Ruskel. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrosslell; FJ pp. 225-226, 346, 349 s.nn. Rossketill, (H)ross-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. Hrossktill, -k(ti)ll
Hrtr Occurs in OW.Norse as both a personal name and as a by-name, Hrtr. Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Rut. From the OW.Norse noun hrtr "ram, male sheep." Occurs in the runic genitive case form ru-ts. GB p. 11 s.n. Hrtr; NR s.n. Hrtr
Hugaldr Found in Old Swedish as Hughald or Hughalde. From the OW.Norse noun hugr "mind, thought" and the second element -aldr, which is derived from Germanic *-ala-. Runic examples include the nominative form huka(l)-(r) and the genitive form hukals. A short form of names in either Hug- or -hugi is Hugi. NR s.n. Hugaldr, Hugi
Hugbjrn The first element Hug- is from OW.Norse hugr "mind, thought." For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [hukbiarn]. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. A short form of names in either Hug- or -hugi is Hugi. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.n. Hugbirn, Hugi, -birn
Hugi Found in Old Danish as the Latinized form Hugo, also found as the by-name Hughe. Found in Old Swedish as Hughi and in OW.Norse as Hugi. This name is a short form of names in either Hug- or -hugi. From the OW.Norse noun hugr "mind, thought." Found in Norway, Iceland, and Sweden, and possibly in some Danish place-names. It is also possible that the name may be a loan from Continental Germanic Hugo. Runic examples include the nominative form [uhi] and the accusative form [huka]. The Anglo-Scandinavian form of this name is Hughi. GB p. 11 s.n. Hugi; FJ p. 143 s.n. Hugi; NR s.n. Hugi
HultrkR Possibly found in Old Danish as Huldrik, occurs in Old Swedish as Hultrik. The first element Hult- is from the OW.Norse noun holt, "tree-filled copse, small forest, woodland." For the suffix -rkr or -rekr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms hu(l)r-..., hultrikr. FJ p. 350 s.n. -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.n. HultrkR, -rkR
Hulvir For the second element -vir see above. GB p. 11 s.n. Hulvir; FJ p. 352 s.n. -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Vi-, -vir
Humli Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic humli, "hops, hop-plant". Found in West Scandinavian as both a by-name and as a personal name. Recorded in the Latinized Danish form Humblus. A proposed Swedish form, *Humble has been deduced from place-name evidence. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Humeltone, Umelton, Humbletun, or these may derive as a palce name indicating the presence of hops (cf. Old Icelandic humli, or landscape features from Old English *humol or Old Icelandic humul, "a rounded hillock". FJ p. 142 s.n. Humli
Hnbogi The first element Hn- is of uncertain origin, but is probably either identical to Old Icelandic hnn, "child, (bear) cub" or possibly derives from Primitive Scandinavian *hun, "high". A short form of names in Hn- is Hni. GB p. 11 s.n. Hnbogi; FJ pp. 145-146, 344 s.n. Hni, Hn-; NR s.n. Hnvir
Hundi, Hundr Originally a by-name meaning "hound, dog". The weak form, Hundi, appears in a few instances in West Scandinavian, where it may be a translation of a Celtic word meaning "dog". The strong form Hundr, is found as a by-name in West Scandinavia. In Denmark the strong form appears as both a personal name and as a by-name. Anglo-Scandinavian place-names which may be derived from this name include Hundebi, Hunbia, Humbi, Hundemar, Hundelandes, Hundesburton, or these may derive from the animal name in either Old English or Old Norse. GB p. 11 s.n. Hundi; FJ pp. 144 s.nn. Hundi, Hundr
Hundifotr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation from a by-name meaning "dog-foot". For the first element Hundi- see above. FJ pp. 144 s.nn. Hundi, Hundr, *Hundiftr
Hundigeirr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. For the first element Hundi- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Hundger. FJ pp. 144, 343, 349 s.nn. *Hundigeirr, Geir-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Hundigrmr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian formation. For the first element Hundi- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Hundegrim. FJ pp. 145, 343, 349 s.nn. *Hundigrmr, Grm-, -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.n. -grmR
Hundingr For the first element Hundi- see above. This is the name of a saga-king, and also occurs in a few West Scandinavian place-names. Also appears in Denmark and Sweden. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Hundintone, Hundinton, Hundintune, Hondintone and the names Hundic and Hundinc. FJ p. 145 s.n. Hundingr
Hundlfr, Hundulfr For the first element Hundi- see above. For the second element -olfr or -ulfr see above. Appears at the time of the Settlement of Iceland. Found occasionally in Norway after that time as well. A Norman form, Hundulf also is documented, but may be a Continental Germanic borrowing. May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Hundelbi, Hvndvlftorp, Hundulftorp, Hundoluesdale, Hundoluesdala, Hundolftweith, Hundolfgot, or these may derive from Hnulfr. GB p. 11 s.n. Hundlfr; FJ pp. 145, 351 s.nn. Hundulfr, -ulfr
Hni A short form of names in Hn-, see above. Found in Norway after 1400. Appears frequently in Denmark from the late 1300's, mostly in South Jutland, where it was probably a loan from Frisian. Also found in Swedish, where it may be "Hun, Hunnish warrior". May appear in the Anglo-Scandinavian form Hune. FJ pp. 145-146 s.n. Hni; NR s.n. Hnvir
Hunni See also Unni. FJ p. 146 s.n. *Hunni
Hnn See Hn-, above. GB p. 12 s.n. Hnn; FJ pp. 344 s.n. Hn-; NR s.n. Hnvir
Hnketill A hypothetical form postulated from Anglo-Scandinavian place-name evidence. See Hn-, above. For the second element -ketill see above. See also Unnketill. A short form of names in Hn- is Hni. FJ pp. 145-146, 344, 349 s.nn. *Hnketill, Hni, Hn-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. Hnvir, -k(ti)ll
Hnrr For the first element Hn- see above. The second element is a form of -frr, see above. A few instances occur in Iceland. Anglo-Scandinavian place-names using this name include Hundredestoit, Hundresthuait. A short form of names in Hn- is Hni. GB p. 12 s.n. Hnrr; FJ pp. 146, 344, 348 s.nn. Hnrr, Hni, Hn-, -rr; NR s.n. Hnvir
Hnjfr For the first element Hn- see above. For the second element -jfr see above. A short form of names in Hn- is Hni. GB p. 12 s.n. Hnjfr; FJ pp. 146, 344, 351 s.nn. Hni, Hn-, -jfr; NR s.n. Hnvir
Hnulfr For the first element Hn- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. A short form of names in Hn- is Hni. FJ pp. 146, 347, 351 s.nn. Hnulfr, Hni, Hn-, -ulfr; NR s.n. Hnvir
Hnvir Possibly found in Old Swedish as Hunvidh. For the first element Hn- see above. For the suffix -vir see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form hunui. A short form of names in Hn- is Hni. FJ pp. 146, 342 s.n. Hni, -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Hnvir, Hn-, -vir
Hsbjrn The first element Hs- is from the OW.Norse hs "room, house", otherwise it is not found as a Scandinavian personal name element; the name may nevertheless be thought of as a variant from the by-name hskarl, "free man in service to another person." For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Occurs in the runic accusative case form husbiorn. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.n. Hsbirn, -birn
Hskarl Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England. From the OW.Norse noun hskarl "free man in service to another person". Runic examples include the nominative forms huskarl (4 instances) and the genitive form huskarlsa. NR s.n. Hskarl
Hvalr, Hwal "Whale." The name of a mythological giant in West Scandinavia, occurs in the 1300s as a Norwegian by-name. In Denmark there are several occurrences as a by-name, Hwal. FJ pp. 147 s.n. Hvalr
Hvatgeirr The first element Hvat- is from the OW.Norse adjective hvatr "quick, bold, brave, daring, manly." For the second element -geirr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form uatar. FJ pp. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. HvatgiRR, Hvatr, -giRR
Hvati   GB p. 12 s.n. Hvati
Hvatr Found in OW.Norse as Hvatr (also found as a by-name), and in Old Danish as the by-name Hoat. From the OW.Norse adjective hvatr "quick, bold, brave, daring, manly." Runic examples include the nominative forms [huakr]. NR s.n. Hvatr
Hvelpr, Hwalp Originally a by-name, "whelp". occurs as the personal name of one of the sons of an earl or Orkney. Also found as a by-name ca. 1000. A Danish form, Hwalp, is found as a by-name. GB p. 12 s.n. Hvelpr; FJ pp. 147 s.n.
Hvthfi Found in Old Danish as the by-name Hwithoveth, in Old Swedish as the by-name Hvithovudh, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Hvthfu. Compounded from the OW.Norse adjective hvtr "white" and -hfi, "head." Occurs in the runic accusative case forms huit'haufa, oithaf[a] as a personal name, for example: "Fastulfr had the stones erected in memory of Hvthfi, his father. smundr carved and Vgmarr." CV pp. 302-303, 306 s.nn. hvtr, hfi; NR s.n. Hvthfi, -hfi
Hvtkrr Compounded from the OW.Norse adjective hvtr "white" and the second element -krr, which is from the OW.Norse adjective *krr, from Germanic *kaura- "bowed, curved" with the sense partly of "curly, wavy", partly "obstinate, pugnacious, reluctant." Occurs in the runic genitive form ui(t)kars in an inscription reading, "Gunnarr and Sassurr, they had this stone raised in memory of Geirbjrn, their father, Hvtkrr of Svalunes's son. Norwegians killed him on sbjrn's cargo-ship." NR s.n. Hvtkrr
Hvtr, Hvti Found both as a name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Hwit, in Old Swedish as Hvit, and in OW.Norse as Hvtr. From the OW.Norse adjective hvtr "white." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative form [huitr]: "Hvtr and Karl and Ulfr(?)had...". FJ pp. 147 s.nn. Hvtr, Hvti; NR s.n. Hvtr
Hyrningr   GB p. 12 s.n. Hyrningr
Hsingr   GB p. 12 s.n. Hsingr
 
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Name Notes Source
gulbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Ighulbiorn. The first element, gul-, may be derived from the OW.Norse noun gull "sea-urchin," but nevertheless probably has an original sense of "hedgehog." For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of names in gul- is Iuli. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples of this name include the nominative forms ig(u)lbi(u)rn, ihulbarn, ihulbiarn, ihulbiurn, [ikulbiarn], ikulburn, ...[kulbi](u)rn and the accusative forms igulbiarn, ihulbiarn, ikulbiaurn, iylburn. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 317 s.v. bjrn, gull; NR s.nn. gulbirn, gul-, gull, -birn, Iuli
gulfastr Found in Old Swedish as Ighulfast. For the first element gul-, see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms ihulfastr, ihy[lfastr], ikulfastr, [ikulfastr], ikul*fhstr, iolfast, iulfastr and the accusative forms [ih]ulfast, ikulfast, iulfast, [iulfast]. A short form of names in gul- is Iuli. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. CV pp. 145, 317 s.v. fastr, gull; NR s.nn. gulfastr, gul-, gull, -fastr, Iuli, Fasti
gull Found in Old Swedish as Ighul (also found as a by-name), occurs in OW.Norse as gull. This name may be derived from the OW.Norse noun gull "sea-urchin," but nevertheless probably has an original sense of "hedgehog." Runic examples include the nominative forms igul, ihul (4 instances), ikul, (in)kul and the accusative forms igul, ihul, [ihul], ikhul, ikul, (in)kul. A short form of names in gul- is Iuli. CV p. 317 s.v. gull; NR s.nn. gull, Iuli
Illfss From the OW.Norse adjective illfss "wicked, spiteful, malicious." May occur in the runic nominative form ilfus. NR s.n. Illfss
Illugi Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Illughi, occurs in OW.Norse as Illugi (also found as a by-name). From the OW.Norse noun *illhugi "one who has a wicked or evil nature, bad-natured man." Runic examples include the nominative forms iluhi (4 instances), [iluhi], iluki (3 instances), [iluki], [ily]ikiiluka, and the accusative forms hiluka, ilhu[tfa], iluka. NR s.n. Ill(h)ugi
Ingi Found in Old Danish and Old West Norse as Ingi, and in Old Swedish as Inge, this name originates as a short form of masculine names beginning in Ingi-. The first element Ing- (before a vowel) and Ingi- are of uncertain origin. This name element is thought to derive from Germanic *Ingwia-, which is formed from the Germanic god-name *Ingwaz, compounded with the suffix of belonging, -ia- - nevertheless there is no direct proof of this derivation. Alternately the name may indicate national origin from the Germanic *ingwianiz "Ingaevones" (Latin inguaeones, ingaeuones) mentioned by Pliny and Tacitus, who describe these as a coastal Germanic tribe, who took their name from that of a mythical person or god from which the tribe sprang. The etymology of *Ingw-/*ingw- is disputed and uncertain, but may be related to other words of Indo-European origin, such as Greek encox, "lance, staff" in a meaning related perhaps to male genitalia, since the name is also associated with the god Ingvi-Freyr. The name Ingi is found very early in Denmark and Sweden, where it remained common, for example in the Latinized Danish form Ingo. The name spread from there to Norway, where it first was adopted by members of the Norwegian royal house. A few instances occur in Iceland. Runic examples include the nominative forms iki, in(n)ki and the accusative forms igi, ika. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Ingeham and in the names Inghe, Inge, Ing. FJ pp. 149-150, 344 s.nn. Ingi, Ingi-; NR s.nn. Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-)
Ingibjrn Found in Old Swedish as Ingebiorn and in OW.Norse as Ingibjrn. For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikibiarn, ikib(in)rn, [iki-in]orn, ingibiorn and the accusative forms ikibiarn, inkibiarn. FJ pp. 344, 348 s.nn. Ingi-, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Ingibirn, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -birn
Ingifastr Found in Old Danish as Ingifast and in Old Swedish Ingevast. For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikifastr (10 instances), inkifastr (4 instances), (in)nk(in)f(a)[s]tr, inki[f](a)(s)(t)(r), the genitive form [ikifatar] and the accusative forms ikifast, (in)kifast, ingifast, inkifast (3 instances), ink[in]fast, [inki]fast, [inkifast]. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. CV pp. 145 s.v. fastr; FJ p. 344 s.n. Ingi-; NR s.nn. Ingifastr, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -fastr, Fasti
Ingigeirr For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Runic examples may include the nominative forms igikeR, ikik(e)r, in[k]ik[in]r, although these may instead represent the name Ingigrr. FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Ingi-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. IngigiRR, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -giRR, Ingigrr
Ingikrr For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -krr see above. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. May occur in the runic nominative form inkikar, although this inscription may instead represent the name Ingigrr. FJ p. 344 s.n. Ingi-; NR s.nn. Ingikrr, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -krr, Ingigrr
Ingileifr A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian construction. For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Either this name or Ingulfr give rise to the Anglo-Scandinavian name Ingolef. FJ pp. 150, 344, 350 s.nn. *Ingileifr, Ingi-, -leifr; CV p. 381 s.v. leif; NR s.nn. Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -lifR
Ingimann For the first element Ingi- see above. The second element may instead be a substitution for -mundr (see -mundr above). A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Not recorded in West Scandinavia but fairly common in Denmark. Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Indegkemanethorp, Yngmanthorp. FJ pp. 150, 344 s.nn. Ingimann, Ingi-; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-)
Ingimrr Found in Old Danish as Ingimar, in Old Swedish as Ingemar, and in OW.Norse as Ingimrr. For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -mrr see above. One of the Icelandic Landnmsmenn bore this name. Otherwise common in West Scandinavia from 1150 onwards. Also recorded in Sweden and Denmark. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikimar (3 instances), inkimar, the genitive form ikimar- and the accusative forms ikim[a]r, [inkmar]. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Ingemerestanes. FJ pp. 151, 344, 350 s.nn. Ingimarr, Ingi-, -marr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr; NR s.nn. Ingimarr, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -marr
Ingimundr Found in Old Danish as Ingimund, in Old Swedish as Ingemund, and in OW.Norse as Ingimundr. For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. This name is common in Sweden and Denmark, and probably spread from there to Norway, where it makes its first appearance in the 1100's, but did not become frequent in Norway until the 1300's. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. Runic examples include the nominative forms ekimunr, ikimuntr, inkimuntr, [inki]muntr, nkimuntr, [...-nk]imunt[r] and the accusative forms ikimunt, ikiunt, inkimunt, [inkimunt], [inkimuntr]. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Ingemund (1066-1068), Ingemunde (1066-1068), Yngemund (1409). FJ pp. 150-151, 344, 350 s.nn. Ingimundr, Ingi-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Ingimundr, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -mundr, Mundi
Ingjaldr Found in Old Danish as Ingiald, in Old Swedish as Ingild, and in OW.Norse as Ingialdr. An early loan from west Germanic; compare with Old English Ingeld, Continental Germanic Ingeldus, etc. From a strong west Germanic prefix i- and Germanic *-geldaz, related to the OW.Norse verb gjalda "to owe a debt." Possibly the name may also be understood as a contracted form of Ingivaldr. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Runic examples include the nominative forms igialtr, [ikialr], ikialtr, [iki](a)ltr, [ikiauoR], inkaltr, inkialr, inkialt, inkialtr (5 instances), and the accusative forms ikalt, ikal:t, ikialt, [ikialt], inkialt, [inkialt], [inkialti], [in-ialt], ...kia(l)t. FJ pp. 151-152, 344 s.nn. Ingjaldr, Ingi-, ; NR s.nn. Ingialdr, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-)
Ingivaldr Found in Old Danish as Ingwald, in Old Swedish as Ingevald, and in OW.Norse as Ingivaldr. For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikiualtr, ikiuatr, inkihualtr, inkiualtr, [inkualr] and the accusative form inkihualt. CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Ingivaldr, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -valdr
Inglfr Found in Old Danish as Ingulf, in Old Swedish as Ingolf, and in OW.Norse as Inglfr. For the first element Ingi- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. A short form of masculine names in Ing- or Ingi- is Ingi. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikulfr, [ikulfr], ikulf*r, [ikulfR], ingulfr, inkulfr and the accusative forms ikulb, inkulf. FJ pp. 344, 351 s.n. Ingi-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. IngulfR, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -ulfR
slfr The first element s- is probably from Old Icelandic ss, "ice on sea or water". For the second element -lfr see above. FJ pp. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 319, 668 s.v. ss, lfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
Iuli Found in Old Danish as Iuli and in Old Swedish as Iule. A short form of names in gul-. Runic examples include the nominative form iuli and the accusative form iula. NR s.n. Iuli, gul-
varr, Yngvarr Found in Old Danish as Iwar, in Old Swedish as Ivar, and in OW.Norse as varr. The origin of this name is unclear. Fellows-Jenson states that the first element is probably from Ingi-, as *Inhu-harjaz > Primitive Scandinavian *Ihu-harjaR > *Ihu-harR > varr. If this is correct, then the second element -arr is derived from either *harjaR, Old Icelandic herr, "army, warrior" or from *gaiRaR, Old Icelandic geirr, "spear". A side form of the name, Yngvarr, exists, derived from *Inzu-harjaz > Yngvarr. Appears in Irish sources as Inwar and Imhair. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon argues that the first element derives from Primitive Scandinavian *iwa, "yew-tree, yew-bow", related to Old icelandic r, plural far. Runic examples in both the nominative and accusative case appear asiuar. Appears in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Geresbi, Ieresbi and the names Yward, Iuer, Iver, Ywerker. FJ pp. 153, 348 s.n. varr, -arr; NR s.nn. Ingvarr, Ingv-, Ing(in)-, -arr
 
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Name Notes Source
Jafri This name is a weak side-form of Jafurr or Jfurr. It occurs inn the runic accusative case form iafra. NR s.nn. Iafri, Ifurr
Jakob Christian, Jacob. A diminuitive form of Jakob is Kobbi. GB p. 12 s.n. Jakob; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
JargeiRR The first element in this name is formed from OW.Norse jara "battle." For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative form iar-eiR and the accusative form iarkiR. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. IargiRR, -giRR
Jarl Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Swedish as Irl and in OW.Norse as Jarl. From the OW.Norse noun jarl "free, distinguished man, chieftain." Runic examples include the nominative form iarl (6 instances), the genitive form iarls, and the accusative forms iarl (7 instances), [iart], [ia...], iorl. NR s.n. Iarl
Jarli Found in Old Swedish as the name Irle and in OW.Norse as the by-name Jarli. Derived from OW.Norse jarl "free, distinguished man, chieftain" or a diminuitive form of Jarl.. NR s.nn. Iarl, Iarli
Jarmrr For the second element -mrr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jarmarr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -marr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr; NR s.n. -marr
Jrngrmr The first element Jrn- is identical with Old Icelandic jrn, "iron". For the second element -grmr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jrngrmr; FJ pp. 344, 349 s.nn. Jrn-, -grmr; CV pp. 216, 325 s.v. grma, jrn; NR s.n. -grmR
Jrni Found in Old Swedish as Irne (though this may instead be a short form of Irund). Derived from OW.Norse jrn "iron." Occurs in the runic accusative case form iarna. NR s.n. Iarni
Jrnskeggi For the first element Jrn see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jrnskeggi; FJ p. 344 s.n. Jrn-; CV pp. 325 s.v. jrn
Jarpi Occurs in Old Swedish as the by-name Irpe. From the OW.Norse adjective jarpr "brown" or from OW.Norse jarpi "hazel hen (Tetrao bonasia)" (origin "the brown"). The Runic Swedish name may also be understood as a diminuitive of JarpR or masculine names in Jarp- such as JarpulfR. Occurs in the runic nominative form iarbi. NR s.n. Iarpi
Jarpr Found in OW.Norse as Jarpr; compare with Old Danish Erp (also found as a by-name), OW.Norse Erpr. From the OW.Norse adjective jarpr, "brown." Runic examples include the nominative form (in)arbR and the accusative form iab. Jarpi may represent a diminutive form of this name. GB p. 12 s.n. Jarpr; NR s.n. Iarpr, Iarpi
JarpulfR Found in Old Danish as Iarpulf and in Old Swedish as Irpolf. The first element from the OW.Norse adjective jarpr, "brown." For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form [iarbukf]. NR s.nn. IarpulfR, -ulfR
Jtgeirr For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jtgeirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Jtmundr For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 12 s.n. Jtmundr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Jtrr For the second element -rr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jtrr; FJ p. 345 s.n. R-
Jtvarr For the second element -varr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jtvarr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -varr; CV p. 722 s.v. vrr
Jtvgr For the second element -vgr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jtvgr; NR s.nn. Vgr, Vg-, -vgr
Jarr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Ioar, occurs in OW.Norse as Jarr. The first element J- is from the OW.Norse noun jr (derived from Germanic *ehwaz) "horse." For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms ioar, iuar and the accusative form iuar (although the forms in iuar may instead represent the name varr). FJ p. 348 s.n. -arr; NR s.nn. Iarr, I-, -arr
Jbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Iobiorn. For the first element J-, see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative forms eubern, iubiarn, iubrn and the accusative forms iubiarn, iybiurn. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Ibirn, I-, -birn
Jurr   GB p. 12 s.n. Jurr
Jfreyr   GB p. 12 s.n. Jfreyr
Jfurbjrn The first element Jfur- is from the OW.Norse noun jfurr (from Primitive Scandinavian *eburaR), originally with a sense of "wild boar" but coming to mean "prince" because of the boar-crested helmets such men were said to have worn. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Occurs in the runic nominative form ihfurbiarn. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Ifurbirn, Ifur-, -birn
Jfurr Found in Old Swedish as Iuvur and in OW.Norse as Jfurr. From the OW.Norse noun jfurr (from Primitive Scandinavian *eburaR), originally with a sense of "wild boar" but coming to mean "prince" because of the boar-crested helmets such men were said to have worn. Runic examples include the nominative forms iofur, iufur (3 instances), [iufur] (3 instances) and the accusative forms iafur, iufur, [iufur]. NR s.n. Ifurr
Jfursteinn For the first element Jfur- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. May occur in the runic nominative form if[r]s[t]a[in]. CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Ifurstinn, Ifur-, -stinn
Jgeirr Found in OW.Norse as Jgeirr. For the first element J-, see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms iokeR, iukaiR, iuk(a)iR, iukiR (3 instances) and the accusative forms iu(k)aiR, iukeir. CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. IgiRR, I-, -giRR
Jhann, Jhannes Found in Old Swedish as Iohan and in OW.Norse as Jhann. Christian name; Scandinavian form of Greek Johannes (modern John or Johann). Runic examples include the nominative forms ioan, [ioan], iohan, [ioh]..., iuan, iuon, iyan and the accusative form ioan. GB p. 12 s.nn. Jhann, Jhannes; NR s.nn. I(h)an, In
Jkell For the first element J-, see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jkell; FJ pp. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. I-, -k(ti)ll
Jkull   GB p. 12 s.n. Jkull
Jfreir   GB p. 12 s.n. Jfreir
Jlgeirr Found in Old Danish as Iulger and in OW.Norse as Jlgeirr. For the first element gul-, see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the accusative case forms ihulkai, (in)u(l)kiR. GB p. 12 s.n. Jlgeirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. gulgiRR, gul-, gull, -giRR
Jn, In The name Jn is a contracted form of Jan or Jhan, and is a name adopted from Christian Johannes. The name is found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Ion, and in OW.Norse as In or Jn. Runic examples include the nominative case form ion and the accusative case forms ion or [iu]n. A diminuitive form of this name is Jni or Jnsi. GB p. 12 s.n. Jn; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; NR s.nn. In, I(h)an
Jni Diminuitive form of Jn. Occurs in the runic genitive case form ionha. NR s.nn. Ini, In, I(h)an
Jnsi A diminuitive form of Jn (related to English Johnny). CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Jngeirr Compound from the Christian name Jn. For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Jngeirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. In, I(h)an, -giRR
Jrkell The first element Jr- is from the OW.Norse noun *jrr (derived from Primitive Scandinavian *eburaR), "wild boar," originally with a sense of "wild boar" but coming to mean "prince" because of the boar-crested helmets such men were said to have worn. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form [iorkil] (though some scholars emend this reading of the inscription to the name orkil). CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. Irkll, Irkll, rk(ti)ll, Ir-, -k(ti)ll
JR This name is known from a runic inscription in the nominative case, iauR, which may instead represent the name HR. From OW.Norse jr (derived from Germanic *ehwaz "horse." NR s.n. IR
JrulfR For the first element Jr-, see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form iurulf (though this may instead represent the name HjrulfR). NR s.n. IrulfR, Ir-, -ulfR, HirulfR
Jrundi This name may represent a weak side-form of the name Jrundr. Runic examples include the genitive case form [in]aruntaiaruta. NR s.nn. Irundi, Irundr
Jrundr Found in Old Danish as Iarund or Iorund, in Old Swedish as Iorund, Irund, Irund, and in OW.Norse as Jrundr. This name is of disputed origin. The first element may be from the OW.Norse noun jara "battle." For the second element -undr or -vindr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms iarntr, iaruntr, iaru[ntr], [iaruntr], iarutr, in[or]uidr, [iorunt]r, iuruntr, iurun[tr], [iuruntr], iurunt..., [iyruntr] and the accusative forms iaru(n)t, [iarunt], iarut, iaruta, ierunt, iorunt, in(o)rut, iurunt. GB p. 12 s.n. Jrundr; NR s.nn. Irundr, Ir-, -undr/-vindr
Jsep Christian, Joseph GB p. 12 s.n. Jsep
Jsteinn Found in Old Danish as Iosten and in OW.Norse as Jsteinn. For the first element J-, see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms iystin, [yustin] and the accusative forms iusti[n], iust, iystin. GB p. 12 s.n. Jsteinn; FJ p. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Istinn, I-, -stinn
Jsurr A proper name from Hyndlulj, perhaps derived from Norse jase, "hare". GB p. 12 s.n. Jsurr; CV pp. 328 s.v. Jsurr
Jti Found both as a personal name and a by-name, occurring in Old Danish as Iuti, Old Swedish as Iute, and in OW.Norse as Jti. From Old Swedish iute, "Jute, person from Jutland." Occurs in the runic accusative case form iuta. NR s.n. Iti
 
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Name Notes Source
Kabbi Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Kabbi and in Old Swedish as Kabbe. From a name corresponding to a Swedish dialect word kabbe "wooden block, ball." The runic evidence for this name is unclear: it is found in the runic nominative form kabi which may instead represent Gapi, Kampi, or Kappi. NR s.nn. Kabbi, Gapi, Kampi, Kappi
Kaall Celtic GB p. 12 s.n. Kaall
Kafli Found in Old Swedish as Kafle (also found as a by-name), and found in OW.Norse as the by-name Kafli. From the OW.Norse noun kafli "long, round piece of wood." Occurs in the runic nominative form kafli. NR s.n. Kafli
KagR Found in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Kagus. Of uncertain etymology. Runic examples include the nominative forms [kahu], kakr and the accusative forms kak (4 instances), kakr. The runic evidence is unclear, and may instead represent Gagarr, GagR, or KkR. NR s.n. KagR, Gagarr, GagR, KkR
KkR Found in Old Swedish as Kakir or Kaker. From Old Swedish *kker (derived from Primitive Scandinavian *kkaR) "wretch, bungler" or perhaps "pole, stake, tree-stump." Runic examples include the nominative form kakr and the accusative forms kak (4 instances), kakr. The runic evidence is unclear, and may instead represent Gagarr, GagR, or KagR. NR s.n. KkR, Gagarr, GagR, KagR
Klfr Found as both a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Kalf, Old Swedish as Kalf, and OW.Norse as Klfr. From OW.Norse kalfr "calf." Runic examples include the genitive form kalfs and the accusative forms kalf (4 instances), [kalf], [ka=nilf]. GB p. 12 s.n. Klfr; NR s.n. KalfR
Kali Found in Old Danish as Kali and possibly as the by-name Kale. Found in Old Swedish as Kale (also found as a by-name, etymology uncertain). Occurs in OW.Norse as both a personal name and a by-name, Kali. Derived from the OW.Norse verb kala "to freeze, to be cold." Runic examples include the nominative forms kali (6 instances), kal|in| and possibly the accusative form kala. GB p. 12 s.n. Kali; NR s.n. Kali
Kll Found in Old Danish as the by-name Kal and in OW.Norse as the by-name Kl. From Old Swedish kal, related to OW.Norse kl "cabbage (Brassica oleracea)." Runic examples include the nominative form kal and the accusative form [kal]. NR s.n. Kll
Kalman   GB p. 12 s.n. Kalman
Kambi   GB p. 12 s.n. Kambi
Kampi Found in Old Danish as both the personal name and as the by-name Kampi (etymology uncertain). Found in OW.Norse as Kampi (also found as a by-name). Derived from OW.Norse kampr "mustache." The runic evidence for this name is unclear: it is found in the runic nominative form kabi which may instead represent Gapi, Kabbi, or Kappi. NR s.nn. Kampi, Gapi, Kabbi, Kappi
Kani Found in Old Swedish as Kane (also found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as the by-name Kani. From the OW.Norse noun kani "bowl; boat." Occurs in the runic accusative case form kana. NR s.n. Kani
KanpR Found in Old Danish as the by-name Kamp and in OW.Norse as the by-name Kampr. From OW.Norse kanpr, kampr "moustache." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative form kabR. NR s.n. KanpR
Kappi Found in Old Swedish as Kappe (also found as a by-name, etymology uncertain), and in OW.Norse as the by-name Kappi. From OW.Norse kappi "warrior." The runic evidence for this name is unclear: it is found in the runic nominative form kabi which may instead represent Gapi, Kabbi, or Kampi. NR s.nn. Kappi, Gapi, Kabbi, Kampi
Kri Found in Old Danish as Kari, in Old Swedish as Kare, and in OW.Norse as Kri; all three forms are found both as a personal name and as a by-name. From the OW.Norse adjective OW.Norse adjective *krr (from Germanic *kaura- "bowed, curved") with the sense partly of "curly, wavy," and partly "obstinate, pugnacious, reluctant." Runic examples include the nominative forms kare, kari (7 instances), kori, the genitive form kara and the accusative form kara (6 instances). GB p. 12 s.n. Kri; NR s.nn. Kri, Krr
Karl Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish, Old Swedish, and OW.Norse as Karl. From the OW.Norse noun karl "free man." Runic examples include the nominative forms karl (14 instances), |karl (3 instances), ka[rl], [karl], [|karl], [|k-rl] and the accusative forms [karal], karl (6 instances), [karl]. GB p. 12 s.n. Karl; CV p. 331 s.v. karl; NR s.n. Karl
Karli Found in Old Danish as the personal name Karli and as the by-name Karle, in Old Swedish as Karle (also found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as Karli. Diminuitive of Karl or derived from the by-name karl. Runic examples include the nominative forms karli, [karli]. GB p. 12 s.n. Karli; CV p. 331 s.v. karl; NR s.nn. Karli, Karl
Krni Derived from OW.Norse krn, which is thought to be a type of bird. Compare with the OW.Norse by-name Krn. Occurs in the runic accusative case form karna, though this may instead represent either Garni or GiRni. NR s.n. Krni, Garni, GiRni
Krr Found as OW.Norse Krr, both as a personal name and as a by-name. From the OW.Norse adjective *krr (from Germanic *kaura- "bowed, curved") with the sense partly of "curly, wavy," and partly "obstinate, pugnacious, reluctant." Runic examples include the nominative forms kar (5 examples), karR, ...(k)arR and the accusative form kaur. GB p. 12 s.n. Krr; NR s.n. Krr
Karsi Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Karse, from *Karl-si, derived from a by-name of Karl, or identical with the Swedish dialect word karse "wicker, basket." Occurs in the runic nominative form [karsi]. NR s.n. Karsi
Kr-Tki Occurs as Scandinavian name in England, Kartoka, derived from masculine name Tki prefixed with a by-name, the OW.Norse adjective *krr (see above). Occurs in the runic nominative form kartuki. NR s.n. Kr-Tki
KrungR "Krr the Young." Derived from the OW.Norse adjective *krr (see Krr above). Occurs in the runic genitive form karuks. NR s.nn. KrungR, KarlungR
Kasi Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Kase. The name is related to the Swedish dialect word kase "heap, pile." The runic evidence for this name is unclear: it is found in the runic nominative form kase, which may instead represent Gsi or Kassi. NR s.nn. Kasi, Gsi, Kassi
Kassi Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Kasse. Related to Swedish kasse, "wicker, basket," and to Danish kasse, "chest." The runic evidence for this name is unclear: it is found in the runic nominative form kase, which may instead represent Gsi or Kasi. NR s.nn. Kassi, Gsi, Kasi
Kti May be found in Old Danish as both the personal name and by-name Kati, in OW.Norse as Kti (also found as a by-name), and in Old Swedish as the by-name Kate. From the OW.Norse adjective ktr "glad, cheerful." Runic examples include the nominative forms kati, ka[ti], [kati], the genitive form kata and the accusative forms kata, [kata]. NR s.n. Kti
Kaun   GB p. 12 s.n. Kaun
Kaupi Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Kpe and may exist in OW.Norse as a by-name, Kaupi. From the OW.Norse noun kaupi "purchaser, merchant." occurs in the runic nominative form kaubi. NR s.n. Kaupi
Keli Diminuitive form of rkell. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Ketilbjrn Found in Old Danish as Ketilbiorn, Old Swedish as Ktilbiorn or Klbiorn, and in OW.Norse as Ketilbjrn. The first element Ketil-, originally "kettle" but also has the meaning of "helmet" or "chieftain with helmet." For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms katil:biarn, ketilbarn, ketilbiarn, [kiatilborn], kitilbiarn, kitilbiurn (3 instances), [kitli:biarn] and the accusative forms katilbiurn, k(in)(l)beaurn, kil(b)--..., kitilbiarn, [kitulbiurn]. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 12 s.n. Ketilbjrn; FJ pp. 345, 348, 348 s.nn. Ketil-, -ketill, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 337-338 s.v. bjrn, ketill; NR s.nn. Ktilbirn, Ktil-, -birn, Biarni, -k(ti)ll
Ketilfastr Found in Old Swedish as Ktilvast. For the first element Ketill see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [kaitluastr], [ketilfas], ketilfastr, kitilfastr, [kitilfastr], [kitilfast-] and the accusative forms ketilfast, ketil[f]ast, kitilfast, kitilfastr. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. CV pp. 145, 337-338 s.v. fastr, ketill; NR s.nn. Ktilfastr, Ktil-, -fastr, -k(ti)ll, Fasti
Ketilhfi For the first element Ketill see above. For the second element -hfi see above. Runic examples include the nominative form [kitil]haufiketilhaufa, kitilhafa. CV pp. 306, 337-338 s.v. hfi, ketill; NR s.nn. Ktilhfi, Ktil-, -k(ti)ll, -hfi
Ketilhss For the first element Ketill see above. The second element is from the OW.Norse adjective hss "gray." Occurs in the runic nominative form kitilas. CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.nn. Ktilhss, Ktil-, -k(ti)ll
Ketill Found in Old Danish as Ketil (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as Ktil, and in OW.Norse as Ketill. From the OW.Norse noun ketill. The basic sense of this word is "kettle" but is used in names meaning "helmet," as in a kettle-helm. Another sense is "chieftain with helmet." Runic examples include the nominative forms ik=til, katil (3 instances), [katil], kati..., [katl], keitil, ketil (6 instances), ke(t)il, [ketil], [keti...], [kiau], kitil (4 instances), kitil|, [kitil], [kt]il, the genitive forms [katils], kitils and the accusative forms kaitil, katil, [katil], ketil (5 instances), ke(t)(in)l, [ketil], kitil, |kitil, (k)(in)til, [kitil], [(k)itil]. GB p. 12 s.n. Ketill; FJ pp. 345, 349 s.nn. Ketil-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. Ktill, Ktil-, -k(ti)ll
KetillaugR Found in Old Danish as Ketillgh and in Old Swedish as Ktillgh. For the first element Ketill see above. For the second element -laugr see above. occurs in the runic accusative case form kelau. CV pp. 337-338, 374 s.v. ketill and laug def. IV; NR s.n. KtillaugR, Ktil-, -laugR, -k(ti)ll
Ketilmundr Found in Old Swedish as Ktilmund. For the first element Ketill see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms [gatilRutr], [ketilmutr], [kitilmuntr], kiti[lm](u)[t]r, ki-ilmutr, the genitive forms kitilmun(t)aR, [kitilmuntaR] and the accusative forms [katelmunt], [ketilmun], ketilmunt, ketil[munt], [ket]ilmunt, kitilmut. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. CV pp. 337-338, 437-438 s.v. ketill, mundr; NR s.n. Ktilmundr, Ktil-, -mundr, -k(ti)ll, Mundi
KilfiR Of uncertain etymology. Occurs in the runic nominative form kilfihR. NR s.n. KilfiR
Kimbi   GB p. 12 s.n. Kimbi
KilkR Originally a Celtic name; compare with OW.Norse Kjallakr. Runic examples include the nominative forms giulakr, kiulakr, [kiula(in)...] and the accusative form kiulik. NR s.n. KilkR
Kili Of uncertain etymology. Three explanations are presented: 1) Short form of KilkR, 2) Derived from OW.Norse kjll, "ship," with the suffix -inn, 3) construction from a place-name in Kjul- (in Old Swedish *kil, OW.Norse kjll, "ship"). A fourth possibility is that the name is derived from *kil, kjll with a suffix -in (from *-an-). Runic examples include the nominative forms kiuli, kiulin, kulikiula. NR s.n. Kili
Kjallakr From Celtic Cealloc. GB p. 12 s.n. Kjallakr
Kjaran Celtic GB p. 12 s.n. Kjaran
Kjarfalr Celtic GB p. 12 s.n. Kjarfalr
Kjartan Celtic GB p. 12 s.n. Kjartan
Kjarvalr Celtic GB p. 12 s.n. Kjarvalr
Kjtvi Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in OW.Norse as Kjtvi. Derived from the OW.Norse noun kjt "flesh, meat." Occurs in the runic nominative form -in(o)(l)ui. GB p. 12 s.n. Kjtvi; NR s.n. Kitvi
Klakki Found in Old Danish as the personal name Klakki and the by-name Klakke. Occurs in Old Swedish as Klakke. Derived from OW.Norse klakkr "peg" or is a diminuitive of KlakkR. Runic examples include the genitive form klaka and the accusative form klaka. NR s.n. Klakki, Klakkr
KlakkR Found in OW.Norse as Klakkr, and in Old Danish and Old Swedish s the by-name Klak. From OW.Norse klakkr "peg." Runic examples include the nominative forms klakR and the accusative form klakR. NR s.n. Klakkr
Klaufi "Clumsy." GB p. 12 s.n. Klaufi
Klefi Of uncertain etymology. Occurs in the runic accusative case form [klefa]. NR s.n. Klefi
Klemetr, Klemens, Klement This name is found in Old Danish as Klement, in Old Swedish as Klemet, and in OW.Norse as Klemetr. This is a Christian name, from Latin Clemens. Found in a single runic inscription in the accusative case form klemint. GB p. 12 s.nn. Klemens, Klement; NR s.n. Kleme(n)t
Kleppjrn   GB p. 12 s.n. Kleppjrn
KleppiR, KlippiR Derived from the OW.Norse noun kleppr "lump" (from *klimp-). Occurs in the runic nominative form klibiR. NR s.nn. KleppiR or KlippiR
Kleppr   GB p. 12 s.n. Kleppr
Klintr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Klint. From Old Swedish klinter, "cliff, hillock." Runic examples include the nominative form [klintr] and the accusative form klint. NR s.n. Klintr
Klœngr   GB p. 12 s.n. Klœngr
Klyppr   GB p. 12 s.n. Klyppr
KnaggR Found in Old Swedish as Knag (also found as a by-name), and in Old Danish as the by-name Knag. Related to the Swedish knag, knagg "projecting piece of wood, knot on a tree." Occurs in the runic nominative form [knakr], which may instead represent the name KnakkR. NR s.n. KnaggR, KnakkR
KnakkR From the OW.Norse noun knakkr "stool, small chair." Occurs in the runic nominative form [knakr], which may instead represent the name KnaggR. NR s.n. KnakkR
KnikiR Derived from the OW.Norse verb kneikja "press, squeeze." Occurs in the runic genitive case form knikis. NR s.nn. KnikiR, GnggiR
Knjkr   GB p. 12 s.n. Knjkr
Knrr trading ship GB p. 12 s.n. Knrr
Knttr   GB p. 12 s.n. Knttr
Kntr This name is found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Knut and in OW.Norse as Kntr. From the OW.Norse noun kntr "knot." Runic examples include the nominative forms knutr, kunt, the genitive forms knus, knuts, the dative forms knuti, kuti, and the accusative form knut. GB p. 12 s.n. Knutr; NR s.n. Kntr
Kobbi By-name, either meaning "seal" or later as a diminuitive form of Jakob. GB p. 12 s.n. Kobbi; CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Korn Celtic GB p. 12 s.n. Korn
Kofri Occurs both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Swedish as Kofre and in OW.Norse as Kofri. From the OW.Norse noun kofri "hood, hat." Occurs in the runic nominative case form [kufri]. NR s.n. Kufri
KgiR Perhaps a side-form from the Old Swedish masculine name Kghe (of uncertain etymology). occurs in the runic genitive case form kukis. NR s.n. KgiR
Kolbakr The first element Kol- is identical with Old Icelandic kol, "coals, black as coal". GB p. 12 s.n. Kolbakr; FJ p. 345 s.n. Kol-; CV pp. 347 s.v. kol; NR s.n. Kul-
Kolbeinn Found in Old Danish as Kulben (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as Kolben (also found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as Kolbeinn. For the first element Kol- see above. For the second element -beinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative form kulben, the genitive form klbins and the accusative form kulbain. GB p. 12 s.n. Kolbeinn; FJ pp. 345, 348 s.nn. Kol-, -beinn; CV pp. 347 s.v. kol; NR s.nn. Kulbinn, Kul-, -binn
Kolbjrn For the first element Kol- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 12 s.n. Kolbjrn; FJ pp. 345, 348 s.nn. Kol-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 347 s.v. bjrn, kol; NR s.nn. Kul-, -birn, Biarni
Kolbrandr For the first element Kol- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Kolbrandr; FJ pp. 345, 348 s.nn. Kol-, -brandr; CV pp. 76, 347 s.v. brandr, kol; NR s.n. Kul-
Kolfir For the first element Kol- see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Kolfir; FJ p. 345 s.n. Kol-; CV pp. 347 s.v. kol; NR s.n. Kul-
Kolfinnr Found in OW.Norse s Kolfinnr. For the first element Kol- see above. For the second element -finnr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kul:finR, which may instead represent Gull-Finnr, the name Finnr combined with a prepended by-name. FJ pp. 348 s.n. -finnr; NR s.nn. Kulfinnr, Kul-, -finnr
Kolgrmr For the first element Kol- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. GB p. 12 s.n. Kolgrmr; FJ pp. 345, 349 s.nn. ; CV pp. 216, 347 s.v. grma, kol; NR s.nn. Kul-, -grmR
Kolli Found in Old Danish and in Old Swedish as either Kolle or Kulle (also found in both languages as a by-name). Occurs in OW.Norse as Kolli. This name perhaps derived from the masculine name Kullr or, rather, from the OW.Norse noun kolli, "hill." Occurs in the runic nominative form kuli. GB p. 12 s.n. Kolli; NR s.nn. Kulli/Kolli, Gulli
Kolr Found in Old Danish as the personal name Kol and as the by-name Kul. Occurs in Old Swedish as Kol (alsofound as a by-name). Found in OW.Norse as Kolr. From the OW.Norse noun kol "coal, black." Runic examples include the nominative form kul and the accusative form kul. GB p. 12 s.n. Kolr; FJ p. 345 s.n. Kol-; CV pp. 347 s.v. kol; NR s.n. KulR, Kul-
Kollr Found as both a personal name and as a byname in OW.Norse as Kollr and in Old Danish as the by-name Koll. From the OW.Norse noun kollr "rounded top; hairless head". Occurs in the runic accusative form kul. GB p. 12 s.n. Kollr; NR s.nn. Kullr, KulR
Kolskeggr For the first element Kol- see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Kolskeggr; FJ p. 345 s.n. Kol-; CV pp. 347 s.v. kol; NR s.n. Kul-
Kolsveinn For the first element Kol- see above. For the second element -sveinn see above. Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England in various forms, such as Colsvain. Occurs in the runic genitive form kuls(u)--ns. GB p. 13 s.n. Kolsveinn; FJ pp. 345, 351 s.nn. Kol-, -sveinn; CV pp. 347 s.v. kol; NR s.n. Kulsvinn, Kul-, -svinn
Konll Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Konll
Konrr For the second element -rr see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Konrar; FJ p. 345 s.nn. Kon-, R-
Krekr For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Krekr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Kri   GB p. 13 s.n. Kri
Krlungr "Karl the Young; young yeoman." Found in Old Swedish as Karlung and in OW.Norse as Krlungr. Derived from the OW.Norse noun karl "free man, yeoman." Runic examples include the nominative forms [kalukR], karlunkr, the genitive form karuks and the accusative forms karluk, [karluk]. NR s.nn. KarlungR, Karl
Kormkr Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Kormkr
KorpR Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Korp and in OW.Norse as by-name Korpr. From the OW.Norse noun korpr "raven." May occur as a personal name in the runic nominative form kor-.... NR s.n. KorpR
Korplfr The first element is from the OW.Norse noun korpr "raven." For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Korplfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; NR s.n. Korpr, -ulfR
Kotkell For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Kotkell; FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Krkr   GB p. 13 s.n. Krkr; FJ p. 181 s.n. Krkr
Krnn Celtic name. Occurs in the runic genitive case form krinais. NR s.n. Krnn
Kristfrus Christian, from Christopher. GB p. 13 s.n. Kristfrus
Kristrr Christian GB p. 13 s.n. Kristrr
KrkR Found both as a personal name and as a by-name, in in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Krok and in OW.Norse as Krkr. From the OW.Norse noun krkr "hook." Runic examples include the nominative forms krukr, [krukr], kurukr and the accusative forms krok, (k)(r)(u)(k), [kruk], [k--(k)], -uruk. NR s.n. KrkR
Krumr Found in OW.Norse as Krumr (also found as a by-name). Occurs in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Krum. From an adjective corresponding to Nynorsk krum "stiff and crooked in the fingers because of cold," Swedish krum "bent over, hunched." Occurs in the runic genitive case form karumbus. GB p. 13 s.n. Krumr; NR s.n. KrumR
Kgaldi   GB p. 13 s.n. Kgaldi
Krsa, Krusa Found in Old Danish as Krusa (etymology uncertain). Occurs in the runic nominative case form krusa. NR s.n. Krsa or Krusa
Kuggi "Cog; sailing-ship." GB p. 13 s.n. Kuggi
Ksi Found in Old Danish as Kuse (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as the by-name Kuse, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Ksi. From the Old Swedish noun kusi "person who inspires fear or dread" (from a root word meaning "big, thick"). The runic evidence for this name is unclear: it is found in the runic nominative form kusi, which may instead represent Gusi or Gussi. NR s.nn. Ksi, Gusi, Gussi
Kss Occurs in OW.Norse as the by-name Kss. From a name corresponding to Nynorsk kus, "hump." Occurs in the runic nominative case form kus. NR s.n. Kss
Kvran Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Kvran
Kvgbjrn The first element Kvg- is from the OW.Norse noun kvgr "young bullock." For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. Runic examples include the nominative form k[uihbia-...] and the accusative form [kuikbiarn]. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Kvgbirn, Kvg-, -birn
Kvgr Found in OW.Norse as Kvgr (also found as a by-name) and in Old Swedish as the by-name Kvigh. From the OW.Norse adjective kvgr "living, lively." Runic examples include the accusativeforms kuih, [k--(k)]. NR s.nn. KvgR, Kvg-
KvgulfR For the first element Kvg- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms kuihulfr, [kuihulfr]. NR s.n. KvgulfR, Kvg-, -ulfR
KvikR From the OW.Norse adjective kvgr "living, lively." Runic examples include the nominative forms [kuikr], kuikR, k--kr, the genitive form kuiks and the accusative forms [kuik], [k--(k)]. NR s.n. KvikR
Kylfa Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Kylva. From the OW.Norse noun kylfa "club." Occurs in the runic nominative form kulua. NR s.n. Kylfa
KylfingR Derived from the OW.Norse noun kolfr "club; blunt arrow" and from OW.Norse kylfa "club." This name may also have been formed from the singular form of the national name in OW.Norse kylfingar, for which a sense of "northerner in service in Grdarike (the Norse name for a eastern Rus settlement in the Viking Age and medieval period)" has been proposed - and which derivation is uncertain. Runic examples include the nominative forms ku[fi]nkR, kulfinkr, [kylfikR], kylfinkr. NR s.n. KylfingR
 
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Name Notes Source
Lfi A diminuitive form of lafr CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Lafsi Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Lafse. Derived from Old Swedish Labbe, OW.Norse Labbi. Compare with the Swedish dialect word lafs, lafsa "sock, scouring rag" or the dialect verb lafsa "go heavy and badly, dragging one's leg after one." Runic examples include the nominative case form lafsi and the accusative case form [iafsa], [lafsa]. NR s.n. Lafsi
Lki Short form of rlkr. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Lambi   GB p. 13 s.n. Lambi
Lambkrr   GB p. 13 s.n. Lambkrr
Laugi Diminuitive form of Gunnlaugr. CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 374 s.v. laug def. IV
Lefsi English name, contracted form of Old English Lofsige. Occurs in the runic nominative form lefsi. NR s.n. Lefsi
Lefwine English name, Old English Lofwine. Runic examples include the nominative case forms lefuine, lifuini. NR s.n. Lefwine
Leggr   GB p. 13 s.n. Leggr
Leilfr For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Leilfr; FJ pp. 185, 345, 351 s.nn. Leiulfr, Lei-, -ulfr
Leifi Found in OW.Norse as Leifi A short form of names in -leifR/-lafR, including rleifr. Runic examples include the genitive form [lifa] and the accusative form [lifa]. CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 381 s.v. leif; NR s.nn. Lifi, -lifR/-lafR
Leifr See above. GB p. 13 s.n. Leifr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -leifr; CV p. 381 s.v. leif
Leikfrr The first element Leik- is from OW.Norse leikr "play, weapon-play, battle." For the second element -(f)rer/(f)rr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form laikfru. FJ p. 348 s.n. -frr; CV pp. 382-383 s.v. leika, leikr; NR s.nn. Likfrr, Lik-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Leiknarr Compare with OW.Norse Leiknir. Of uncertain etymology. the first element may be from the OW.Norse adjective leikinn "inclined to play" or may represent confusion between the first elements Lkn- and Leik-. For the second element -arr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form leiknar. CV pp. 382-383 s.v. leika, leikr; NR s.nn. Liknarr, Lik-, Lkn-, -arr
Leiknir A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. GB p. 13 s.n. Leiknir; FJ pp. 185-186 s.n. Leikr; CV pp. 382-383 s.v. leika, leikr; NR s.nn. -likR/-lakR
Leikr Found in Old Swedish as Lek, found both as a name and as a by-name in OW.Norse as Leikr. May occur in Old Danish as the by-name Leg. From OW.Norse leikr "play, weapon-play, battle" or may represent a short form of masculine names in Leik-, -leikr, -lakR. Occurs in the runic accusative form le-. FJ pp. 185-186 s.n. Leikr; CV pp. 382-383 s.v. leika, leikr; NR s.nn. LikR, Lik-, -likR/-lakR
Le Christian, Leo, "lion" GB p. 13 s.n. Leo
Ltta This name may be either a masculine name or a feminine name. From the OW.Norse abstract verb ltta "lighten, unburden, make lighter." Occurs in the runic genitive case form litu. NR s.n. Letta
Libbi Found in Old Swedish as Libbe Possibly a short form of German names such as Liutbrand. Occurs in the runic nominative case form libi. NR s.n. Libbi
Lir   GB p. 13 s.n. Lir
Lismar Found in Old Swedish as Lisman and in OW.Norse as the by-name Lizmar. From OW.Norse lismar "man who belongs to a chieftain's warband or permanent troop (li)". Runic examples include the nominative case forms lis(m)[a]--..., lismor. NR s.n. Lismar
Lisvaldr Compounded from OW.Norse li "warband, troop" in the genitive case and valdr "ruler, chieftain". Occurs in the runic nominative case form li(s)u[al]. FJ p. 351 s.n. -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Lisvaldr, -valdr
Lfsteinn See Hlfsteinn. FJ p. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Lfstinn, Hlfstinn, Hlf-, -stinn
Lkbjrn, Lknbjrn The first element Lkn- is from OW.Norse lkn "goodness, compassion, favor, help, solace." For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms likbiarn, [likbiarn]. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Lk(n)birn, Lkn-, -birn, Biarni
Lknhvatr Found in Old Swedish in a Latinized form from Gtland, Liknatus. For the first element Lkn- see above. For the second element -hvatr or its weak side-form -hvati see above. Runic examples include the genitive case form likna(t)(a) and the accusative case form likna(t). CV p. 297 s.v. hvatr; NR s.nn. Lknhvatr, Lkn-, Hvatr, -hvatr
Lkmundr, Lknmundr For the first element Lkn- see above. For the second element -mundr or the weak side-form -mundi see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form (l)ikmuntaR. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Lk(n)mundr, Lkn-, -mundr, Mundi
Lkreifr, Lknreifr For the first element Lkn- see above. The second element -reifr is from the OW.Norse adjective reifr "friendly, happy." Occurs in the runic nominative case form likraibr. CV p. 490 s.v. reifr; NR s.nn. Lk(n)rifR, Lkn-, RifR, -rifR
Lkvir, Lknvir Found in Old Swedish as Likvidh. For the first element Lkn- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms likuir, [likuir]. FJ p. 352 s.n. -vir; CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Lk(n)vir, Lkn-, Vi-, -vir
Lini May occur in the Old Danish by-name Lene (etymology uncertain). From the OW.Norse adjective linr "soft, meek, gentle." Runic examples include the nominative case form lini and the genitive case forms lina, [l(in)na]. NR s.n. Lini
LingormR From OW.Norse lyngormr "dragon that creeps through the heather." Occurs in the runic accusative case form linkorm. FJ p. 350 s.v. -ormr; CV pp. 468-469 s.v. ormr; NR s.n. LingormR, -ormR
Litli Found in Old Danish as Litle (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as Litle (also found as a by-name in the forms Litle, Lille, Lizle), found in OW.Norse as the by-name Ltli. From the OW.Norse adjective ltill "little, small." Nominative litla, litli. NR s.n. Litli
Ljtr From the OW.Norse adjective ljtr "foul, ugly, misshapen." It has been proposed that this name may have the same origin as the first element Ljt- (see below), which is possible but scarcely probable. Occurs in the runic nominative case form liutr. GB p. 13 s.n. Ljtr; NR s.nn. Litr, LitulfR
Ljtlfr Found in Old Danish as Liutulf and in OW.Norse as Ljtlfr. The first element Lit- derives from Germanic *leuhta- "light, shining." For the second element -lfr or -ulfr see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form liu(t)ulbs|. GB p. 13 s.n. Ljtlfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. LitulfR, -ulfR
LjfR May occur in Old Danish as the name Lief or the by-name Lff. From the OW.Norse adjective ljfr "delightful, dear, beloved, pleasant." Occurs in the runic nominative case form liufr. NR s.n. LifR
Ljufvini The first element Ljuf- is from the OW.Norse adjective ljfr "delightful, dear, beloved, pleasant." For the second element -vini or -vinr see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Ljufvini; FJ p. 351 s.n. -un(n); NR s.n. LifR
Lohttr   GB p. 13 s.n. Lohttr
Loinn Found both as a name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Lothen and in Old Swedish as Ludhin. occurs in OW.Norse as Loinn. From the OW.Norse adjective loinn "hairy." Runic examples include the nominative forms loin, luin and the accusative forms luin, ...uin, [...u]()in. GB p. 13 s.n. Loinn; NR s.n. Luinn
Lomundr For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 13 s.n. ; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Lfi May be found in Old Danish as the by-name Lowe (etymology uncertain). From OW.Norse lfi "palm of the hand, hollow of the hand." Runic examples include the nominative case form lufi and the genitive case form lufa. NR s.n. Lfi
LofrkR The Old English name Lofrc. Occurs in the runic nominative case form lofrikr. NR s.n. LofrkR
Lokki Found in Old Danish as Lokki and in Old Swedish as the by-name Lokke. Derived from OW.Norse lokkr "curl, lock of hair." Runic examples include the nominative forms lki, [luki]. NR s.n. Lokki
LokkR Occurs in Old Danish as both the name and the by-name Lok. Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Lokk. Foun in OW.Norse as the by-name Lokkr. Derived from OW.Norse lokkr "curl, lock of hair." Occurs in the runic nominative case form lok. NR s.n. LokkR
Loptr This name is found as one of the by-names of the god Loki, but also occurs in Landnmabk ch. 9 for Loptr inn gamli ("the old"). GB p. 13 s.n. Loptr
Lundvarr The first element Lund- is related to Old Icelandic lundr, "sacred grove". The second element -varr is derived either from the adjective varr, "aware", or from the noun *warjaR, "protector", related to the Old Norse verb verja, "defend". FJ pp. 191, 345, 351-352 s.nn. *Lundvarr, Lund-, -varr
Lbjrn The first element is derived from Lj-, which is from OW.Norse ljr, lr "people, folk." For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the accusative forms lybiurn, lybyurn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Lbirn, -birn, Biarni
Ltingr   GB p. 13 s.n. Ltingr
 
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Name Notes Source
Maddar Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Maddar
Magni   GB p. 13 s.n. Magni
Magns Christian, from Latin magnus, "great, mighty." A diminuitive form of Magns is Mangi. GB p. 13 s.n. Magns; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Makan Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Makan
Mkr   GB p. 13 s.n. Mkr
Mallymkun The Celtic name Mallymkun may be found as either a masculine name or feminine name. The first element Mal- is the Celtic word for "servant," often found in religious names of the formula Mal- + saint's name. The second element is perhaps the genitive case of a Celtic name, Lomchu. Occurs in the runic nominative case form mal:lymkun. N.R. s.n. Mallymkun
Malmury The Celtic name Malmury may be found as either a masculine name or feminine name. For the first element Mal- see above. The second element is the Celtic genitive-case form of Maria. Occurs in the runic accusative case form mal:mury. N.R. s.n. Malmury
Mangi Diminuitive form of Magns. CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Mni (Masculine name, also see Manni). This name is found in OW.Norse as Mni (also found as a by-name), possibly in Old Danish as the by-name Mane, and in Old Swedish as the by-name Mane. From OW.Norse mni "moon." The runic examples could represent either Mni or Manni, and include the nominative forms mani, (m)an(in), m(a)(n)(in), [mani], moni and the accusative forms mana (4 instances), [mana]. GB p. 13 s.n. Mni; N.R. s.nn. Mni, Manni
Manni (Masculine name, also see Mni). Found in Old Danish as Manni and in Old Swedish as Manne. Derived from OW.Norse mar "man." The runic examples could represent either Mni or Manni, and include the nominative forms mani, (m)an(in), m(a)(n)(in), [mani], moni and the accusative forms mana (4 instances), [mana]. N.R. s.nn. Mni, Manni
Mr   GB p. 13 s.n. Mr
Margar Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Margar
Marks Christian, Marcus or Mark GB p. 13 s.n. Marks
Marteinn Found in Old Danish as Marten or Morten. Found in Old Swedish as Martin, Merten or Morten. Occurs in OW.Norse as Marteinn. Christian name, from Latin Martinus. Occurs in the runic accusative case form [ma]R(t)in. GB p. 13 s.n. Marteinn; N.R. s.n. Martin
Matheus Christian, Matteus, Matthew GB p. 13 s.n. s.n. Matheus
Meginbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Mghinbiorn. The first element Magn- or Mgin- is from OW.Norse magn "might, main, strength, power" or OW.Norse megin "might, main, strength, power" (from Germanic *mazina). For the second element -bjrn see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form meginbiarn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; N.R. s.nn. Mginbirn, Magn-/Mgin-, -birn, Biarni
Meinolf Continental Germanic name, compare with Old High German Maginulf, perhaps imported via England. Occurs in the runic nominative case form meinolf. N.R. s.n. Meinolf
Melbriga, Melbrigi Celtic name. Occurs in the runic nominative case forms malbria, mail:brikti. N.R. s.n. Melbriga/Melbrigi
Meldn Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Meldn
Melklfr Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Melklfr
Melklmr Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Melklmr
Melmari Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Melmari
Melpatrikr Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Melpatrikr
Melsnati Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Melsnati
Mikael, Mikjll From the Christian name Michael. Runic examples include the nominative forms migael, mihel, mikal, mikel, mikial. GB p. 13 s.nn. Mikael, Mikjll; NR s.n. Mikael
Miki Miki is a masculine name of uncertain etymology. It occurs in the runic nominative case form [m]iki. N.R. s.n. Miki
MistiviR Scandinavian form of the Slavic name Mmsti- ("to avenge") + voj ("warrior"). Occurs in the runic genitive case form mistiuis. N.R. s.n. MistiviR
Mlfr The first element, M-, is related to Old Icelandic mr, "excitement, wrath." For the second element -lfr see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Mlfr; FJ pp. 345, 351 s.nn. M-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
Mgr   GB p. 13 s.n. Mgr
Moldi   GB p. 13 s.n. Moldi
Mori Mori is a masculine name of uncertain etymology. Occurs in the runic accusative case form mora. N.R. s.n. Mori
Mrr   GB p. 13 s.n. Mrr
Mli Occurs in Old Danish as Muli (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as the by-name Mule, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Mli. From OW.Norse mli "muzzle, mouth." Runic examples include the nominative case forms muli, [m]ul[in], the genitive case form mu-a and the accusative case forms mula, mu-(a). N.R. s.n. Mli
Munn   GB p. 13 s.n. Munn
Mundgeirr The first name element Mun- or Mund- occur in names with the Continental Germanic name elements Muni- (OW.Norse munr "mind; will") and Munda- (OW.Norse mund "hand; protection"). Both are uncommon in Scandinavia; Mund- appears in OW.Norse Mundgerr (-gera), Old Danish Munder and in the runic genitive case form mundualaz in the medieval inscription G173. Mun- appears only in the name Munlfr. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms munkair, [munkaiR], [munkir]. FJ pp. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. Mun(d)giRR, Mun-, Mund-, -giRR
Mundi Mundi is a short form of names ending in -mundr. Found in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Mundo. A short form of names in -mundr. Runic examples include the nominative case form munti and the accusative case form munta. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Mundi, -mundi, -mundr
Munlfr Found in Old Swedish as Monulf, and occurs as a Scandinavian name in England in the Latin forms Munulfus, Monulfus. For the first name element Mun- or Mund- see above. For the second element -lfr or -ulfr see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form m(u)[n]ulfs. N.R. s.n. MunulfR, Mun-, -ulfR
Myndill Found in OW.Norse as Myndill, the name of a fictional character for which the etymology is uncertain. Possibly a diminuitive form with the -l- suffix added to a name in -mundr. The runic evidence shows this name in use for actual living people as well, for example "U190 Fastbjrn had the stone erected in memory of Myndill, his father." Runic examples include the nominative case form myntil and the accusative case form mintil. N.R. s.n. Myndill
Mr Compare with the OW.Norse masculine by-name Maurr. From Old Swedish myr "ant." occurs in the runic accusative case form miur in an inscription reading: "g132 Holmsteinn raised this stone and made the bridge in memory of Mr, his father, who lived in Jatunstair." N.R. s.n. Mr
Mrkjartan Celtic, Murchadh. This name is found in Landnmabk ch. 39 and in Laxdœla saga ch. 13 for Mrkjartan rakonungr (Murchadh, king of the Irish). GB p. 13 s.n. Mrkjartan
Myskia Myskia may be either a masculine name or a feminine name. From Old Swedish *myskia "bat." Runic examples include the nominative case forms muskia, mus:kiamusku. N.R. s.n. Myskia
 
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Name Notes Source
Naddoddr For the second element -oddr see above. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 13 s.n. Naddoddr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -oddr; NR s.nn. Udd-, Uddi
Naddr   GB p. 13 s.n. Naddr
Nmr From the OW.Norse adjective nmr "quick at learning", "one who is very composed and confident". Occurs in the runic nominative case form nemR. NR s.n. NmR
NnniR Found in Old Swedish as Nnnir. Derived from the OW.Norse verb nenna "to have an inclination towards; to dare." Runic examples include the nominative case forms neniR, niniR. NR s.n. NnniR
NrfiR Of uncertain etymology. Occurs in the runic genitive case form nairbis. NR s.n. NrfiR
Nstr From the Runic Swedish adjective nstr "next, near." Occurs in the runic nominative case form neistr. NR s.n. Nstr
Nafni Found in Old Danish as Nafni and as a by-name, Nafne. Occurs in Old Swedish as Nafne. From OW.Norse nafni "name" or OW.Norse nafn "name." Occurs in the runic nominative case form nafni. NR s.n. Nafni
Nagli   GB p. 13 s.n. Nagli
Nannr Thought to occur in OW.Norse as *Nannr. A strong side-form of Old Danish Nanni, Old Swedish Nanne, and perhaps OW.Norse Nanni. Runic examples include the accusative case forms nan, ...nan. NR s.n. Nannr
Narfi   GB p. 13 s.n. Narfi
Nasi Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Nase. Derived from OW.Norse ns "nostril", plural nasar "nose". Runic examples include the nominative case forms nasi (3 instances), nas(in), [nasi]. NR s.n. Nasi
Nttfari Found in OW.Norse as Nttfari. Compounded from OW.Norse ntt, ntt "night" and -fari "someone who goes out at night," perhaps with supernatural associations. Occurs in the runic nominative case form natfari. NR s.n. Nttfari
Nefbjrn, Nef-Bjrn The first element Nef- is from OW.Norse nef "nostril, nose" compounded either with the second element -bjrn (see above) or else this name may represent the masculine name Bjrn prefixed with a by-name from OW.Norse nef "nostril, nose" (see also Nesbjrn). Occurs in the runic accusative case form nikbiurn. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Nfbirn/Nf-Birn, Nsbirn, Nf-, Ns-, -birn
Nefgeirr For the first element Nef- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form nefkiR and the accusative case forms nefkair, [nefkair], [nefke]. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.nn. NfgiRR, Nf-, -giRR
Nefi (1) May be found in Old Swedish as Nve. Occurs in OW.Norse as Nefi (mythological, perhaps also found as a by-name). May also occur in Old Danish as by-name Nwe. From OW.Norse nefi "nephew". Occurs in the runic accusative case form nfa (see also Hnefi). NR s.n. Nefi, Hnfi
Nefi (2) Derived from OW.Norse nef "nostril, nose". Occurs in the runic accusative case form nafa (see also Hnefi). NR s.nn. Nfi, Hnfi
Nefjlfr For the first element Nef- see above. For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Nefjlfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr>; NR s.nn. Nf-, -ulfR
NefR Found in OW.Norse as the mythological name Nefr. Derived from OW.Norse nef "nostril, nose". Runic examples include the nominative case forms nifR, [niks] and the accusative case form [nif]. NR s.n. NfR
Nefsteinn For the first element Nef- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Nefsteinn; FJ p. 351 s.n. -steinn; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Nf-, -stinn
Nereir, Nerir Found in OW.Norse as Nerir. The first element Nr- is possibly from *NaRja-, derived from the OH.German verb nerian "afraid, cautious," a side-form of the Gothic nasjan. Second element is eir "oath, vow" or heir "brilliance, beauty" (in this case probably *haiuR). Occurs in the runic genitive case form (n)iris|. GB p. 13 s.n. Nereir; NR s.n. Nrir
Nesbjrn Found in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Nsbernus. The first element is from OW.Norse nes "ness, spit of land, isthmus, promontory." For the second element -bjrn see above. This name is thought to originate as Nes-Bjrn, the masculine name Bjrn prefixed with a by-name from OW.Norse nes "ness, spit of land, isthmus, promontory" (see also Nefbjrn). Runic examples include the nominative case forms [nesbiarn], nesbi[a]rn, nesbiorn, nesbiurn (3 instances), nesbi(u)rn and the accusative case forms nikbiurn, nisbiarn. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.n. Nsbirn, Ns-, -birn
NeskonungR Found in Old Swedish as Nskonung (also found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as Neskonungr. From OW.Norse neskonungr "ness-king, sea-king, small-king; one who has no more than a ness (spit of land, promontory) over which to rule." Occurs in the runic nominative case form niskunukR. NR s.n. NskunungR, Ns-
Nikols, Nikuls Found in Old Danish as Nicolaus, in Old Swedish as Niklas, Niklis, Nikels etc., and in OW.Norse as Nikols. Christian name; from Latin Nicolaus (of Greek origin). Runic examples include the nominative case forms [nigulas], nikulas. GB p. 13 s.nn. Nikols, Nikuls; NR s.n. Nikulas
Nisi Of uncertain etymology. Occurs in the runic nominative case form [niusi]. NR s.n. Nisi
Njll Celtic GB p. 13 s.n. Njll
Nkkvi In Hyndlulj 21, Nkkvi is the name of the father of the goddess Nanna, who was the wife of Baldr. The word nkkvi also appears as a common noun, meaning "a small ship that is sculled by means of oars," and Viktor Rydberg, in his Teutonic Mythology, sees the name as a variant of Nkkver and assigns it a meaning of "ship's captain." GB p. 13 s.n. Nkkvi; CV p. 461 s.v. nkkvi
Nollarr   GB p. 13 s.n. Nollarr
Normar Found in Old Danish as Normand and as the by-name Norman. Occurs in OW.Norse as Normar and in Old Swedish as the by-name Nordman. From OW.Norse normar "man from the north, from a northerly land." Occurs in the runic nominative case form norman. NR s.n. Normar
Nukki, Nokki Found in Old Swedish as Nokke (also found as a by-name). May be related to Old Swedish nokkadrumbr "lonely person who does not pay taxes and does not want to take service", nokkakona "lonely woman who does not pay taxes and does not want to take service". Occurs in the runic accusative case form nuka. NR s.n. Nukki/Nokki
NykR From OW.Norse nykr "nicor, nixie, water goblin." This name is also connected to Nukki and Nokki. Occurs in the runic nominative case form nukR. NR s.n. NykR, Nukki/Nokki
 
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Name Notes Source
Obbi   GB p. 13 s.n. Obbi
blaur The first element in this name is the negative prefix - (found also as -), prefixed before nouns and verbs. This is cognate to the negative prefix un- in English. The oldest Old Norse form of this negative prefix is -, but early in Iceland this changed to -. In the Codex Regius the two forms are used interchangably, the - form appears in 14th century vellums, and the Icelandic form changes once again to - in the 15th century and remained the preferred form to the modern day. In the rest of Scandinavia, the - has been retained in Denmark and the east of Norway, but - in the west and north of Norway. In early Swedish the two forms were interchangable, and modern Swedish uses -. Accordingly, depending on the date and location, names with this negative prefix may appear with either - or -. The adjective blaur is "soft, weak" and is the antonym of hvatr, "brisk, vigorous." Blaur also can mean "feminine" when speaking of animals, or as a term of abuse it has the sense of "bitch; coward." Combined with the negative prefix, blaur then is "not-soft; virile, masculine." Occurs in the runic nominative case form [ub]lubR. GB p. 13 s.n. blaur; CV pp. 67, 469 s.v. blaur, -; NR s.n. blaur
alfrer, alfrr This name is known from runic evidence, which is not perfectly clear on whether the name is masculine or feminine. The first element is perhaps al- (from the OW.Norse noun al "property, inherited land"), which, as a name-element, is otherwise not known as a native Scandinavian term (compare with Continental Germanic thal-, or the related Athal-). Whether the second element should be interpreted as the name element -frer/-frr or the feminine name element -frr cannot be determined. Occurs in the runic nominative case form (u)talfriR. NR s.n. alfrer or -frr, -(f)rer/-(f)rr, -frr
Oddbjrn The first element Odd- is identical with Old Icelandic oddr, "point, weapon-point, spear-point, arrow-point." For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 13 s.n. Oddbjrn; FJ pp. 345, 348 s.nn. Odd-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 462 s.v. bjrn, oddr; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni, Uddi
Oddgeirr Found in Old Danish as Oddger, in Old Swedish as Uddger, and in OW.Norse as Oddgeirr. For the first element Odd see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the accusative case forms [o](t)k[a]iR, ...tkaiR. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 13 s.n. Oddgeirr; FJ pp. 203, 345, 349 s.nn. Odd-, -geirr; CV pp196, 462 s.v. geirr, oddr; NR s.nn. UddgiRR, Udd-, -giRR, Uddi
Oddi Found in Old Danish as Oddi or Uddi, in Old Swedish as Odde or Udde (also found as a by-name), occurs in OW.Norse as Oddi. Short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr. Appears in the name of the famous 12th century Icelander Oddi or Stjrnu-Oddi (Star-Oddi, Oddi the Astronomer). Runic examples include the nominative case form uti and the accusative case forms huta, uta. GB p. 13 s.n. Oddi; FJ p. 202 s.nn. Oddr, Oddi; CV pp. 462 s.v. oddi, oddr; NR s.nn. Uddi, Udd-
Oddkell For the first element Odd see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 13 s.n. Oddkell; FJ pp. 203, 345, 349 s.n. Oddketill, Odd-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 462 s.v. ketill, oddr; NR s.nn. Udd-, -k(ti)ll, Uddi
Oddleifr For the first element Odd see above. For the second element -leifr see above. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 13 s.n. Oddleifr; FJ pp. 345, 350 s.n. Odd-, -leifr; CV pp. 381, 462 s.v. leif, oddr; NR s.nn. Udd, -lifR/-lafR, Uddi
Oddmrr For the first element Odd see above. For the second element -mrr see above. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 13 s.n. Oddmarr; FJ pp. 345, 350; CV pp. 418, 443, 462 s.v. -mr, mrr, oddr; NR s.nn. Udd, -marr, Uddi
Oddr Found in Old Danish as Odd (also found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as Od or Ud (Ud is also found as a by-name), and occurs in OW.Norse as Oddr. From OW.Norse oddr "lance- or spear- point, spear." Runic examples include the nominative case forms u=d=R, utr (5 instances), [utr], the genitive case form ut... and the accusative case form ut. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. NR s.n. Uddr, Uddi
OddulfR Found in Old Swedish as Oddolf or Uddolf. For the first element Odd see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms utlfR, utufR, the dative case form utlfi and the accusative case form utulf. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV p. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. UddulfR, Udd-, -ulfR, Uddi
Oddvarr For the first element Odd see above. For the second element -varr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form ...tuar. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. FJ pp. 351-352 s.n. -varr; NR s.n. Uddvarr, Udd-, -varr, Uddi
inkrr Found in Old Danish as Othinkar, Unker, in Old Swedish as Odhenkarl, and in OW.Norse as inkrr. From the compound of the Germanic adjective *wana- "furious" and -krr. Runic examples include the nominative case form uinkau(r), the genitive case form uinkaurs, and the accusative case form uinkaur. NR s.n. inkrr (-krr), -krr
Œpir Compare with Old Danish pi. This name is derived from OW.Norse œpa "shout." Runic examples include the nominative case forms u(b)in, ubiR (6 instances), ub(in)(R), [ubiR] (3 instances), [ub(in)(R)], uubiR, ybir (11 instances), ybiR (10 instances), ybi(R), [ybiR] (5 instances), the genitive case form ybis and the accusative case forms ubi, ybi (3 instances), ybir, ybiR. NR s.n. piR
Ofti From OW.Norse oft, ofta "fat, overeater, glutton", a form identical to Gothic aftja "glutton." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form [ufata] in g119: "Sigdan erected this stone in memory of Ofti, his father, a good husbandman." NR s.n. Ofti
feigr Found in Old Swedish as Ofegh (also found as a by-name), Ovagh. Occurs in OW.Norse as feigr. From the OW.Norse adjective feigr "not fey, not doomed, one who will live a long life." Runic examples include the nominative case forms ofahr, ofaigr, ofaikr, ofaikR, ufagR, [ufaih], [ufaihr], ufaikr, [ufaikR], (u)faka, ufakR, ufakRs, ufhikr, ufihr, [ufik] (may be a by-name in this inscription), (u)fik(R), unfaikr, [yfaigr], the genitive case form ...faks| and the accusative case forms ofahi, ofaih, ofaik, ufaak, ufag, ufah, (u)(f)(a)ik, ufak (3 instances), ufih, yfaik. GB p. 13 s.n. feigr; CV p. 469 s.v. -; NR s.n. figR
flR From the OW.Norse adjective flr "false, dishonest, treacherous" combined with the negative prefix. Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form ufla in the inscription DR123: "A Tki placed this stone in memory of flR, his father, a very good B thegn." CV p. 469 s.v. -; NR s.n. flR
Oflti Found in OW.Norse as the by-name Oflti. From OW.Norse oflti "vain, conceited person, one with grand manners." Occurs in the runic nominative case form uflati in the inscription S211: "Steinulfr and Haki and ryrkr and Eybjrn and Oflti, they raised this stone in memory of Ulfr, their father." NR s.n. Oflti
Ofrr Found in Old Danish as Ofrath and in Old Swedish as Ofradh. From OW.Norse ofr "too great a task, too high an aspiration." Runic examples include the nominative case forms ufra, [ufrar]. NR s.n. Ofrr
frir May occur in Old Danish as Ufred, found in OW.Norse as the by-name frir. From OW.Norse frir, "hostility, battle, war." Appears as personal names in the nominative case form ufrir and the accusative case form ufri in U1118, "frir and Gsl had the stone cut in memory of Svartr, their brother," and in M15, "Bjrn erected this stone in memory of frir and in memory of Unn, his sons." CV p. 469 s.v. -; NR s.n. frir
gmundr, Agmundr Formed from *Aga-, represented in Old West Scandinavian as agi, "awe, terror" or possibly a German origin as *ag-, "point, weapon point." The second element -mundr comes either from Old West Scandinavian *-munduR, "protector" or possibly from Old Icelandic mundr meaning "gift." Found in Old Swedish as Aghmund and in OW.Norse as gmundr. In Norwegian found as Amundr and gmundr. Runic examples include the nominative forms agmunr, agmuntr, ahmuntr, ahmutr, aukmuntr and the accusative forms agmunt, akmunt, [akmunt], [in]hmuntr, ukmut. Anglo-Scandinavian variants include Agemund (c. 1086-1226), Aghemund (1142-1153), Agmund (c. 1150), Hamund (c. 1150-1160), Haghemund (c. 1155), Aghemund (c. 1160), Augmund (c. 1180-1190), Aggemund (1202). A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 2-3, 342, 350 s.nn. Agmundr, Ag-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.n. Agmundr/gmundr, Ag-, -mundr, Mundi
gurr   GB p. 17 s.n. gurr
gvaldr For the second element -valdr see above. GB p. 17 s.n. gvaldr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
ndttr Found in OW.Norse as ndttr. From the OW.Norse adjective ndttr "frightful, terrible." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form onlo(t)r in N 163: "Arngeirr's sons raised this rock-slab in memory of jdhulfr, (their) brother. Gumundr carved these runes, he and ndttr ..." NR s.n. ndttr
neisi Compare with Old Swedish Onas, OW.Norse ns, and the Old Danish by-name Unss. From the OW.Norse adjective neiss "respected, esteemed, noble." Found as a personal name in the runic nominative case form -(o)nasi in the inscription S189 "A neisi raised the stone in memory of leifr the Crooked, his father. (He) lived(?) B was non-villainous ... was ... ...". NR s.n. (h)nisi
lfr, leifr Derived from the older form leifr. Variants in -lafR derive from a Primitive Scandinavian shortening of /ai/ > /a/. The lfr form of this name is more common in West Scandinavia than the leifr forms. Danish place-name evidence suggests that the forms Alef and Alaf were also current in Denmark, but the usual forms in East Scandinavia were Olaf and Olef. For runic forms, see leifr above. A diminuitive form of lafr is Lfi. A short form of lafr is li GB p. 13 s.nn. lfr, leifr; FJ pp. 6, 204, 342, 350 s.nn. lfr, leifr, leifr, -leifr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 381 s.v. leif; NR s.nn. lifR, -, -lifR, lafR, lifR
lfun, Alfvin For the first element Alf- see above. The second element is from -vinr, which is identical to Old Icelandic vinr, "friend", in turn derived from *-winiz, "friend". Found in Old Danish as Alfwin and in Old Swedish Alwin. Found in the runic accusative forms alfuin and aulfun. FJ p. 342, 351 s.nn. Alf-, -un(n); NR s.nn. Alfvin/lfun, Alf-
li Found in Old Danish as Oli, as Old Swedish Ole (etymology uncertain), and found in OW.Norse as li, li. This name is a short form of lafR. Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form oln in the inscription gSKL1;174 "... had the monument made in memory of li, his/her good husbandman." GB p. 13 s.n. li; NR s.n. li
leifr Found in OW.Norse as leifr. Side-form of lafR. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ola[ifr], [olaifR], olifr, [olifR], [ouaifr], oulaibr, ulaifr, [ulaifr] (3 instances), ulayifr, [ulef], ulef[R], [ulifr], [ulifR], [-laifr] and the accusative case forms olaif, (o)laif, ol(a)if, olif, [olif], o(l)..., ulaif (3 instances), [ulai](f), [ulaif], ulef, ulif, yla[if]. NR s.n. lifR
lmr For the second element -mr see above. GB p. 17 s.n. lmr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -mr; CV pp. 763 s.v. l; NR s.n. -mr
lvaldr For the second element -valdr see above. GB p. 17 s.n. lvaldr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -valdr; CV pp. 675, 763 s.v. valdi, valdr, l; NR s.n. -valdr
lvR, lvir, AlvR The first element Al- is derived either from *Alu- or *Ala- (see Al- above). For the second element -vr or -vir see above. This name is found in Old Danish as lvir, in Old Swedish as Alver or lver, and in OW.Norse as lvir. Runic examples include the nominative forms aluiR, [au]liR, oliR, uliR and the accusative forms alui, a(l)(u)in, (a)(l)ui. GB p. 17 s.n. lvir; FJ pp. 342, 352 s.nn. -, -vr; NR s.nn. AlvR/lvR, Al-, -vR
mundi For the first element - see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form oumuta in DR155: "A sa placed this stone in memory of mundi, her husband; he was B Finnulfr's retainer." A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. mundi, -, -mundr, Mundi
munR May occur in the Old Danish by-name Umen. From the Runic Swedish adjective munR "not stingy, generous." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form umun in DR316: "Tfi raised this stone in memory of munR, his partner." CV p. 469 s.v. -; NR s.n. munR
nmR From the OW.Norse adjective nmr "talented, gifted, quick to learn," combined with the negative prefix. Runic examples include the nominative case forms une..., uni(m)r, the genitive case form onems, and the accusative case forms unif, unim. CV p. 469 s.v. -; NR s.n. nmR
narr   GB p. 13 s.n. narr
ndttr Probably originally a by-name from the Old Icelandic adjective ndttr, "looking full in the face, fiery". Found as a personal name in Landnmabk. GB p. 17 s.n. ndttr; CV pp. 764 s.v. ndttr
ndur   GB p. 17 s.n. ndur
ndurr   GB p. 17 s.n. ndurr
ngli Weak side-form of the OW.Norse name ngull. From OW.Norse ngull "fish-hook." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form ygila in gFV1943;317A: "Gufi laid the stone in memory of ngli, his son. May God help his soul." NR s.n. ngli, ngli
ngull From OW.Norse ngull "fish-hook." GB p. 17 s.n. ngull; NR s.n. ngli, ngli
nn, nn, nn This name occurs in OW.Norse in the forms nn, nn, nn. Contracted form of the Germanic *Aa- (derived from *aal- "noble; foremost") + *-winiz "friend." Runic examples include the nominative case forms on, [u(n)]. NR s.n. nn
nundr, Anundr, Anvindr, Anundi See Anundr. FJ pp. 11, 342, 352 s.nn. Anundr, -, -vindr; NR s.nn. Anundr/nundr, Anundi, -, -undr/-vindr
ringR Found in Old Swedish as ring. Derived from the OW.Norse adjective œrr "wild, mad, furious." Runic examples include the nominative case form yrinkr and the accusative case form [y](r)in(k)[u]. NR s.n. ringR
rœkja   GB p. 13 s.n. rœkja
rlygr "Fate, doom, especially in battle." From rlg. GB p. 17 s.n. rlygr
Ormarr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Ormar, occurs in OW.Norse as Ormarr. The first element Orm- is from OW.Norse ormr "dragon, worm, serpent." For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ormar, urmar and the accusative case form urmar. A short form of masculine names in Orm- or derived from the masculine name OrmR is Ormi. FJ. pp. 345, 350; CV pp. 443, 468-469 s.v. mrr, ormr; NR s.nn. Ormarr, -arr, Ormi
Ormgeirr Found in Old Swedish as Ormger. For the first element Orm- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form ormkaiR and the accusative case form urmiR. A short form of masculine names in Orm- or derived from the masculine name OrmR is Ormi. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV pp. 196, 468-469 s.v. geirr, ormr; NR s.n. OrmgiRR, Orm-, -giRR, Ormi
Ormi Ormi is a short form of masculine names in Orm- or derived from the masculine name OrmR (or the same root-word). Runic examples include the nominative case form [urmi] and the accusative case forms orma, u(r)--. CV pp. 468-469 s.v. ormr; NR s.n. Ormi, Ormr, Orm-, -ormr
Ormika Ormika is a possibly fictional masculine name, found in Old Gtlandic as Ormika, a Gtlandic saga character. Derived from OrmR or OW.Norse ormr with the diminuitive suffix -ika, or else the whole name may be a loan-word. Occurs in the runic nominative case form ormiga in an inscription that fails to shed further light on whether or not the name was in use outside of the fictional character, G216: "Ormika, Ulfgeirr, Greece, Jerusalem, Iceland, Serkland." A short form of masculine names in Orm- or derived from the masculine name OrmR is Ormi. CV pp. 468-469 s.v. ormr; NR s.n. Ormika, Ormr, Orm-, -ormr
Ormr Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish and Old Swedish in the form Orm. Occurs in OW.Norse as Ormr. From OW.Norse ormr "dragon, worm, serpent." Runic examples include the nominative case forms ormr, [ormr], the genitive case form urms, and the accusative case forms horm, or..., [urm]. A short form of masculine names in Orm- or derived from the masculine name OrmR is Ormi. GB p. 13 s.n. Ormr; FJ. pp. 345; CV pp. 468-469 s.v. ormr; NR s.n. OrmR, Ormi
OrmulfR Found in Old Swedish as Ormolf. For the first element Orm- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form urmulf. A short form of masculine names in Orm- or derived from the masculine name OrmR is Ormi. FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 468-469, 668 s.v. ormr, lfr; NR s.n. OrmulfR, Orm-, -ulfR, Ormi
rn Found in Old Danish as rn (also found as a by-name), in OW.Norse as rn (also found as a by-name), and in Old Swedish as the by-name rn. From the OW.Norse noun rn "eagle." Runic examples include the nominative case form arn, the genitive case form arnar and the accusative case form (a)(u)rn. GB p. 17 s.n. rn; NR s.n. rn
rnlfr, Ornlfr For the first element rn- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. GB p. 17 s.n. rnlfr; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.n. Arn-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. rn, -ulfR
rœkia Found in Old Swedish as Orikkia and in OW.Norse as both the personal name and the by-name rœkia. From the OW.Norse abstract verb rœkja "to neglect, to not ask after, to reck not." Runic examples include the nominative case forms [arikaa], aurikia, orikia, urika, urikia, urykia, yuia and the accusative case forms orekiu, urukiu, uruku. CV pp. 469, 506 s.v. -, rkja; NR s.n. rkia
Orri Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Orre and in OW.Norse as the by-name Orri. From the OW.Norse noun orri "a bird, the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix)." Runic examples show Orri in use as a personal name, and include the nominative case form uri (S36: "Thorgeirr and Orri, they raised the stones in memory of leifr, their father and in memory of Sveinn, their brother.") and the accusative case form ur[in] (S350: "Ulfr and gull raised this stone in memory of Orri, their good father. May God help his spirit."). NR s.n. Orri
Orrusti Found in Old Swedish as Oreste. From Runic Swedish orrusta "battle," and the OW.Norse noun orrosta, which is probably also "battle." Occurs in the runic accusative case form urusta in g209: "Tosti raised the stone in memory of Tki and Orrosti, his nephews." NR s.n. Orrusti
snkinn From the OW.Norse adjective snkinn "avaricious, greedy" combined with the negative prefix. Runic examples include the nominative case forms osnikin, usnekin, usnikin, [usnikin] and the accusative case forms usnikin, (u)(s)-(e)(k)-(l). CV pp. 469, 575 s.v. -, snkja; NR s.n. snkinn
spaki From the OW.Norse adjective spakr "unwise, unruly, wild." Runic examples include the nominative case form (u)s---- and the accusative case form usbaka. CV pp. 469, 580 s.v. -, spakr; NR s.n. spaki
spakr Found in Old Swedish as Ospak, occurs in OW.Norse as spakr. From the OW.Norse adjective spakr "unwise, unruly, wild." Runic examples include the nominative case forms hsbakR, o(s)bakR and the accusative case form osbak. GB p. 13 s.n. spakr; CV pp. 469, 580 s.v. -, spakr; NR s.n. spakR
ssurr, zurr, Andsvarr, Ansvarr, Ansurr, Assurr See Andsvarr. GB p. 17 s.n. zurr; FJ pp. 36-37 s.nn. Atsurr; NR s.nn. An(d)svarr/Ansurr/Assurr/ssurr
starki From the OW.Norse adjective sterkr "weak, without power." Occurs in the runic nominative case form ustarki. CV pp. 469, 591 s.v. -, sterkr, styrkr; NR s.n. starki
svaldr For the first element s- see above. For -valdr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. svaldr; FJ pp. 342, 351 s.nn. s-, -valdr; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
svfr For the first element s- see above. GB p. 14 s.n. svfr; FJ pp. 342 s.n. s-
syrgR Found in Old Swedish as Osyrgher. From the adjective *-syrgR, formed from the noun sorg "sorrow, woe" and the negative prefix. Runic examples include the nominative case form ysurkR and the accusative case forms osurk, usyrk. CV p. 469 s.v. -; NR s.n. syrgR
tamR Found in OW.Norse as tamr. From the OW.Norse adjective tamr "untamed." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form utamr in S320: "Geirhvatr and nundr and tamr had the stone erected in memory of Bjrsteinn, their brother. He was in the east with Ingvarr, an able valiant man, the son of Lfey." CV pp. 469, 625 s.v. -, tamr; NR s.n. tamR
Otkell For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 13 s.n. Otkell; FJ pp. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Otr Found in Old Danish as Other (also found as a by-name in the forms Odder or Udder). Occurs in OW.Norse as Otr, the name of a fictional character, also found as a by-name. Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Oter. From OW.Norse otr "otter." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form utr in g26: "nundr raised this stone in memory of Otr, his son." NR s.n. Utr
tryggi From the OW.Norse adjective tryggr "unfaithful, unreliable." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form (u)(t)rik(a) in U570: "ki and Sveinn, they had the stone raised in memory of tryggvi, their father." CV pp. 469, 643 s.v. -, tryggr; NR s.n. tryggi
tryggr Found in Old Swedish as Otryg and in OW.Norse as tryggr. From the OW.Norse adjective tryggr "unfaithful, unreliable." Runic examples include the nominative case forms atrikR, o(t)[irikr], otrukr, utrikr, utryk, utrykr, the genitive case form utruks, and the accusative case forms [otryk], [utirik], [utrik], utruk, utryk. GB p. 14 s.n. tryggr; CV pp. 469, 643 s.v. -, tryggr; NR s.n. tryggR
tta   GB p. 14 s.n. tta
ttarr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Ottar, occurs in OW.Norse as ttarr. Of disputed derivation. The first element is related to the OW.Norse noun tti "terror, fear, dread" (from Germanic *htan-), or from *hta- or *htu-. The second element in this name, -arr, is derived here from either *harjaR, Old Icelandic herr, "army, warrior" or from *gaiRaR, Old Icelandic geirr, "spear". Runic examples include the nominative case forms utar (3 instances), [(u)tar], [utaRa] and the accusative case form utar. GB p. 14 s.n. ttarr; FJ p. 348 s.n. -arr; NR s.nn. ttarr, -arr
Ott   GB p. 13 s.n. Otto
veginn Found in Old Danish as Uthwagin in the medieval runic inscription DR147. occurs in Old Swedish as Othuaghin and in OW.Norse as the by-name veginn. From the pret. participle of the OW.Norse verb v "to wash" with the negative prefix. Runic examples include the nominative case form uuhin and the accusative case forms [oyaken], [uuahin]. CV pp. 469, 751 s.v. -, v, -veginn; NR s.n. vaginn
yrmiR Found in OW.Norse as yrmir. From the OW.Norse noun yrmir "a merciless, ruthless man" (from the verb yrma "to spare, to save" plus the negative prefix). Occurs as a personal name in the runic genitive case form uurm in N251: "Ketill raised this stone in memory of Jrunn, his wife, yrmiR's daughter." CV pp. 469, 755 s.v. -, yrma; NR s.n. yrmiR
Oxi   GB p. 13 s.n. Oxi
zurr, ssurr, Andsvarr, Ansvarr, Ansurr, Assurr See Andsvarr. GB p. 17 s.n. zurr; FJ pp. 36-37 s.nn. Atsurr; NR s.nn. An(d)svarr/Ansurr/Assurr/ssurr
 
P
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Name Notes Source
Pll Christian, from Paul. GB p. 14 s.n. Pll
Patrekr Christian, from Patrick. GB p. 14 s.n. Patrekr
Ptr Found in Old Danish as Peder, in Old Swedish as Peter, Pdhar etc., and in OW.Norse as Ptr. Christian name; Scandinavian form of Latin Petrus (of Greek origin). Runic examples include the nominative case forms betar, peaitr. GB p. 14 s.n. Ptr; NR s.n. Ptr
Petrus Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Petrus. Christian name; from Latin Petrus (of Greek origin). Occurs in the nominative case form petrus. NR s.n. Petrus

R
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Name Notes Source
Rbarr The first element R- is from OW.Norse r "counsel; consultation; decision; rede." GB p. 14 s.n. Rbarr; FJ p. 345 s.n. R-; CV p. 485 s.v. r; NR s.n. R-
Rai See Hrai, above. FJ p. 210 s.n. Rai
Rormr For the first element R- see above. For the second element -ormr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Rormr; FJ pp. 345, 350 s.nn. R-, -ormr; CV pp. 468-469, 485 s.v. ormr, r; NR s.nn. R-, -ormr
Rlfr Found in Old Danish as Rathulf, in Old Swedish as Radholf, and in OW.Norse as Rlfr. For the first element R- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. Occurs in the nominative case form [raulfr] . GB p. 14 s.n. Rlfr; FJ pp. 345, 351 s.nn. R-, -ulfr; CV pp. 485 s.v. r; NR s.nn. RulfR, R-, -ulfR
Rvaldr For the first element R- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Rvaldr; FJ pp. 345, 351 s.nn. R-, -valdr; CV pp. 485, 675 s.v. r, valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
RialfR The first element R- is from OW.Norse r "counsel; consultation; decision." The second element is related to the name ilfi and the first element found in the name ialfarr, which is from OW.Norse jlfi "the one that encompasses, encloses, keeps together, subdues, subjugates, overpowers, overcomes" (of disputed derivation). Occurs in the nominative case form raialbr. NR s.nn. RialfR, R-, ialfi, ialfarr
Rafn See Hrafn above. FJ pp. 210-212 s.n. Rafn
Rafnketill See Hrafnkell above. FJ pp. 212-213 s.nn. Rafn, Rafnketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill
Rafnsvartr For the first element Hrafn- or Rafn-, see above. The second element -svartr is identical with Old Icelandic svartr, "black". FJ pp. 213, 351 s.nn. Rafnsvartr, -svartr
Raggi Found in Old Swedish as Ragge and in Old Danish as the by-name Raggi. Derived from OW.Norse rgg "a tuft; shagginess." May occur in the nominative case form ragi, although this may instead represent the name Ragi. NR s.nn. Raggi, Ragi
Ragi May be found in Old Danish as Raghi, occurs in OW.Norse as Ragi (also found as a by-name). From the OW.Norse adjective ragr "cowardly, homosexual." May occur in the nominative case form ragi, although this may instead represent the name Raggi. GB p. 14 s.n. Ragi; NR s.n. Raggi, Ragi
Ragnarr Found in Old Danish as Regner, in Old Swedish as Ragnar, and in OW.Norse as Ragnarr. The first element Ragn- is from Germanic *ragina-, for example in Gothic ragin "counsel, decision," OW.Norse rgn, regin pl. "power, power of the gods." As a personal name element this word rather has the Germanic sense of "rede, counsel, decision," but in Scandinavia acquired a secondary meaning with the religious interpretation. For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [ragnar], ra(k)nar and the accusative case forms raknar, raknaR. A short form for names in Ragn- is Ragni. The name Ragnarr wasn't particularly common in Norway in the Viking period, but it did occur in the royal lines, and there was a bishop by that name at Nidaros in the middle of the 11th century. GB p. 14 s.n. Ragnarr; FJ pp. 345, 348 s.nn. Ragn-, -arr; CV pp. 488-489 s.v. regin; NR s.nn. Ragnarr, Ragn-, -arr, Ragni; Academy of St. Gabriel Report #1520
Ragnbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Ragnbiorn. For the first element Ragn- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Occurs in the nominative case form ranbRarn. A short form of Ragnbjrn is Rambi. A short form for names in Ragn- is Ragni. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 345, 348 s.nn. Ragn-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 488-489 s.v. bjrn, regin; NR s.nn. Ragnbirn, Ragn-, -birn, Biarni, Ragni, Rambi
Ragnfastr Found in Old Swedish as Ragnvast. For the first element Ragn- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ragnfastr, [ragnfastr], [rahnfastr], raknfastr, ranfast[r], [ranfastr] (3 instances) and the accusative case forms raknfast (3 instances), [raknfast]. A short form for names in Ragn- is Ragni. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 345 s.n. Ragn-; CV pp. 488-489 s.v. regin; NR s.nn. Ragnfastr, Ragn-, -fastr, Ragni, Fasti
Ragnfrr For the first element Ragn- see above. For the second element -frr see above. A short form for names in Ragn- is Ragni. GB p. 14 s.n. Ragnfrr; FJ pp. 345, 348 s.nn. Ragn-, -frr; CV pp. 488-489 s.v. regin; NR s.nn. Ragn-, -frr, Ragni
Ragni Found in Old Danish as Regni, in Old Swedish as Ragne, and in Old Swedish as Ragni. Short form of masculine names in Ragn-. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ragni, rakn[in], the genitive case form rakna and the accusative case forms ragna, rahna. FJ p. 345 s.n. Ragn-; CV pp. 488-489 s.v. regin; NR s.nn. Ragni, Ragn-
Ragnvaldr Found in Old Danish as Regnwald and possibly as Rawald, found in Old Swedish as Ragnvald, and in OW.Norse as Rgnvaldr. For the first element Ragn- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms rahnualtr, [rakualtr] and the accusative case form raknualt (4 instances). A short form for names in Ragn- is Ragni. FJ pp. 345, 351 s.nn. Ragn-, -valdr; CV pp. 488-489, 675 s.v. regin, valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Ragnvaldr, Ragn-, -valdr, Ragni
Ragnvir Found in Old Swedish as Ragnvidh. For the first element Ragn- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Occurs in the nominative case form rahnuir. A short form for names in Ragn- is Ragni. FJ p. 345 s.n. Ragn-; CV pp. 488-489, 703-704 s.v. regin, vir; NR s.nn. Ragnvir, Ragn-, -vir, Ragni
Rambi Short form of Ragnbjrn. Occurs as a personal name in the nominative case form [ramri] in g215: "Rambi raised this stone in memory of zurr, his son." NR s.nn. Rambi, Ragnbirn, Ragn-, -birn
Randi Found in Old Danish as Randi. Short form of masculine names in Rand- such as Old Swedish Randolf, OW.Norse Randvir. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ranti, ronti. CV pp. 507-508 s.v. rnd; NR s.nn. Randi, Randvir, Rand-
Randr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Rand. Derived from OW.Norse rnd "shield." Occurs in the nominative case form rontr, which may instead represent the name rndr. A short form of names in Rand- is Randi. CV pp. 507-508 s.v. rnd; NR s.nn. Randr, Randi
Randvr The first element Rand- is from OW.Norse rnd "shield." For the second element -vr or -vir see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Randvr; FJ p. 352 s.n. -vr; CV pp. 507-508 s.v. rnd; NR s.nn. Randr, Randi, -vR
Randvir For the first element Rand- see above. For the second element -vir see above. A short form of names in Rand- is Randi. CV pp. 507-508, 703-704 s.v. rnd, vir; NR s.nn. Rand-, -vir, Randi
Rannvr The first element Rann- is identical to Old Icelandic rann, "house" (related to the root in modern English ransack, "house-search"). For the second element -vr or -vir see above. FJ p. 352 s.n. -vr; CV pp. 483 s.v. rann, Rannvr; NR s.n. -vR
RaskulfR Found in Old Swedish as Raskolf. The first element Rask- is from the OW.Norse adjective rskr "mature in age; quick, doughty." For the second element -lfr see above. Occurs in the accusative case form raskulf in the inscription U1155: "Hrlfr and raised the stone in memory of Raskulfr. May God help his spirit." FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV p. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. RaskulfR, Rask-, -ulfR
Raskvir Found in Old Swedish as Raskvidh. For the first element Rask- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Occurs in the nominative case form raskuir. CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Raskvir, Rask-, -vir
Raubjrn The first element Rau- is from the OW.Norse adjective raur "red." For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 14 s.n. Raubjrn; FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni
Raulfr For the first element Rau- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Raulfr; FJ pp. 216, 351 s.nn. Raur, Raui, -ulfr; NR s.nn. Raui, Raur, -ulfR
Raui Found in Old Danish as the by-name Rthe, in Old Swedish as the by-name Rdhe, and in OW.Norse as by-name Raui. From the OW.Norse adjective raur "red." Occurs as a personal name in the accusative case form [roua] in g23: "rlakr had this stone raised in memory of Raui, his father, and in memory of Gunni." FJ p. 216 s.nn. Raur, Raui; NR s.n. Raui
Raukrr For the first element Rau- see above. For the second element -krr see above. May occur in the runic accusative case form raukar, which may instead represent HrgeiRR. NR s.nn. Raukrr, Rau-, -krr, Raui, Raur
Raur Found both as a personal name and as a by-name, occurring in in Old Danish as Rth, in Old Swedish as Rdh, and in OW.Norse as Raur. From the OW.Norse adjective raur "red". Raur appears very early as a personal name in Norway, and is the name of one of the original settlers of Iceland in Landnmabk (ch. 21). Runic examples include the nominative case forms raur, [raur], rur. GB p. 14 s.n. Raur; FJ p. 216 s.nn. Raur, Raui; NR s.n. Raur
Raumr   GB p. 14 s.n. Raumr
Refkell For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Refkell; FJ pp. 216, 349 s.nn. Refr, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Refr Found both as a personal name and as a by-name, occurring in Old Danish as Rf, in Old Swedish as Rv, and in OW.Norse as Refr. From OW.Norse refr "fox". Found infrequently in Iceland from the time of the Settlement (Refr inn gamli in Landnmabk ch. 14). Runic examples include the nominative case form rifr and the accusative case form ref. GB p. 14 s.n. Refr; FJ p. 216 s.n. Refr; NR s.n. RefR
Refli Weak side-form of the OW.Norse masculine fictional name Refill, from OW.Norse refill "strip, shred, narrow piece." Occurs in the accusative case form Rifla. NR s.nn. Rfli, Hrifli
Reginmundr Found in Old Danish as Reimund; compare with Old Swedish Rag(n)mund, Raimund, and the Latinized form Remundus. The first element is a side form of Ragn, Regin-. For the second element -mundr see above. Occurs in the accusative case form [uiki(n)(m)(r)...]. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Rginmundr, Rgin-, Ragn-, -mundr, Mundi
Reiarr See Hreiarr above. FJ pp. 216-217, 346, 348 s.nn. Reiarr, (H)rei-
Reiubinn From the OW.Norse adjective reiubinn "ready, ready-made, prepared." Occurs as a personal name in the accusative case form rebu-n in N23$: "Sigrkr had the stone raised in memory of Reiubinn, his son, a capable valiant man, and Oddr and Freysteinn (also raised)." NR s.n. Riubinn
Reifr From the OW.Norse adjective reifr "friendly, happy." Runic examples include the accusative case forms raif, ref. CV p. 490 s.v. reifr; NR s.n. RifR
Reinaldr   GB p. 14 s.n. Reinaldr
Reinn See Hrein above. FJ pp. 217-218 s.n. Reinn
Reistr   GB p. 14 s.n. Reistr
RekkR May be found in Old Danish as Rek, occurs in OW.Norse as Rekkr. From *Rink- (OW.Norse rekkr) "warrior." Occurs in the nominative case form [rakR] in the inscription Sm79#: "Rekkr laid the stone over jokkr, his son...". NR s.nn. RekkR, RinkR
Reyrketill For the second element -ketill see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Reyrketill; FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Rkarr, Rkharr The first element Rk- is from the OW.Norse adjective rkr (from Germanic *rkia-) "mighty, distinguished, rich." For the second element -harr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Rkarr, Rkharr; NR s.nn. Rk-, Har-, Harr
Rkhvatr For the first element Rk- see above. For the second element -hvatr see above. Occurs in the nominative case form rikatr. FJ p. 349 s.n. -hvatr; CV pp. 297 s.v. hvatr; NR s.nn. Rkhvatr, -hvatr
Rki Found in Old Danish as Riki (also found as a by-name), occurs in Old Swedish as the by-name Rike and in OW.Norse as the by-name Rki. In some cases, Rki appears as a short form of masculine names in Rk-, but when found in Runic Swedish names the name element may formed instead from the OW.Norse adjective rkr "mighty, distinguished, rich." Occurs in the nominative case form riki in U438: "rndr and Rki and Gurn, these brothers had this stone raised in memory of Brni, their father. May God help his soul." NR s.n. Rki
Rklfr Found in Old Danish Rikulf, Old Swedish Rikolf, OW.Norse Rklfr. For the first element Rk- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. Occurs in the nominative case form [rikulfR] in g139# "Rklfr had this monument made in memory of Gerarr, his father. May God help (his) spirit ..." FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV p. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. RkulfR, Rk-, -ulfR
RkR May be found in Old Danish as Righer, also found as the by-name Rik. Occurs in Old Swedish as the by-name Rik. From the OW.Norse adjective rkr (from Germanic *rkia-) "mighty, distinguished, rich." Runic examples include the nominative case forms rikr, r(in)kr, though these may instead represent the names HringR, RinkR. NR s.nn. RkR, HringR, RinkR
Rkvir Found in Old Swedish as Rikvidh. For the first element Rk- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms rikuir (3 instances), [rikuir]. CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Rkvir, Rk-, -vir
Ringulfr See Hringulfr above. FJ pp. 219, 346, 351 s.n. Ringulfr, (H)ring-, -ulfr
RinkR Found in Old Danish as Rink (also found as a by-name) and in OW.Norse as Rekkr. From *rink- (OW.Norse rekkr) "warrior." Runic examples include the nominative case forms rikr, r(in)kr. NR s.n. RinkR, HringR, RkR
Rarr See Hrarr above. FJ pp. 221, 346, 348 s.n. Rarr, (H)rr-, -geirr, -varr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr
Rbert Christian GB p. 14 s.n. Rbert
Robert   GB p. 14 s.n. Robert; FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)r-
Robjartr   GB p. 14 s.n. Robjartr; FJ p. 346 s.n. (H)r-
Rgeirr For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Rgeirr; FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. (H)r-, -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Rmarr See Hrmarr above. FJ pp. 221, 346, 350 s.nn. Rmarr, (H)r-, -marr
Rmundr See Hrmundr above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ pp. 221-222, 346, 350 s.nn. Rmundr, (H)r-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Rorekr For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Rorekr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. (H)r-, -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Rulfr See Hrulfr above. A few instances of Rodhulf occur in Sweden. In Danish legendary history the name appears in Latinized form as Rolpho, Rolvo, Roluerus. FJ pp. 222-223, 346, 351 s.nn. *Rulfr, (H)r-, -ulfr
Rœkia From the OW.Norse abstract verb rœkja "to care, to mind, to worry, to revere, to be careful with, take care of, guard, protect." Occurs in the genitive case form rRkiu. NR s.n. Rkia
Rœrekr For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Rœrekr; FJ pp. 350 s.n. -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR
Rghvatr The first element Rg- is from the OW.Norse noun rg "accusation, dispute, battle." For the second element -hvatr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form rukuat in S359: "Arnulfr and Gamall and Spjti, they had the rock-slab cut in memory of Rghvatr, their good father." FJ p. 349 s.n. -hvatr; CV pp. 297 s.v. hvatr; NR s.n. Rghvatr, -hvatr
Rgnvaldr The first element Rgn- is a contracted form of Old Icelandic regin, "ruling powers, the gods." For the second element -valdr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Rgnvaldr; FJ pp. 345, 351 s.n. Ragn-, -valdr; CV pp. 488-489, 675 s.v. regin, valdi, valdr; NR s.n. -valdr
Rkr, Rki See Hrkr above. FJ p. 223 s.nn. Rkr, Rki
Rngur   GB p. 14 s.n. Rngur
Rossketill See Hrosskell above. FJ pp. 225-226, 346, 349 s.n. Rossketill, (H)ross-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Rugga Found in OW.Norse as the masculine by-name Rugga. Formed from the OW.Norse verb rugga "to rock; to move forward and backward, to rock a cradle." Runic examples include two references to the same man, in the nominative case form ruka and the genitive case form ruku in Vg149: "Rugga placed ... his father and ..." and in Vg139 "...-gautr raised this stone in memory of Gumundr, his father, Rugga's son, very good." NR s.n. Rugga
Rnfastr Found in Old Swedish as Runvast. The first element Rn- is from OW.Norse rn (from Germanic *rn) in the original sense of "secret, hidden knowledge." For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form runfast... and the accusative case forms runfast, runfastr. A short form of masculine names in Rn- is Rni. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. NR s.n. Rnfastr, Rn-, -fastr, Rni, Fasti
Rni Found in Old Danish as Runi, in Old Swedish as Rune, and in OW.Norse as Rni. Short form of masculine names in Rn-. Runic examples include the nominative case forms runi, [runi], the genitive case form runo and the accusative case forms ruah, runo. NR s.n. Rni
Rnki Diminuitive form of Rnlfr. CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Rnlfr Found in OW.Norse as Rnlfr. For the first element Rn- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. Runic examples include the genitive case form runulfs and the accusative case forms rnulfu, runul-. A short form of masculine names in Rn- is Rni. A diminuitive form of Rnlfr is Rnki. GB p. 14 s.nn. Runlfr, Rnlfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. RnulfR, Rn-, -ulfR, Rni
Rnvir Found in Old Swedish Runvidh. For the first element Rn- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Occurs in the nominative case form runuir. A short form of masculine names in Rn- is Rni. CV pp. 703-704 s.v. vir; NR s.nn. Rnvir, Rn-, -vir, Rni
RyingR Possibly derived from OW.Norse ru "clearing in the woods." Occurs in the nominative case form ryikr, although this may instead represent the masculine names HringR or HrrkR. NR s.nn. RyingR, HringR, HrrkR
Rysia Found in Old Swedish as the masculine by-name Rysia. From Old Swedish *rysia "hoop-net." Runic examples include the nominative case form rusia and the accusative case form ...rysu. NR s.n. Rysia
 
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Name Notes Source
Sbjrn Found in Old Danish as Sebiorn, in Old Swedish as Sbiorn, and in OW.Norse as Sbjrn. The first element S- or Sy- is from OW.Norse sjr, sjr, sr (from proto-Scandinavian *saiwaR "sea, ocean"). For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms saibiorn, sibiun, sibiurn, [sibiurn] and the accusative case forms [sabi], [sabiara], saibiurn. A short form of Sbjrn is Sebbi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 15 s.n. Sbjrn; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. S-, bjrn; CV pp. 66, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. bjrn, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. Sbbi, Sbirn, S-/Sy-, -birn, Biarni
SdiarfR Found in Old Swedish as Sdirf. For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. Runic examples include the accusative case forms siiterf, sitiarf. FJ p. 346 s.nn. S-; CV pp. 100, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. djarfr, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. SdiarfR, S-/Sy-, diarfR
Sfari Found in OW.Norse as Sfari, the name of a fictional character, also found as a by-name. From OW.Norse sfari "sea-farer" Occurs in the runic nominative case form sefari. FJ p. 346 s.nn. S-; CV pp. 141-143, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. fara, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. Sfari, S-/Sy-
Sfss For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -fss see above. Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form saifok in the inscription l18: "Jarr and Sjall and Eilfr/Eileifr and Bfi, they had the stone raised in memory of their father, Sfss." FJ p. 346 s.nn. S-; CV pp. 178-179, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. fss, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. Sfss, S-/Sy-, -fss
Sgeirr For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form saikaiR and the accusative case form [saikiR]. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.n. S-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. geirr, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. SgiRR, S-/Sy-, -giRR
Sgrmr This name once was assumed to be found exclusively as an Old Norse name from the Danelaw, but new research shows that it is also found as a name in Scandinavia. For the first element S- or Sy- see above. second element -grmR. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sekrim, se-rimr, siagrim. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.n. S-, -grmr; CV pp. 216, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. grma, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. SgrmR, S-/Sy-, -grmR
Sleifr For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form sailafr in the partial inscription G94: "Seilafr had the monument ..." FJ p. 346 s.nn. S-; CV pp. 381, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. leif, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. SlafR, S-/Sy-, -lifR/-lafR
Smlingr   GB p. 15 s.n. Smlingr
Smundr Found in Old Danish as Semund, in Old Swedish as Smund, and in OW.Norse as Smundr. For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form semuntr and the accusative case form saimut. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 15 s.n. Smundr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. S-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. mundr, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. Smundr, S-/Sy-, -mundr, Mundi
Srifr SrifR (masculine name, see SigrifR) For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -rifR see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form serifr and the accusative case forms seref, siref, sirif. FJ p. 346 s.nn. S-; CV pp. 490, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. reifr, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. SrifR, S-/Sy-, -rifR
Sra From the pret. participle of the OW.Norse verb sra "to wound, to hurt" with a weakly-inflected suffix -a, perhaps after the English pattern. Occurs in the runic nominative case form sara in the inscription DRM66: sara lundi (Sra of Lund). This inscription dates to ca. 1065-75, after the end of the Viking Age. NR s.n. Sra; Arild Hauge. Danske Brakteater og Runemynter. rhus, Denmark. 2002. Accessed 23 July 2003.
Srr For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -rr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form saur in the inscription g184: "Srr raised (the stone) in memory of ri, his brother, (who) died." FJ pp. 346, 347, 351 s.nn. S-, r-, -rr; CV pp. 534-535, 618-619, 743 s.v. sjr, sjr, sr, rr; NR s.nn. Srr, S-/Sy-, -rr
SulfR, Silfr Found in OW.Norse as Silfr, a fictional character. For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms saiulfr, saulfR. Also found in the contracted form Sjlfr. FJ pp. 346, 351 s.nn. S-, -ulfr; CV pp. 534-535, 618-619, 668 s.v. sjr, sjr, sr, lfr; NR s.nn. SulfR, S-/Sy-, -ulfR
Svarr Found in OW.Norse as Svarr. For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -arr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form seuar in the inscription l33{21}: "... ... had the stones raised in memory of Svarr, his/her good father." FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. S-, -arr; CV pp. 534-535, 618-619 s.v. sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. Svarr, S-/Sy-, -arr
Svini Old English name. Runic examples include the nominative case forms seuina, seuine. NR s.n. Svini
Salgarr The first element Sal- is identical with Old Icelandic salr, "hall, house". GB p. 14 s.n. Salgarr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sal-; CV pp. 510 s.v. salr
Salmon Christian, from Solomon. GB p. 14 s.n. Salmon
Smr Found in Old Danish as Sam and in OW.Norse as Smr (also found as a by-name). From the OW.Norse adjective smr "swarthy, dark like a Smi". Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form sam in Sm93L: "Hrlfr raised this stone in memory of his sons Sveinn/Steinn(?) and Thorsteinn and in memory of Smr, a good valiant man; Œpir in memory of his father." GB p. 14 s.n. Smr; NR s.n. SmR
Sandarr Possibly found in Old Danish as Sander. The first element Sand- is from OW.Norse sandr "sand." For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms santar, satar. FJ p. 348 s.n. -arr; CV pp. 513-514 s.v. sandr; NR s.nn. Sandarr, Sand-, -arr
Santiri Celtic GB p. 14 s.n. Santiri
Sassurr, Sssurr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Sazur. These names are variant forms of Assurr, ssurr, zurr etc. The origin of the initial S-sound is perhaps from children's speech. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sasur (3 instances), [sasur] and the accusative case forms sasur, susur. NR s.nn. An(d)svarr/Ansurr/Assurr/ssurr, Sassurr/Sssurr
Sauklfr   GB p. 14 s.n. Sauklfr
Saxi Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Saxi and in Old Swedish as Saxe. Occurs in OW.Norse as the personal name Saxi. Formed in OW.Norse from the name of the people or nation saxar pl. "inhabitant of Saxland, Saxon" or from OW.Norse sax "short sword" (compare with the OW.Norse sword name Saxi). Runic examples include the nominative case forms sagsi, sahsi, sakse, saksi, sak(s)in, sak(s)(in), [sa]ksi and the accusative case form sagas (4 instances). GB p. 14 s.n. Saxi; NR s.n. Saxi
Saxlfr, Sxlfr For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Sxlfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr
Sebbi Found in Old Danish and OW.Norse as Sebbi, found in Old Swedish as Sbbe. A short form of Sbjrn. Occurs in the accusative case form [saba] in the inscription Sm146: "Halfdan had this stone raised in memory of Sebbi, (his) father." CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Sbbi, Sbirn, -birn
Sefi, Siafi Found in Old Swedish as Sve. From the Old Swedish adjective siver, sver "calm, self-possessed, tranquil, gentle, leisurely." Runic examples include the nominative case form s(in)afi, the genitive case form sifa and the accusative case form s(in)fa. NR s.nn. Sefi/Siafi
Serkr   GB p. 14 s.n. Serkr
Sialfi Found in Old Danish as Selvi and in Old Swedish as Silve. From the OW.Norse adjective sjalfr "himself." Runic examples include the nominative case form sialfi and the accusative case form sialfa. NR s.n. Sialfi
Sibba Occurs in the runic nominative case form siba in two inscriptions referring to the same person - G111: "Sibba raised the stone in memory of Hrj, his wife, Hrgeirr in Angr/Anga's daughter. (She) died young and under-age." and G112: "Sibba had the stone made in memory of his and Hrj's daughter." NR s.n. Sibba
Sibbi Found in Old Danish as Sibbi and in Old Swedish as Sibbe. A short form of Sigbjrn. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sibi (12 instances), [sibi], the genitive case form siba and the accusative case forms siba (6 instances), [siba], [sira]. CV pp. 66, 526-527 s.v. bjrn, sigr; NR s.nn. Sibbi, Sigbirn, Sig-, -birn
Sigarr The first element Sig- comes from *sigi, the same stem as in Old Icelandic sigr, "victory". Here the second element -arr is derived from either *harjaR, Old Icelandic herr, "army, warrior" or from *gaiRaR, Old Icelandic geirr, "spear". GB p. 14 s.n. Sigarr; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. Sig-, -arr; CV pp. 527-528 s.v. sigr; NR s.nn. -arr
Sigbjrn For the first element Sig- see above. A diminuitive form of Sigbjrn is Sebbi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. Sig-, -bjrn; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 66, 527-528 s.v. bjrn, sigr; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni
Sigbjrn Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Sighbiorn, occurs in OW.Norse as Sigbjrn. The first element Sig- is from OW.Norse sigr (genitive: -sigrs) (from Germanic *segiz, *seguz) "victory, conquest." For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sibiun, sibiurn, [sibiurn], sigbiarn, sikbiar[n], [sikbiar-], sikbiurn and the accusative case forms [sig:biarn], sihbiarn, sihbi..., sihborn, sikbia..., sikbiern, sikbiurn. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. Sig-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 526-527 s.v. bjrn, sigr; NR s.nn. Sigbirn, Sig-, -birn, Biarni, Siggi
Sigdan Found in Old Swedish as Sighdan. For the first element Sig- see above. The second element -dan is from OW.Norse danr "Dane, Danish." Occurs in the runic nominative case form [sikton] in g119+: "Sigdan erected this stone in memory of Ofti, his father, a good husbandman." A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 526-527 s.v. sigr; NR s.nn. Sigdan, Sig-, DanR, Halfdan, Siggi
SigdiarfR Found in Old Swedish as Sighdirf. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sihtarf, [sihtia]rf, [sihtiarfr] and the accusative case forms [sihtirf], siiterf, sikterf, sitiarf, s[uhik'ierf]. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 100, 526-527 s.v. djarfr, sigr; NR s.nn. SigdiarfR, Sig-, -diarfR, Siggi
Sigfasti For the first element Sig- see above. The second element -fasti is from the OW.Norse adjective fastr "firm, fast, strong." Occurs in the runic accusative case form sihfasta in U193: "Gunna and Ingjaldr (and) Illugi, they had the stone erected in memory of Sigfasti, Gunna's husbandman." A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 145, 526-527 s.v. fastr, sigr; NR s.nn. Sigfasti, Sig-, -fasti, Fasti, Siggi
Sigfastr Found in Old Swedish as Sighfast or Sighvast, found in OW.Norse as Sigfastr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [sigfastr], sihfastr, sihikfastr, sihuastr (3 instances), sikfast, s[ikfast]r, [sikfastr], [sRkuastr], -ikfastr, [...uastr] and the accusative case forms [shfast], sigfast, [(s)igfast], sikfast, sikuast. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigfastr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 145, 526-527 s.v. fastr, sigr; NR s.nn. Sigfastr, Sig-, -fastr, Fasti, Siggi
Sigfrr Found in Old Danish as Sighfrith, in Old Swedish as Sighfridh, Sighrudh, Sighrdh, and in OW.Norse as Sigfrr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -(f)rer/(f)rr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms si[kfiR]ur, sikrur, the genitive case forms sifruaR, sukruar, sukruaR and the accusative case forms siri(), siR=ur. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 526-527 s.v. sigr; NR s.nn. Sig(f)rr, Sig-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr, Siggi
Sigfss Found in Old Swedish as Sighus and in OW.Norse as Sigfss. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -fss see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sigfus, sihus and the accusative case form sikfus. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigfss; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 526-527 s.v. sigr; NR s.nn. Sigfss, Sig-, -fss, Siggi
Siggeirr Found in OW.Norse as Siggeirr, the name of fictional characters in several sagas and also the name of a person in Jamtland. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form [sikiR] and the accusative case form si[k]is. This name appears in Vlsunga saga ch. 3; Egils saga einhenda ok smundar berserkjabana ch. 7; and Bsa saga ok Herraus for Siggeirr Hreksson in ch. 7. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 326, 349 s.nn. Sig-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 526-527 s.v. geirr, sigr; NR s.n. SiggiRR, Sig-, -giRR, Siggi
Siggi Found in Old Danish and OW.Norse as Siggi, occurs in Old Swedish as Sigge. A short form of masculine names in Sig-. Cleasby-Vgfsson shows Siggi as specifically a diminuitive form of Sigurr. Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form [sigi] in Vs5: " had the stone raised...travelled to England, died in Spjallboi's ... May God help his soul... Siggi cut the runes." CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 526-527 s.v. sigr; NR s.nn. Siggi, Sig-
Sighjlmr Found in Old Swedish as Sighhilm and in OW.Norse as the fictional character Sighjlmr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -hjlmr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sihialmr, sihia--r, sikhialmr. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 266-267, 526-527 s.v. hjlmr, sigr; NR s.nn. SighialmR, Sig-, -hialmR, Siggi
Sighvatr, Sigvatr Found in Old Swedish as Sighhvat and in OW.Norse as Sighvatr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -hvatr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [sahuatr], sihatr, [sihatr], [sihuat]r, [sikaaar], [sikeuatr], [sikuatr] and the accusative case forms isikat, sihat, [si]huat, [sikat]. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. GB p. 14 s.nn. Sighvatr, Sigvatr; FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. Sig-, -hvatr; CV pp. 297, 526-527 s.v. hvatr, sigr; NR s.nn. Sighvatr, Sig-, Hvatr, -hvatr, Siggi
Sigketill Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England in the form Sichet or Sighet. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form sikitl. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. Sig-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 526-527 s.v. ketill, sigr; NR s.n. Sigktill, Sig-, -k(ti)ll, Siggi
Sigmarr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Sighmar. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -marr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sihmar, sikmar and the genitive case form [sihmaraR]. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. Sig-, -mrr; CV pp. 418, 443, 526-527 s.v. -mr, mrr, sigr; NR s.nn. Sigmarr, Sig-, -marr, Siggi
Sigmundr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Sighmund, occurs in OW.Norse as Sigmundr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sekmutr, sigmutr, sihimuntr, si(k)mtr, sikmunt=r, sikmutr, the genitive case form sikmuntaR and the accusative case forms sigmunt, [sikmunt], sikmut. A diminuitive form of Sigmundr is Simbi. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigmundr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. Sig-, -mundr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 437-438, 527-528 s.v. mundr, -mundr, sigr; NR s.nn. Sigmundr, Sig-, -mundr, Siggi, Mundi
Signiti For the first element Sig- see above. The second element -niti is a weak side-form of -nitr, from the OW.Norse verb njta, "have to use and enjoy", thus "one who has or enjoys." Occurs in the runic accusative case form [sihniuta] in U958 "This is in memory of Signiti. His son Sigvir made the runes. rgautr carved." A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 456, 526-527 s.v. njta, sigr; NR s.nn. Signiti, Sig-, -niti, Siggi
Signitr Found in Old Swedish as Sighniut. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -nitr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms s(in)ihniutr, sikne(o)t, sikniutr (3 instances), sikni(u)-. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 456, 526-527 s.v. njta, sigr; NR s.nn. Signitr, Sig-, nitr, Siggi
Siglfr May be found in Old Danish as Sighulf. Found in Old Swedish as Sigholf and in OW.Norse as Siglfr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form sikulf. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 346, 351 s.n. Sig-, -ulfr; CV pp. 526-527, 668 s.v. sigr, lfr; NR s.nn. SigulfR, Sig-, -ulfR, Siggi
SigrifR Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Sighref. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -rifR see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms serifr, sigrifr, sihr(a)if, sihraifr, sihrai-r, [sikraif], sikrif and the accusative case forms seref, sigraif, sihraif, sikraif, siref, sirif. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 490, 526-527 s.v. reifr, sigr; NR s.nn. SigrifR, Sig-, -rifR, Siggi
Sigrhaddr For the first element Sig- see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigrhaddr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 527-528 s.v. sigr
Sigrkr Found in Old Danish as Sighrik and in OW.Norse as Sigrkr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form sihrikr. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 346, 350 s.nn. Sig-, -rkr; CV pp. 499, 526-527 s.v. rkr, sigr; NR s.nn. SigrkR, Sig-, -rkR, Siggi
Sigrr For the first element Sig- see above. A diminuitive form of Sigurr is Siggi. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigrr; FJ pp. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 527-528 s.v. sigr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; NR s.n. Sig-
Sigsteinn Found in Old Swedish as Sighsten and in OW.Norse as Sigsteinn. For the first element Sig- see above. second element -stinn. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [sifstain], sihstain, [sihstin], sikstain, [sikstain], siksten, sikstin, sistin, the genitive case form sikstains, and the accusative case forms sigstain, sihstain, siksan, s[iksin], (s)[ik]st[a]in, [sikstin], sikstnin, ...kstain. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 346, 351 s.nn. Sig-, -steinn; CV pp. 526-527, 591 s.v. sigr, steinn; NR s.nn. Sigstinn, Sig-, -stinn, Siggi
Sigorr For the first element Sig- see above. The second element is from the masculine name rr. May occur in the runic accusative case forms sihor, which may instead represent Sigorn or Sigrr. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 526-527 s.v. sigr; NR s.nn. Sigorr, Sig-, orr, Siggi, Sigorn, Sigrr
Sigorn Found in Old Swedish as Sighthorn. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -orn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form sihikurn and the accusative case forms sihor, sihorn. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 526-527, 742 s.v. sigr, orn; NR s.nn. Sigorn, Sig-, -orn, Siggi
Sigrr For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -rr see above. May occur in the runic accusative case forms sihor, which may instead represent Sigorn. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 346, 347, 351 s.nn. Sig-, r-, -rr; CV pp. 526-527, 743 s.v. sigr, rr; NR s.nn. , Siggi
Sigtryggr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Sightrygg, occurs in OW.Norse as Sigtryggr. For the first element Sig- see above. The second element -tryggr is from the OW.Norse adjective tryggr. "trusty, faithful, reliable." Runic examples include the nominative case forms [shktirikr], (s)igtrykR, [syktrykR], the genitive case form sygtry(g)s, and the accusative case forms siktriku, siktriuk, siktryk. A short form of SigtryggR is Tryggvi. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigtryggr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 526-527, 643 s.v. sigr, tryggr; NR s.nn. SigtryggR, Sig-, -tryggR, TryggR, Siggi, Tryggvi
Sigurr Found in Old Danish as Sighwarth, in Old Swedish as Sighvardh or Sighurdh, and in OW.Norse as Sigurr. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -varr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms siguar, s(in)[k]u(a)rr, [sikuR], sikur, [siuhur], the genitive case form [sikuarta] and the accusative case form sehkur. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigurr; FJ pp. 346, 351 s.n. Sig-, -varr; CV pp. 526-527, 722 s.v. sigr, vrr; NR s.nn. Sigvarr/Sigurr, Sig-, -varr, Siggi
Sigvaldi Found in Old Danish as Sighwaldi and in OW.Norse as Sigvaldi. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -valdr or -valdi see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sigualti, [sihualti], sik:ualti and the genitive case form sigualta. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigvaldi; FJ p. 346, 351 s.n. Sig-, -valdr; CV pp. 526-527, 675 s.v. sigr, valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. Sigvaldi, Sig-, -valdi, Siggi
Sigvarr For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -varr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigvarr; FJ pp. 346, 351 s.nn. Sig-, -varr; CV pp. 527-528, 722 s.v. sigr, vrr
Sigverkr For the first element Sig- see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Sigverkr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sig-; CV pp. 527-528 s.v. sigr
Sigvir Found in Old Danish as Sighwith, in Old Swedish as Sighvidh, and in OW.Norse as Sigvir. For the first element Sig- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms siguir, [sihiuir], sihuir (8 instances), sihui(r), [s]ihuir, sikuir, [siku]ir, [sikuir], [...(in)huir] and the accusative case form sihui. A short form of masculine names in Sig- is Siggi. FJ pp. 346, 352 s.nn. Sig-, -vir; CV pp. 526-527, 703-704 s.v. sigr, vir; NR s.nn. Sigvir, Sig-, -vir, Siggi
Silvester Christian, from Sylvester GB p. 14 s.n. Silvester
Simbi Diminuitive form of Sigmundr. CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"
Simn, Smon, Smn Christian, from Simon GB p. 14 s.n. Simn, Smon, Smn
Sinarr It is uncertain whether the first element here is Sin- or Sinn-. Of uncertain etymology; compare with SiniR. The second element is perhaps -arr (see above). Runic examples include the nominative case form sinar and the accusative case form sinar. FJ p. 348 s.n. -arr; NR s.nn. Sinarr, -arr
Sindri   GB p. 14 s.n. Sindri
SiniR Of uncertain etymology. The name may be derived from OW.Norse sin "sinew"; compare with OW.Norse Sinir as a horse name, interpreted as "the one with the strong sinews." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form sini in g170: "Hallsteinn raised this stone over his father SiniR." CV p. 529 s.v. sin; NR s.n. SiniR
SnkR From the OW.Norse adjective snkr "stingy, selfish." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form [sinkR] in g102$: "SnkR had ... ... ... in memory of Fridhelf, his wife. May God help her soul." CV p. 532 s.v. snkr; NR s.n. SnkR
Sjlfr This name is a contraction of Slfr. For the first element S- see above. FJ pp. 346, 351 s.nn. S-, -ulfr; CV pp. 618 s.v. sr; NR s.n. -ulfR
Sklingr   GB p. 14 s.n. Sklingr
SkriR This name is a side-form (with the addition of the -ia- suffix) of Skari. Runic examples include the accusative case forms kari, skari. NR s.n. SkriR
Skringr   GB p. 14 s.n. Skringr
Skagi Found in Old Danish as the personal name Skaghi and as the by-name Skaghe. Found in OW.Norse both as a personal name and as a by-name, Skagi. Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Skaghi. From the OW.Norse noun skagi, "point, cape, headland, promontory." Runic examples include the nominative case forms skagi, skahi and the accusative case form skaka. GB p. 14 s.n. Skagi; CV p. 536 s.v. skagi; NR s.n. Skagi
Skakki Found in Old Danish as Skakke (also found as a by-name) and in OW.Norse as the by-name Skakki. From the OW.Norse adjective skakkr "askew, crooked." Occurs in the runic accusative case form skaka. CV p. 536 s.v. skakkr; NR s.n. Skakki
Skakli Found in Old Danish as Skakli and in Old Swedish as Skakle (also found as a by-name). Derived from OW.Norse skkull, "the pole of a cart or carriage." Occurs in the runic nominative case form skakli in two inscriptions, DRM72: "Skakli in Lund" and DRM73: "Skakli, Lund." CV p. 565 s.v. skkull; NR s.n. Skakli
Skldi Found in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Skaldo (also found as a by-name, Skalde). Occurs in OW.Norse as the by-name Skldi. Derived from OW.Norse skald, "skald, poet." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form skalti in U1107: "Gillaug had the stone erected in memory of her son Fastarr. Skldi had the landmark arranged well, and rr and ds (did?)." NR s.n. Skaldi
Skalli Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Swedish as and in OW.Norse as Skalli. Occurs in Old Danish as the by-name Scalli. From OW.Norse skalli "skull, hairless head." Runic examples include the nominative case forms skali, [s]kali. NR s.n. Skalli
Sklpr   GB p. 14 s.n. Sklpr
Skamkell For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Skamkell; FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Skammhls May be found in Old Danish as Skammel. Occurs as a by-name in Old Swedish as Skamhals and in OW.Norse as Skammhls. Compounded from the OW.Norse adjective skammr "short" and OW.Norse hls "neck". Runic examples include the nominative case forms skamals, skanmals, [sknkals]. NR s.n. Skammhals
Skapti   GB p. 14 s.n. Skapti
Skari Found in Old Danish as Skarthi, in OW.Norse as the by-name Skari, and in Old Swedish as the by-name Skardhe. Derived from OW.Norse skar "indentation, notch, gap, mountain pass," with an allusion to hare-lip. Runic examples include the nominative case forms skari, sk(a)ri and the accusative case forms skara, [skara]. NR s.n. Skari
SkarfR Found in OW.Norse as Skarfr (also found as a by-name). From OW.Norse skarfr "bird, green cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus)". Runic examples include the accusative case forms skarf, s:karf|. NR s.n. SkarfR
Skri Found in OW.Norse as Skri (also found as a by-name). From OW.Norse skri "a young sea-gull." Runic examples include the nominative case form skari and the accusative case form skara. NR s.n. Skri
Skarpheinn For the second element -heinn see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Skarpheinn; CV p. 539 s.v. skarpr, Skarpheinn; NR s.nn. Hein-/Hiin-, -heinn/-hiinn, Heinn/Hiinn
Skati   GB p. 14 s.n. Skati
SkungR Of uncertain etymology. Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form skaukR in g135: "SkungR and zurr raised this stone in memory of Kagr(?), their father." NR s.n. SkungR
Skefill   GB p. 14 s.n. Skefill
Skeggi Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish and OW.Norse as Skeggi and in Old Swedish as Skgge. Derived from OW.Norse skegg "beard." May occur in the runic nominative case form skagi, or this may instead represent the name Skagi. GB p. 14 s.n. Skeggi; NR s.n. Skggi
Sker Occurs as a Scandinavian by-name in England. Either derived from or related to OW.Norse sker "skerry, a cliff or rock that sticks up out of the water." Occurs in the runic accusative case forms s:kar, which may instead represent the masculine name SkarfR. NR s.n. Skr
Ski   GB p. 14 s.n. Ski
Skjaldbjrn The first element Skjald- is identical with Old Icelandic skjld, genitive skjaldar, "shield." For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 14 s.n. Skjaldbjrn; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.n. Skjald-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 553 s.v. bjrn, skjld; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni
Skjlf   GB p. 14 s.n. Skjlf
Skjlgr   GB p. 14 s.n. Skjlgr
Skjldlfr, Skjldlfr For the first element Skjld- see above. For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Skjldlfr; FJ pp. 346, 351 s.nn. Skjald-, -ulfr; CV pp. 553 s.v. skjld; NR s.n. -ulfR
Skjldr Identical with Old Icelandic skjld, genitive skjaldar, "shield." Skjldr is the name of the mythical founder of the Danish kings, a son of the god inn. It appears in use as a human name in Njls saga. GB p. 14 s.n. Skjldr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Skjald-; CV pp. 553 s.v. skjld
Skofti, Skopti Found in OW.Norse as Skopti (also found as a by-name). May occur in Old Danish as the by-name Skofte. Derived from OW.Norse skopt "head of hair, scalp." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form skofti in N29: "Finnr and Skopti, Vli's sons, they raised this stone when they divided their land(ed property)." NR s.n. Skofti
Skgi Found in OW.Norse both as a personal name and as a by-name in the form Skgi. Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Skoghe. Derived from OW.Norse skgr "forest." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form skogi in DR387$: "svaldi raised this stone in memory of Alfar, his brother: a good valiant man, shamefully killed, and Skgi betrayed the guiltless one." NR s.n. Skgi
SkgR Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Skogh and in OW.Norse as Skgr. Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Skogh. From OW.Norse skgr "forest." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form skokr in N213: "Rannveig raised the stone in memory of gmundr Hreppir's son, her husband. Skgr struck (the runes)." NR s.n. SkgR
Sklmr   GB p. 14 s.n. Sklmr
Skopti   GB p. 14 s.n. Skopti
Skorageirr For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Skorageirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV pp. 196, 554 s.v. geirr, skora; NR s.n. -giRR
Skorri   GB p. 14 s.n. Skorri
Skotr Celtic GB p. 14 s.n. Skotr
Skrauti Found in OW.Norse as the by-name Skrauti. Derived from OW.Norse skraut "splendor, ostentation, adornment." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form skrauta in DREM85;377$: "Billingr raised this stone in memory of Skrauti." NR s.n. Skrauti
Skfr, Skmr Both skfr and skmr are used for the skua or brown gull (Lestris cataractes). Skmr also appears as a by-name with the sense of "chatterer, gossip." Both also occur as personal names. GB p. 14 s.n. Skfr, Skmr; CV p. 561 s.v. skfr, skmr
Skli Found in Old Danish as Skuli, in Old Swedish as Skule (also found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as Skli (also found as a by-name). From the OW.Norse verb skla "to conceal, to protect." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form skuli in U614: "Skli and Folki have raised this stone in memory of their brother Hsbjrn. He was sick abroad when they took payment on Gtland." GB p. 14 s.n. Skli; NR s.n. Skli
Skti, Sktr   GB p. 14 s.n. Skti, Sktr
Skygni Found in OW.Norse as the by-name Skygni. From the OW.Norse adjective skygn "sharp-sighted". Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form skukna in M5: "Hkon had this stone erected in memory of Skygni, his brother, and in memory of Alrr, his mother. May God and God's mother help their souls." NR s.n. Skygni
SlagvR Of uncertain etymology. The second element is perhaps -vR (see above). Runic examples include the nominative case forms slaguis, slakui. FJ p. 352 s.n. -ver; NR s.nn. SlagvR, -vR
Slagvi Of uncertain etymology. Runic examples include the nominative case form slakui and the accusative case form slakua. NR s.n. Slagvi
Sli Found in Old Swedish as Slodhe and in OW.Norse as Sli (also found as a by-name). Probably from a word related to Modern Icelandic slodi "wastrel, ne'er-do-well," derived from OW.Norse slod "to track or trail (after someone)." Runic examples include the nominative case forms sloi (4 instances), [sluia], slui, the genitive case form sloa and the accusative case forms sloa, s[l]ua. NR s.n. Sli
Slra Of uncertain etymology. Runic examples include the accusative case forms sluru, slyru, which may instead represent Slyra. NR s.n. Slra, Slyra
Slta Related to the OW.Norse verb slta "to hang down, to dangle." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form sluta in Vg182: "Slta raised this stone and made this bridge in memory of sbjrn, his partner." NR s.n. Slta
Slyra Found in OW.Norse as the masculine by-name Slyra. From a name related to Nynorsk slyra "shabby person, ruffian." Runic examples include the accusative case forms sluru, slyru, or these may instead represent the name Slra. NR s.n. Slyra, Slra
Smikell For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Smikell; FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 572 s.v. ketill, smir; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Smir Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Smith and in Old Swedish as Smidh. Occurs in OW.Norse as Smir. From the OW.Norse noun smir "craftsman, smith." Runic examples include the nominative case forms simir, smir and the accusative case form smi. GB p. 14 s.n. Smir; CV p. 572 s.v. smir; NR s.n. Smir
Snbjrn Found in OW.Norse as Snbjrn. The first element Snj- or Sn- is from OW.Norse snjr, snjr, snr (from proto-Scandinavian *snaiwaR), "snow." Most proper names are compounded in the oldest form of snr, however some are also found with the later spelling Snj-. For the second element -bjrn see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form snaybiarn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 14 s.n. Snbjrn; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.n. Sn-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 575, 577 s.v. bjrn, snjr, snr; NR s.nn. Snybirn, Sni-/Sny-, -birn, Biarni
Snklfr For the first element Sn- see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Snklfr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sn-; CV pp. 575, 577 s.v. snjr, snr; NR s.nn. Sni-/Sny-
Snkollr For the first element Sn- see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Snkollr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sn-; CV pp. 575, 577 s.v. snjr, snr; NR s.nn. Sni-/Sny-
Snr Found as the name of a fictional character in Old Danish as Snio and in OW.Norse as Snr. From OW.Norse snjr, snjr, snr "snow." Occurs in the runic nominative case form snuR, or this may instead represent the name SnR. CV pp. 575, 577 s.v. snjr, snr; NR s.nn. SniR, SnR, Sni-/Sny-
Snrir For the first element Sn- see above. GB p. 14 s.n. Snrir; FJ p. 346 s.n. Sn-; CV pp. 575, 577 s.v. snjr, snr; NR s.nn. Sni-/Sny-
Snlfr, Snjolfr For the first element Sn- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Snjlfr is a contracted form of Snlfr. GB p. 14 s.n. Snlfr, Snjolfr; FJ pp. 346, 351 s.n. Sn-, -ulfr; CV pp. 575, 577, 668 s.v. snjr, snr, lfr; NR s.nn. Sni-/Sny-, -ulfR
Snari Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Snari and in Old Swedish as Snare. Occurs in OW.Norse as Snari. From the OW.Norse adjective snarr "fast, rash, hasty; sharp." Occurs in the runic nominative case form snari. NR s.n. Snari
Snerrir Found in OW.Norse as Snerrir. This name is derived from the OW.Norse verb *snerra (compare with OW.Norse snerra "attack, battle," hjaldrsnerrandi "attacker, warrior"). Runic examples include the nominative case forms sni(r)iR, snor[in]r, snrariR and the genitive case form sniris. CV pp. 265, 574 s.v. hjaldr-snerrandi, snerra; NR s.n. SnrriR
SnR Related to the OW.Norse verb sna "to turn oneself quickly." Occurs in the runic nominative case form snuR, or this may instead represent the name Snr. CV p. 576 s.v. sna; NR s.nn. SnR, SniR
Snorri Eyrbyggja saga ch. 12 explains the origins of the name Snorri thus: "Litlu sar giftist rds Berki hinum digra, brur rgrms, og rst til bs me honum til Helgafells. fr orgrmur sonur hennar lftafjr og var ar a fstri me rbrandi. Hann var heldur svfur skunni og var hann af v Snerrir kallaur og eftir a Snorri." [A little thereafter rds was wedded to Berki inn digri (the stout), rgrm's brother, and betook her to housekeeping with him at Helgafell. Then fared rgrmr her son to Swanfirth, and was there at fostering with rbrand. He was somewhat reckless in his youth, and was called Snerrir (which means "a smart, sharp-witted person"), but afterwards Snorri.] GB p. 14 s.n. Snorri
SnorriR Side-form of OW.Norse Snorri. Occurs in the runic nominative case form snor[in]r, which may instead represent the name SnerriR. NR s.nn. SnorriR, SnrriR
Snrtr   GB p. 14 s.n. Snrtr
Sgsi Formed with the -si- suffix added to OW.Norse sgr "tumult, noise, uproar" or from an identical masculine name; compare with the OW.Norse by-name Sgr. Runic examples include the accusative case forms syh(s)a, [syhsa]. NR s.n. Sgsi
Sokki   GB p. 14 s.n. Sokki
Skklfr For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Skklfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr
Slgi   GB p. 15 s.n. Slgi
Slmundr The first element Sl- is perhaps from Old Norse sl, "the sun", or from slr, "sun-colored, yellow, sallow". For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p. 15 s.n. Slmundr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438, 579, 621 s.v. mundr, -mundr, sl, slr; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Slmundr Found in Old Danish as Salmund, in Old Swedish as Salmund, and in OW.Norse as Slmundr. The first element Sl- is from OW.Norse salr "house, hall." For the second element -mundr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form [salmut] in U39+: "Helgi had this stone cut in memory of Salmundr, his son. May God help his spirit." The name is also found in ch. 1 of Ljsvetninga saga. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Salmundr, -mundr
Slsi Found in Old Swedish as Salse. Occurs in OW.Norse as Slsi, the name of a fictional character. Formed by adding the suffix -si to Salvi (OW.Norse Slvi) or to the OW.Norse adjective slr "(yellow) pale". Runic examples include the nominative case form salsi and the accusative case form salsa. NR s.n. Salsi
Slvarr For the first element Sl-, Sl- see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Slvarr; CV pp. 579, 621 s.v. sl, slr
Slvi Found in Old Swedish as Salve (also found as a by-name), occurs in OW.Norse as Slvi. From the OW.Norse adjective slr "(yellow) pale". Runic examples include the nominative case form salui and the accusative case form salua. This name is found in ch. 3 of Egils saga Skallagrmssonar and ch. 10 of Haraldar saga hrfagra for Slvi klofi Hnjfsson; in ch. 31 of Ynglinga saga for Slvi Hgnason; in ch. 8 of Hrana saga hrings; and in ch. 5 of Hlfs saga og Hlfsrekka. GB p. 15 s.n. Slvi; CV pp. 621 s.v. slr, Slvi; NR s.nn. Salvi/Slvi
Sndlfr Found in OW.Norse as Sndlfr. For the first element Sand- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form sont:ulf in BrOlsen;184$: "Sandulfr the Black erected this cross in memory of Arinbjrg his wife." FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; CV pp. 513-514, 668 s.v. sandr, lfr; NR s.nn. SandulfR, Sand-, -ulfR
Sni Found in Old Danish as Suni, in Old Swedish as Sune, and in OW.Norse as Sni. Derived from OW.Norse sunr "son." Runic examples include the nominative case forms suni (3 instances) and the accusative case form suna. GB p. 14 s.n. Sni; NR s.nn. Suni
Srkvir Found in Old Danish as Swerkir, in Old Swedish as Svrker, and in OW.Norse as both the personal name and as the by-name Srkvir. From *SvartgiRR; compare with the Old Norse name from the Danelaw, Svartgeirr. The first element is from the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black." For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sirkir, suerkiR and the accusative case form serkiR. GB p. 15 s.n. Srkvir; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV pp. 196, 306 s.v. geirr, svartr; NR s.n. SvrkiRR
Srli Compare with OH.Germ. Sarilo, Sarulo, compounded with the diminuitive suffix from OH.Germ. saro "armor," and appears as Serlo in Old English sources. Occurs in the runic accusative case form serla. GB p. 15 s.n. Srli; NR s.n. Srli
Sti Found in Old Danish as Soti and as the by-name Sote. Occurs as both a personal name and as a by-name in Old Swedish as Sote and in OW.Norse as Sti. Derived from the OW.Norse noun st "soot." Runic examples include the nominative case forms [soti], [suth]in, suti, the genitive case forms suta, [suta] and the accusative case forms sota, suta. GB p. 14 s.n. StiCV p. 580 s.v. st, sti; NR s.n. Sti
Str May be found in Old Danish as the by-name Sod. Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Sot. Derived from OW.Norse st "soot." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form [sut] in GS4#: "... the stone raised in memory of Str, his/her husbandman; and Geirmarr in memory of his kinsman-by-marriage. pir carved." CV p. 580 s.v. st, sti; NR s.n. Str
Sybjrn For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form ...ybiar-... and the accusative case form sybiarn. CV pp. 66, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. bjrn, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn. Sybirn, S-/Sy-, -birn
SygeiRR For the first element S- or Sy- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form sukiR. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV pp. 196, 534-535, 618-619 s.v. geirr, sjr, sjr, sr; NR s.nn.
Spaki Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Spake and in OW.Norse as the by-name Spaki. From the OW.Norse adjective spakr "wise, sensible, peaceable." Occurs as a personal name in the runic genitive case form sb(in)ka in DR120$: "skatla raised this stone ... ...gsl, Spaki's son." CV p. 580 s.v. spakr; NR s.n. Spaki
SpakR Found in Old Swedish as Spak (also found as a by-name), in Old Danish as the by-name Spak, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Spakr. From the OW.Norse adjective spakr "wise, sensible, peaceable." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form [sbak]R in Sm13: "Spakr had the monument made in memory of his sons Sveinn and Hrmingr." CV p. 580 s.v. spakr; NR s.n. SpakR
Sparr From the OW.Norse adjective sparr "sparing, economical, thrifty." Occurs as a personal name in the runic genitive case form sbars in S151 A: "Nesbjrn, Sparr's son, raised the stone in memory of Sveinn, his brother, a thegn of strength." CV p. 581 s.v. sparr; NR s.n. Sparr
Sperla From *Sprla and connected to OW.Norse sporr "fish-tail" and the Norwegian dialect word speril, sprl "short tail", "small, thin person." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form sbarlu in DR218: "Eysteinn's sons raised this stone in memory of Sperla, their brother, sbjrn Neb's seaman." CV p. 585 s.v. sporr; NR s.n. Sprla
Spjallboi Found in Old Swedish as Spilbodhi. From OW.Norse *spjallboi "carrier, bearer;" compare with Old English spellboda "messenger, angel, prophet." Runic examples include the nominative forms sbialbui, s(b)ialbui, [sbialtbui], sbioulbui, the genitive forms [sbelbua] and sbialbua, and the accusative form sbialbua. A short form of this name is Bui. Spjalli may also be a short form of this name. CV p. 583 s.v. spjall; NR s.nn. Bui, Spiallbui, Spialli
Spjall From OW.Norse spjall "old lore, an old saw, axiom" or "a spell, curse." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form sbia- in l18$: "Jarr and Spjall and Eilfr/Eileifr and Bfi, they had the stone raised in memory of their father, Sfss." CV p. 583 s.v. spjall; NR s.n. Spiall
Spjalli Found in Old Swedish as Spille and in OW.Norse as Spjalli. From OW.Norse spjalli "friendly relations, one who converses with another friend." At least one scholar sees Old Swedish Spille as a short form of Spilbodhi (see Spjallboi above). Found in a partial runic inscription in the accusative case form sbie.... CV p. 583 s.v. spjall; NR s.nn. Spiallbui, Spialli
Spjt Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Spiut and in OW.Norse as the by-name Spjt. From OW.Norse spjt "spear." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form sbiut in S106: "Alrkr, Sigrr's son, raised the stone in memory of his father Spjt, who had been in the west, broken down and fought in townships. He knew all the journey's fortresses." CV p. 583 s.v. spjt; NR s.n. Spit
Spjti Found in OW.Norse as the by-name Spjti. Derived from OW.Norse spjt "spear." Occurs in the runic nominative case form sbiuti (3 instances). CV p. 583 s.v. spjt; NR s.n. Spiti
Sprr Found in Old Danish as the name Sporgh and as the by-name Spurgh. Found in Old Swedish as Spirv and Sprv (also found as a by-name). Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in OW.Norse as Sprr. From the OW.Norse noun sprr "sparrow." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form [sbau(r)] in DR115 "A Sprr raised this stone ... ... ... ... ... ..., B a very good thegn." CV p. 585 s.v. sprr; NR s.n. Sprr
Spraki From OW.Norse spraki "talk, rumor" or related to the OW.Norse verb spraka "to crackle, to sparkle, to crunch." Runic examples include the nominative case form sbraki and the accusative case forms sbaraka, sbraka. CV p. 584 s.v. spraka, spraki; NR s.n. Spraki
Stafngrmr For the second element -grmr see above. GB p.14 s.n. Stafngrmr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.n. -grmR
Staki Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Staki and Old Swedish as Stake. Occurs in OW.Norse as the by-name Staki. From Old Swedish staki "pole, stake." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form staki in UFv1990;32B: "Staki and jalfi had this stone carved in memory of Hemingr, their father." NR s.n. Staki
StakkR Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Stak. Found in OW.Norse as the by-name Stakkr. From OW.Norse stakkr "short, coarse bag-like blouse without a waist." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form [slakR] in S46: "skell and Gnauimar raised this stone in memory of their brother Sverri, who died in England. Ketill and Stakkr made this monument." CV p. 587 s.v. stakkr; NR s.n. StakkR
Stli Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Stali, in Old Swedish as Stale, and in OW.Norse as Stli. Derived from OW.Norse stl "steel." Occurs as a personal name in the runic genitive case form [s(t)a(l)a] in N186+: "rlafr Stli's son raised (the) stone in memory of lafr of Byggland, Erlendr's son." CV p. 585 s.v. stl; NR s.n. Stli
Stari Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Stare. From OW.Norse stari "bird, starling (Sturnus vulgaris)". May occur in the runic nominative case form stari, or this may represent the name Starri. CV p. 589 s.v. stari; NR s.n. Stari
Starkar, Strkar   GB p. 15 s.n. Starkar, Strkar
Starki Found in Old Danish as the by-name Starki, in Old Swedish as the by-name Starke, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Sterki. From the OW.Norse adjective sterkr "stark, sturdy." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form starki in Sm60: "Sveinn/Steinn and Starki made this monument, this memento at the cross-roads, in memory of Gumundr, their father." CV p. 591 s.v. sterkr; NR s.nn. Starki, starki
Starr Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Star. From the OW.Norse adjective starr "stiff, hard" (compare with Starri) or from star "to stare," a side-form of OW.Norse stari, "to stare." Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form star in DR110: "A Gei[r]mundr(?) ... [so]n made these memorials in memory of Sassurr. Starr raised the stone in memory of the deceased. B May Thrr hallow this monument." NR s.nn. Starr, Starri
Starri Found in OW.Norse as Starri (also found as a by-name). Occurs as a by-name in Old Danish as Starri and in Old Swedish as Starre. From the OW.Norse adjective starr "stiff, hard" (compare with Starr). Found as a personal name in Landnmabk in ch. 21 for Hlm-Starri and in chs. 59 and 61 for Hlmgngu-Starri. Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form stari in Vg172: "Starri raised ... his father/brother. And ..." GB p. 15 s.n. Starri; NR s.nn. Starri, Starr
Stefn Christian, Stephen GB p. 15 s.n. Stefn
Stefnir   GB p. 15 s.n. Stefnir
Steinarr Found in Old Danish as Stener, in Old Swedish as Stenar, and in OW.Norse as Steinarr. The first element Stein- is from OW.Norse steinn "stone." For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form tsinar, the genitive case form s(t)in(a)r and the accusative case forms [stainar], tsinar. GB p. 15 s.n. Steinarr; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. Stein-, -arr; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.nn. Stinarr, Stin-, -arr
Steinbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Stenbiorn and in OW.Norse as Steinbjrn. For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms s(t)ainbiar-, stainbiurn, stenbyrn, stinbiarn and the accusative case forms sta(in)(n)biu-n, s(t)en(b)in(a)rna, stinbiurn. GB p. 15 s.n. Steinbjrn; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. Stein-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 591 s.v. bjrn, steinn; NR s.nn. Stinbirn, Stin-, -birn
Steindrr, Steinrr For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -rr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Steinrr; FJ pp. 346, 347, 351 s.nn. Stein-, r-, -rr; CV pp. 591, 743 s.v. steinn, rr; NR s.n. -stinn
Steinfastr Found in Old Swedish as Stenvast. For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sta[infas-r], st-infastr. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. FJ p. 346 s.n. Stein-; CV pp. 145, 591 s.v. fastr, steinn; NR s.nn. Stinfastr, Stin-, -fastr, Fasti
Steinfir, Steinfinnr For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -finnr see above. GB p. 15 s.nn. Steinfir, Steinfinnr; FJ pp. 346, 348 s.nn. Stein-, -finnr; CV pp. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. -stinn
Steingsl For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form stenkisl. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.n. Stein-, -gsl; CV pp. 196, 591 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, steinn; NR s.nn. Stingsl, Stin-, -gsl/-gils
Steingrmr For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. A diminuitive form of Steingrmr is Steinki. GB p. 15 s.n. Steingrmr; FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. Stein-, -grmr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 216, 591 s.v. grma, steinn; NR s.n. -stinn, -grmR
Steini For the first element Stein- see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Steini; FJ p. 346 s.n. Stein-; CV pp. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. -stinn
Steinkell For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. Stein-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 591 s.v. ketill, steinn; NR s.n. -stinn, -k(ti)ll
Steinkell Found in Old Danish Stenkil, Old Swedish Stenkil, OW.Norse Steinkell. For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -ketill see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms stainkil, stinktil and the accusative case forms itinkil, [st]ainkil S30, stinkl. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.nn. Stein-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 591 s.v. ketill, steinn; NR s.nn. Stink(ti)ll, Stin-, -k(ti)ll
Steinki Diminuitive form of Steingrmr. CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn;
Steinmr For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -mr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Steinmr; FJ pp. 346, 350 s.n. Stein-, -mr; CV pp. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. -stinn, -mr
Steinn Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Sten and in OW.Norse as Steinn. From OW.Norse steinn "stone." As by-name, may reflect place-names in OW.Norse Stein-, -steinn. Runic examples include the nominative case forms stain (4 instances), [stain], stein, stin, tsain/(t)sain, [t]sin, the genitive case form [stens], the accusative case forms stain, [stain], stein, [stei...], stia, stin, s(t)in, and one in which the case is uncertain, stain. GB p. 15 s.n. Steinn; FJ p. 346 s.n. Stein-; CV p. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. Stinn
Steinlfr Found in Old Swedish as Stenolf and in OW.Norse as Steinlfr. For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -lfr or -lfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms stainulfr, [stainulfr], stinulfR and the accusative case form stainulf. GB p. 15 s.n. Steinlfr; FJ pp. 346, 351 s.nn. Stein-, -ulfr; CV pp. 591, 668 s.v. steinn, lfr; NR s.nn. StinulfR, Stin-, -ulfR
Steinrr For the first element Stein- see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Steinrr; FJ p. 346 s.n. Stein-; CV pp. 591 s.v. steinn; NR s.n. -stinn
Steinrr, Steinrir Found in OW.Norse as Steinrr. For the first element Stein- see above. For the second element -riR see above. May occur in the runic nominative case form ----uriR. FJ pp. 346, 347, 351 s.nn. Stein-, r-, -rr; CV pp. 591, 743 s.v. steinn, rr; NR s.nn. StinriR, Stin-, -rr, riR, -riR
Stgandi identical to the Old Icelandic noun stgandi, "stepper, strider," from the verb stga, "to step, to step upwards." This name appears in Gngu-Hrlfs saga ch. 6, and it also occurs as the name of a ship in Vatnsdla saga ch. 16. GB pp. 15, 28 s.n. Stgandi, stgandi; CV p. 594 s.v. stgandi
StigR From OW.Norse stigr "path" (related to stgr "striding, stepping"). Occurs in the runic nominative case form stikuR, which may instead represent the name StyggR, in g8$: "A Styggr/Stigr made this monument in memory of Eyvindr, his son. He fell in the east B with Eyvsl(?). Vkingr coloured and Grmulfr." GB p. 15 s.n. Stgr; NR s.nn. StigR, StyggR
StlingR Derived from the OW.Norse noun stll, a loan-word from Latin stilus "stylus; composition, style." Runic examples include the nominative case forms [stil(in)(n)r-], [stili(n)r], or these may instead represent the name StillingR. NR s.nn. StlingR, StillingR
StillingR Related to OW.Norse stilling "calm, self-possessed, controlled, restrained." Runic examples include the nominative case forms [stil(in)(n)r-], [stili(n)r], or these may instead represent the name StlingR. CV p. 593 s.v. stilling; NR s.nn. StlingR, StillingR
Stbjrn The first element St- is from OW.Norse st "a stud of horses." For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sthotbiarn, [stobiarn] and the accusative case form [stobiarn]. A short form of masculine names in St- is Sti. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Stbirn, St-, -birn, Sti, Biarni CV p. 66, 596 s.v. bjrn, st; NR s.nn. Stbirn, St-, -birn
Sti A short form of masculine names in St-. Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form [stoi] in U968: "Sti and Sigdjarfr and rgerr had the stone carved in memory of Eistulfr, their brother, rgerr's son. CV p. 596 s.v. st; NR s.nn. Sti, St-
Stkell For the first element St- see above. For the second element -ketill see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [stokil], [stuokel], stukihl. A short form of masculine names in St- is Sti. FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 596 s.v. ketill, st; NR s.nn. Stkll, St-, -k(ti)ll, Sti
Stri Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as the by-name Store, found in OW.Norse as the by-name Stri. From the OW.Norse adjective strr "large." Runic examples showing Stri in use as a personal name include the genitive case form stura and the accusative case form stora in S269 "nundr(?)... ...-undr(?) raised this stone in memory of Vkingr, their father, Stri's son." and U1092: "snkinn and Randv had this stone raised in memory of Stri." CV pp. 596-597 s.v. strr; NR s.n. Stri
Strlfr For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Strlfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr
Stfr Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Stuf and in OW.Norse as Stfr. From OW.Norse stfr "stump, stub." Occurs as a personal name in the runic genitive case form [st](u)(f)s in DR118: "A zurr, Stfr's son, B raised this stone in memory of Brir, his son." GB p. 15 s.n. Stfr; CV p. 600 s.v. stfr; NR s.n. StfR
Strla   GB p. 15 s.n. Sturla
StybbiR Compare with Old Swedish Stybbe. A short form of Styrbjrn. Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form s(t)ibi in g172: "Gautr and Fastulfr and Bjrn and Hrsteinn, they raised this stone in memory of Stybbir, their good father." NR s.n. StybbiR, Styrbjrn
StyingR, StingR Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Stdhing (etymology uncertain). Compounded from the suffix -ingR ("descendant, of the lineage of") with either the OW.Norse noun sto, "support, post," or the OW.Norse noun st, "stud of horses" (compare with St-, Sti). Runic examples include the nominative case forms stRinkr, [stuikR] and the accusative case form styik. CV pp. 594, 596 s.v. sto, st; NR s.nn. StyingR or StingR
Styfialdr Found in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Styfeldus. Compounded from the suffix -aldr (from Germanic *-ala-). The derivation of the first element is uncertain. Runic examples include the nominative case forms stifatr, styf-altr, tufialtr, the genitive case form stufials and the accusative case forms stufialt, [sty]fialt. NR s.n. Styfialdr
StyggR Found in Old Danish as the by-name Stygg; compare with the OW.Norse feminine by-name Stygg. From the OW.Norse adjective styggr "shy, timid, reserved; unfriendly, introvert." Occurs in the runic nominative case form stikuR, which may instead represent the name StigR, in g8$: "A Styggr/Stigr made this monument in memory of Eyvindr, his son. He fell in the east B with Eyvsl(?). Vkingr coloured and Grmulfr." NR s.n. StyggR
Stynbjrn The name-element Styn- (perhaps from OW.Norse stynr "groan") is not well-known except in this name and in the feminine name Stynfrr, both from runic inscriptions in per. For the second element -bjrn see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form stynbiar.... A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.n. Stynbirn, -birn, Biarni
Styrbjrn For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 15 s.n. Styrbjrn; FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni
Styrbjrn Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Styrbiorn, occurs in OW.Norse as Styrbjrn. The first element Styr- is from OW.Norse styrr "stir, noise, tumult, battle." For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sturbiarn, s(t)ur(b)iarn, styrbiarn, the accusative case forms sterbirn, sti(r)---rn, (s)(t)urb(in)(u)(r)n, [sturbiurn], sty(r)biun and one in which the case is uncertain, [sturbiurn]. A short form of Styrbjrn is StybbiR. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. CV pp. 66, 601 s.v. bjrn, styrr; NR s.n. Styrbirn, Styr-, -birn, StybbiR, Biarni
Styrfastr Found in Old Swedish as Styrvast. For the first element Styr- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form styrfastr. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. CV pp. 145, 601 s.v. fastr, styrr; NR s.nn. Styrfastr, Styr-, -fastr
Strimar Found in Old Danish as Styrman and as the by-name Styreman. Found in Old Swedish as the by-names Styreman, Styrman. From the OW.Norse noun strimar "steersman, helmsman." Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form [stn=urman] in S72+: "Ulfr and raised this stone in memory of their kinsman Strimar, their husbandman. God, help their souls!" CV pp. 407, 602 s.v. mar, stra, stri, stri-mar; NR s.nn. Strimar, Str-
Styrkrr Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Styrkar, occurs in OW.Norse as Styrkrr. The first element, Styr- is from OW.Norse noun styrr "stir, noise, tumult, battle." For the second element -krr see above. This name is found in rsteins ttr uxafts ch. 3 (Styrkrr Eindriason Hreiarssonar); Gull-ris saga ch. 1 (Styrkrr); Saga Inga konungs og brra hans ch. 7 (Styrkrr); lafs saga Tryggvasonar ch. 40 (Styrkrr af Gimsum). Runic examples include the nominative case forms sterkar, [sterkar], styrkar and the accusative case forms sterkar, [styrkar]. GB p. 15 s.n. Styrkrr; NR s.nn. Styrkrr, Styr-, -krr
StyrlakR Compare with Old Swedish Storlach (one example from Vstergtland). For the first element Styr- see above. For the second element -lakR see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case forms stur-akR, or this may instead refer to the masculine name StyrlaugR. FJ p. 342 s.n. -leikr; CV pp. 382-383, 601 s.v. leika, leikr, styrr; NR s.nn. StyrlakR, StyrlaugR, Styr-, -likR/-lakR
StyrlaugR Found in Old Swedish as Styrlgh and in OW.Norse as Styrlaugr. For the first element Styr- see above. For the second element -laugr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms stur-akR, styrlaugR. CV pp. 374, 601 s.v. laug def. IV and styrr; NR s.nn. StyrlaugR, Styr-, -laugR
Styrmir   GB p. 15 s.n. Styrmir
Styrr Found in Old Danish as Styr. Found as both a personal name and a by-name in Old Swedish as Styr and in OW.Norse as Styrr. From OW.Norse styrr "stir, noise, tumult, battle." Runic examples include the nominative case form styr and the accusative case form styr. GB p. 15 s.n. Styrr; CV pp. 601 s.v. styrr; NR s.n. Styrr, -styrr
Slki Found in Old Danish as Sulki and in OW.Norse as Slki. Formed with the diminutive suffix -ki attached to the Old Danish masculine name Sla or directly to the OW.Norse by-name sla "post." Occurs in the runic genitive case form sulka. GB p. 15 s.n. Slki; NR s.n. Slki
Sumarlii Found in OW.Norse as Sumarlii. Compounded from OW.Norse sumar(r) "summer" and -lii, "one who goes, one who fares," hence "summer-farer." Occurs in the runic nominative case form sumarlei (3 instances). GB p. 15 s.n. Sumarlii; NR s.n. Sumarlii
Sunnhvatr The first element Sunn- is from OW.Norse sunna "sun." For the second element -hvatr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form sunatr. FJ p. 349 s.n. -hvatr; CV pp. 297, 605 s.v. hvatr, sunna; NR s.nn. Sunnhvatr, Sunn-, -hvatr
Sunnlfr For the first element Sunn- see above. For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Sunnlfr; CV pp. 605, 668 s.v. sunna, lfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; NR s.nn. Sunn-, -ulfR
Sunnvir Perhaps found in Old Swedish as Sunvidh (one example from stergtland). For the first element Sunn- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form sunui()rR. FJ p. 352 s.n. -vir; CV pp. 605, 703-704 s.v. sunna, vir; NR s.nn. Sunnvir, Sunn-, -vir
Surtr Related to OW.Norse svartr, "black." Surtr appears in the legendary materials as the name of the world-destroying fire-giant of Ragnark. Appears as a human personal name in Landnmabk in ch 38 for Surtr Bollason, chs. 46 and 85 for Surtr rsteinsson, and ch. 87 for Surtr inn hvta Steinsson. GB p. 15 s.n. Surtr; CV p. 605, 607 s.v. Surtr, svartr
Stari Found in Old Swedish as Sutare (also found as a by-name), in Old Danish as the by-name Sutere, and in OW.Norse as the by-name Stari. From OW.Norse stari "shoe-maker." Occurs in the runic nominative case form [su]tari. NR s.n. Stari
SviniR Derived from the masculine name Sveinn or from the same root-word. Runic examples include the accusative case forms su(in)ni, [suini]. CV p. 608 s.v. sveinn; NR s.n. SviniR
Svfa Svfa is an Old Norse name from the Danelaw. Compare with Old Danish Swavi (found as a by-name Swave). Derived from the name of the people or nation *swaba- "Swabian, from Schwaben." Occurs in the runic nominative case form suafa. NR s.nn. Svfa
Svanr This name is related to Old Icelandic svanr, "swan", and is found in both Landnmabk and in Hyndlulj. GB p. 15 s.n. Svanr; CV pp. 606 s.v. svanr
Svaraldr Found in Old Swedish as Svarald (one example from Hrjedalen). Compounded from the suffix -aldr (from Germanic *-ala-). The first element may be from the OW.Norse verb svara "to answer." Occurs in the runic nominative case form suara--r. NR s.nn. Svaraldr
Svarkell For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Svarkell; FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Svartabrandr Old Norse name from the Danelaw. The first element is from the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black." For the second element -brandr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form suartabrat. FJ pp. 346, 348 s.n. Svart-, -brandr; CV pp. 76, 607 s.n. brandr, svartr; NR s.nn. Svartabrandr, Svart-, -brandrNR s.nn.
Svartgeirr Old Norse name from the Danelaw. The first element is from the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black." For the second element -geirr see above. See also the name Srkvir. FJ pp. 346, 349 s.n. Svart-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 607 s.n. geirr, svartr; NR s.nn. SvartgiRR, Svart-, -giRR
Svarthfi Found in Old Danish as Swarthofthi and in OW.Norse as Svarthfi. Compounded from the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black" and the second element -hfi see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms sarthu[ihi], suarthaufi, suarthofi, suartufi, suathafi, the genitive case form suarthaufa, and the accusative case forms [suaraufa], suartaa, suartau(a), [suartaufa], [suarthaf(a)], suarthaf-..., [suarthaufa], suartha, [suarth...], suartufa, [s-ar-(h)(a)uf]a. GB p. 15 s.n. Svarthfi; FJ p. 346, 351 s.nn. Svart-, -hfi; CV pp. 306, 607 s.n. hfi, svartr; NR s.nn. Svarthfi, Svart-, -hfi
Svarti Found in Old Swedish as both the personal name and the by-name Svarte. Found as by-names in Old Danish as Swarte and in OW.Norse as Svarti. From the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black." Occurs in the runic accusative case form sarta. CV p. 306 s.v. svartr; NR s.n. Svarti
Svartr Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Swart, in Old Swedish as Svart, and in OW.Norse as Svartr. From the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black." Runic examples include the nominative case form sartr and the accusative case form su[art]. GB p. 15 s.n. Svartr; FJ pp. 346 s.n. Svart-; CV p. 306 s.v. svartr; NR s.n. Svartr
SvartungR Compare with the OW.Norse by-name Svertungr. Derived from the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black" and the OW.Norse adjective ungr "young." Occurs in the runic accusative case form suar[t]unk. CV p. 306 s.v. svartr; NR s.nn. SvartungR, Svart-
Svvarr   GB p. 15 s.n. Svvarr
Sveina Possibly derived from OW.Norse sveinn "young man." Runic examples include the accusative case forms sueinu, [sueinu], found referring to the same individual in inscriptions l5{3}, "These brothers had the stones raised in memory of their mother, Randv, and in memory of their brother, Sveina" and l6, "... the stones in memory of Sveina, her husband." CV p. 608 s.v. sveinn; NR s.n. Svina
Sveinaldi Compounded from the suffix -aldi (from Germanic *-alan-); and the OW.Norse noun sveinn "young man." Occurs in the runic nominative case form suainalti in the inscription S7: "Sveinaldi and Sveinungr and si/Gsi and Gs, they had the stone raised in memory of Bjrn, their capable father. May God and God's mother help his spirit." CV p. 608 s.v. sveinn; NR s.n. Svinaldi
Sveinaldr Found in Old Swedish as Svenald. Compounded from the suffix -aldi (from Germanic *-alan-); and the OW.Norse noun sveinn "young man." Occurs in the runic nominative case form suainal[tr] in the inscription g100: "Sveinn and Sveinaldr raised ... ... ... ... father ...". NR s.nn. Svinaldr
Sveinbjrn For the first element Svein- see -sveinn above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 15 s.n. Sveinbjrn; FJ pp. 346, 348, 351 s.n. Svein-, -sveinn, -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni
Sveingeirr The first element Svein- is from the OW.Norse noun sveinn "young man." For the second element -geirr see above. This name occurs in the runic nominative case forms suenkinR, however the i-rune is added outside the inscription band, thus a reading of sueninkR, interpreted as SviningR (compare with the ordinary Old Danish Swening), is possible as well. FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV pp. 196, 608 s.v. geirr, sveinn; NR s.nn. SvingiRR, Svin-, -giRR
Sveinki Found in Old Danish as Swenki, in Old Swedish as Svenke, and in OW.Norse as Sveinki. A by-name with the -k-suffix added to Sveinn or a name from Svein-, -sveinn. Occurs in the runic nominative case form soenki in the inscription N260: "A Sveinki raised this stone B in memory of rndr, his brother." GB p. 15 s.n. Sveinki; FJ p. 351 s.n. Svein-; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 608 s.v. sveinn, Sveinki; NR s.n. Svinki, Svin-
Sveinn Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish as Swen, in Old Swedish as Sven, and in OW.Norse as Sveinn. From the OW.Norse noun sveinn "young man." Forms of this name were common in Norway from the 10th century on. This was a very popular name and is recorded in a large number of runic inscriptions, including the nominative case forms n=sa=u=kain=fa, saen, sai(n), san, sen, sin (3 instances), siuta, suaen, suain (25 instances), sua(in)n, su[ai]n, [su]ain, [suain] (8 instances), sua[in]..., suan, suein (9 instances), (s)(u)ein, [suein], suen (4 instances), [suen], suin (23 instances), [suin] (5 instances), the genitive case forms suais, suins (3 instances), suin(s), [suins], uis and the accusative case forms sin, suain (13 instances) su[ain], [suain] (4 instances), suein (4 instances), [su]ein, suen (3 instances), [suen], suil, suin (14 instances), [suin] (4 instances), (s)u(in)..., [sun]. Diminuitive forms of this name iinclude Sveinungr and Sveinki. GB p. 15 s.n. Sveinn; FJ pp. 276-282, 351 s.n. Sveinn, Svein-; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 608 s.v. sveinn; NR s.n. Svinn
Sveinungr Found in Old Swedish as Svenung and in OW.Norse Sveinungr (also found as a by-name); compare with Old Danish Swening, Old Swedish Svening. A diminuitive form of the OW.Norse sveinn "young man." Runic examples include the nominative case forms suainunkR, suiunkR and the accusative case form suinuk. GB p. 15 s.n. Sveinungr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. Svein-; CV p. 608 s.v. sveinn, Sveinungr; NR s.n. SvinungR
Svellr From the OW.Norse adjective svellr "arrogant, proud." Occurs in the runic accusative case form suil, which may instead represent the masculine name Sveinn. NR s.n. Svllr
Sverri Weak side-form of OW.Norse Sverrir, related to the Norwegian dialect word sverra "to whirl, spin around." Runic examples include the accusative case forms suera, [suira]. NR s.n. Svrri
Sverrir Related to the Norwegian dialect word sverra "to whirl, spin around." GB p. 15 s.n. Sverrir; NR s.n. Svrri
Svertingr Found in Old Danish as Swerting (also found as a by-name), in OW.Norse as Svertingr, and in Old Swedish as the by-name Svrting. Derived from the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black." Runic examples include the nominative case forms suertikr, [suirtikr] and the accusative case form sua=rtik. GB p. 15 s.n. Svertingr; CV p. 607 s.v. svartr; NR s.n. SvrtingR
Svibalki Found in OW.Norse as the by-name Svibalki. Compounded from the OW.Norse verb sva "to singe, to burn" and the OW.Norse noun *balki "beam, balk, timber," perhaps in the sense of "one who burns wood." Occurs in the runic accusative case form syibalka in the inscription S187: "rr and Brni and Tkumi, they had this stone raised in memory of Svibalki, their father. May God help his soul." CV p. 612 s.v. sva; NR s.n. Svibalki
Svipdagr The second element -dagr is identical to Old Icelandic dagr, "day". GB p. 15 s.n. Svipdagr; FJ p. 348 s.n. -dagr; CV pp. 94-95 s.v. dagr
Sylfa Found in Old Danish as Sylfa. This masculine name is of uncertain etymology. Runic examples include the nominative case forms s(u)[lfa], [sulfa], sylfa and the accusative case forms sulfu, [sulfu]. NR s.n. Sylfa
Syrkell, Srkell Found in Old Swedish as Svrkil. From *Svartktill. The first element is from the OW.Norse adjective svartr "swarthy, black." For the second element -ketill see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form syrkil in the inscription U22: "lfr and Vkell and Syrkell/Srkell, they ... this stone in memory of ... their father. May God help (his) spirit." FJ p. 349 s.n. -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 607 s.v. ketill, svartr; NR s.nn. Syrkll/Srkll
Syvurr Possibly from *Sigi-waruR. For the first element Sig- see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form [sufur] in the inscription g16: "Syvurr raised ... ... ... ... his brother." NR s.n. Syvurr
 
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Name Notes Source
Takr Celtic GB p. 15 s.n. Takr
Taf From a word related to the OW.Norse by-name Tafi, Nynorsk tave "slowcoach, dawdler, sluggish man," Modern Icelandic tafi m., tf f. "prevented, restrained, detained." Occurs in the runic nominative case form taf in the inscription VsFv1988;36$: "Taf had this stone raised in memory of Grmmundr. The son of Vifastr travelled to the east. Ulfr and Vbjrn ... Ketilas(?) made the bridge at ..." NR s.n. Taf
Tafistr Found in Old Swedish by-name Tavast. From Old Swedish tavaster "inhabitant in Tavastland" (which is also found as a by-name). Runic examples include the nominative case forms tafaistr, tafeist-. NR s.n. Tafistr
Tanni   GB p. 15 s.n. Tanni
Tannr   GB p. 15 s.n. Tannr
Tarr, Trr, TR This name is known from one runic inscription, the nominative case form tar, found in S19$: "Tarr/Trr/TR had this stone raised in memory of Ketilhfi, his father, a good husbandman. May God help his spirit." The runic spelling may indicate Tarr, Trr, or TR. If the name is Tarr, it is from OW.Norse *tarr, found in OW.Norse svntarr "boar." If this name represents Trr, it would derive from OW.Norse tr "tear, tear-drop." Or, if the name is TR, it would be from an adjective *tR "tough, resistant, enduring" related to O.Engl. th, OH.Germ. zhi "tough, resistant, enduring". NR s.nn. Tarr, Trr, TR
Tasaldi   GB p. 15 s.nn. Tasaldi
Tassi Found in OW.Norse as Tassi. From *Ta-si or *Tadd-si (compare with OW.Norse ta "manure, dung" and the Norwegian dialect word tadd "little squashed figure"). Occurs in the runic nominative case form [tasR] in U93: "Sigfastr and Tassi and nundr(?), they had (the stone raised) in memory of rsteinn." GB p. 15 s.nn. Tassi; CV p. 621 s.v. ta; NR s.n. Tassi
Tati, Tatti Found in Old Danish as Tati and in Old Swedish as the by-name Tate. May have its origins in a children's word for "father." Runic examples include the nominative case form tati and the accusative case form tata. NR s.nn. Tati/Tatti
Teitr   GB p. 15 s.n. Teitr
Tkumi Compounded from OW.Norse t "time" with the OW.Norse verb koma "to come, to arrive", corresponding to name elements found in OH.Germ. and O.Engl. Runic examples include the nominative case forms tikum, tikumi (3 instances), t(in)[k]umi, t[ik]umi, ti[kumi], [tikumi], ---kumi and the accusative case forms (t)ikuma, ti()(k)uma. Seven of these inscriptions refer to the same person. CV pp. 348-350, 633 s.v. koma, t; NR s.n. Tkumi
Tindr   GB p. 15 s.n. Tindr
Tjrvi Found in OW.Norse as Tjrvi (also found as a by-name). Derived from OW.Norse tjara (from *tjrva and *terw-) "tar." Runic examples include the nominative case forms tiarui, tirui and the accusative case form tia. GB p. 15 s.nn. Tjrvi; CV p. 635 s.v. tjara; NR s.n. Tiarvi
Tfi Found in Old Danish as Tovi or Tuvi; occurs in Old Swedish as Tove or Tuve; and found in OW.Norse as Tfi. This name represents a short form of the names rfastr or rfrer. Runic examples include the nominative case forms tofi, tufi (9 instances), -ofi, [...ofi], the genitive case form (t)u-a[s] and the accusative case forms [tofa], tufa (7 instances), tuf(a). GB p. 15 s.n. Tfi; NR s.nn. Tfi/Tfi
Tki, Tki, Tki Found in Old Danish as Toki (Tokki), Tuki, Tyki; in Old Swedish as Toke, Tuke, Tyke; and found in OW.Norse as Tki. This name may be a short form of rkell, rketill or a compound with the -ki suffix and a name in r-. Tki could also be formed by adding the -ia- suffix (*TkiaR). Runic examples include the nominative case forms toki, tuki (18 instances), (t)uki, [tuki], tyki, -u(k)in, the genitive case forms tuka (4 instances), (t)u-a[s], the dative forms tuka, (t)(u)(k)(a) and the accusative forms toka, [toki], tuk, tuka (11 instances), t(u)ka, [tuka], tuki. The Cleasby-Vgfusson dictionary relates the name Tki to Swedish toket, "silly, idiotic" and gives the meaning of the name as "a simpleton." This source also mentions that this name became Latinized as Tycho, for instance in the name Tycho Brahe, and says the name is connected with the ancient tale of the master-archer, found in Switzerland as William Tell. GB p. 15 s.n. Tki; CV p. 638 s.v. Tki; NR s.nn. Tki/Tki/Tki, rk(ti)ll, r-/r-, -k(ti)ll
Tli Found in Old Danish as Toli, Tuli; occurs in Old Swedish as Tole; and in OW.Norse as Tli. A short form of names such as rlaugR, rleifR, rleikr. Runic examples include the nominative case forms toli, tuli, tul(in), (t)(u)(l)in. NR s.nn. Tli/Tli, r-/r-
TliR This name may possibly occur in Old Danish as Tulir, and perhaps in Old Swedish in the Latinized form Thulerus. This name represents either a short form of rleifr or is compounded with the -ia- suffix. Runic examples include the nominative case forms toliR, tuliR, tu-iR, ulkR and the accusative case forms [toli], tuli, tu[li]. NR s.nn. TliR (TliR?), rlifR/-lafR, r-/r-, -lifR/-lafR
Tmas Christian, Thomas GB p. 15 s.n. Tmas
Torfi   GB p. 15 s.n. Torfi
Torrr   GB p. 15 s.n. Torrr
Tortryggr   GB p. 15 s.n. Tortryggr; CV p. 643 s.v. tryggr
Tsti Found in Old Danish as Tosti, in Old Swedish as Toste, and in OW.Norse as Tsti. A short form of rsteinn. Runic examples include the nominative case forms tosti, [tosti], tusti (6 instances), tu(s)(t)in, t[(u)(s)]ti, [tusti], -usti, (-)usti, the genitive form tusta and the accusative forms tosta, tos(t)a, tusa, tusta (4 instances), [tusta], tu-ta. GB p. 15 s.n. Tsti; NR s.nn. Tosti, rstinn, r-/r-, -stinn
Tti, Totti Found in Old Danish as Toti, may be found in Old Swedish as Tote (represented by one example from Jmtland) or Totte. A short form of rsteinn. Occurs in the runic accusative case form tuta in the inscription Sm98: "placed this stone in memory of Tti, son ... Gautr's brother." NR s.nn. Tti/Totti, rstinn, r-/r-, -stinn
Trani Occurs in OW.Norse as Trani, the name of a fictional character, also found as a by-name; compare with the Old Danish and Old Swedish by-name Trana. From OW.Norse trani "crane, large waterfowl from the family Gruidae". Occurs in the runic nominative case form trani in the inscription U186: "Trani and sbjrn, they had this stone raised in memory of Jargeirr, their good father." In the sagas, appears as a personal name in rvar-Odds saga ch. 14 and as the byname of rkell trani in Droplaugarsona saga and Fljtsdla saga. NR s.n. Trani
Trausti   GB p. 15 s.n. Trausti
Trjnn Found in Old Jmtland as Trion. From OW.Norse *trjnn (compare with Faroese trnur "nose, snout") or formed from OW.Norse trjna "nose, snout". Occurs in the runic nominative case form triun/(t)riun in the inscription JRS1928;66$: "Austmar, Gudhfastr's son had this stone raised and this bridge made and he had Jmtland Christianized. sbjrn made the bridge, Trjnn and Steinn carved these runes." CV p. 641 s.v. trjna; NR s.n. Trinn
TryggR Found in OW.Norse as Tryggr. From the OW.Norse adjective tryggr "trusty, faithful, reliable." Occurs in the runic accusative case form [tryk] in the inscription U952: "Andsvarr had the stone raised in memory of Tryggr, his son; skell and Stkell the Old erected in memory of Stbjrn, their father." CV p. 643 s.v. tryggr; NR s.n. TryggR
TryggulfR Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England. For the first element Trygg- see above. The second element may be -ulfR (see above), or the runic evidence may reflect the masculine name UlfR prefixed with a by-name. Occurs in the runic accusative case form trykulf in the inscription SmSVS1973;4: "Geirmundr had this monument made in memory of Auelfr and Varinn; Vnjtr in memory of Tryggulfr, his father. May God help their spirits." CV p. 643 s.v. tryggr; NR s.nn. TryggulfR/Trygg-UlfR, TryggR, UlfR, -ulfR
Tryggvi Found both as a personal name and as a by-name in Old Danish and OW.Norse as Tryggi. Occurs in Old Swedish as Trygge. From the OW.Norse adjective tryggr "trusty, faithful, reliable" or, as as a personal name, from a short form of Sigtryggr. Occurs in the runic nominative case form truki in the inscription Vg130: "Gumundr raised this stone in memory of skell, his brother, a very good valiant man. Tryggvi(?) cut(?)." GB p. 15 s.n. Tryggvi; CV p. 643 s.v. tryggr; NR s.nn. Tryggvi, TryggR, SigtryggR
Tubbi Found in Old Swedish as Tobbe, and in both Old Danish and OW.Norse as Tubbi. A short form of the name rbjrn. Runic examples include the nominative case form tubi (3 instances) and the accusative case form tuba (3 instances). NR s.nn. Tobbi/Tubbi, rbirn, r-/r-, -birn
TulkR, TolkR Possibly from a name with the meaning "stick, branch," equivalent to an older Danish term or modern Swedish "a measuring tool". Occurs in the runic nominative case form tulkr in the inscription DRAUD1989;222V: "TulkR/TolkR carved." NR s.nn. TulkR/TolkR
Tumi Occurs in both Old Danish and OW.Norse as Tumi. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon shows this name as a short form of names such as rmr or rmundr. The Cleasby-Vgfusson dictionary says that Tumi is a diminuitive form of the Christian name Thomas, appearing in Iceland ca. the mid 1200's, and that it is thought to have been borrowed from English (Tommy). Runic examples include the nominative case forms tumi (4 instances), (t)umi, the genitive case form tumo and the accusative case forms tuma (4 instances), [tumi], tumo, tum.... GB p. 15 s.n. Tumi; CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"NR s.nn. Tmi/Tmi/Tummi, r-/r-
Tni, Tunni Found in Old Swedish as Tune and in Old Danish as Tuni. Perhaps a short form of rnitr? Occurs in the runic genitive case form [t]una in the inscription g240: "Ketill laid this vault ... his ... May God help Tunni's/Tonni's soul." NR s.nn. Tni/Tunni
Tveggi This name appears in OW.Norse mythology as Tveggi, a name of the god inn (found in Vlusp and also in Egil Skallagrmsson's poem Sonatorrek). From OW.Norse tveggja, the genitive case of tveir "two"; with the sense of "the double." May occur as a human personal name in the runic genitive case form t(u)e(g)ia in DR62: "Freysteinn placed this stone in memory of Gyrr, his comrade, Sigvaldi's brother, ... ... Tveggi's(?) on ... the isthmus/ heath" May also occur as either the dative or accusative case form tuika in the inscription DR98: "Tfa raised this stone in memory of Tum[i], her husband, a good thegn. He ... ... Tveggi Whetstone." NR s.n. Tvggi
Tyrfingr This name appears to be compounded from OW.Norse tyrfi, "resinous fir-tree; fatwood" and the suffix -ingr. Tyrfingr is the name of the magical sword in Hervarar saga ok Heidreks, because the sword was said to flame like a resinous wood torch. Landnmabk ch. 85 has the name in use as a human personal name, for Tyrfingr Tyrfingsson. GB p. 15 s.n. Tyrfingr; CV p. 646 s.v. tyrfi, Tyrfingr
Tyrvi   GB p. 15 s.n. Tyrvi; CV p. 646 s.v. tyrfi, tyrvi-tr
 
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Name Notes Source
Ubbi Found in Old Danish as Ubbi (also found as a by-name). Occurs in Old Swedish as Ubbe or Obbe. Found in OW.Norse as the fictional character name Ubbi. This name is perhaps a by-name based on lfr. This name is also connected with OW.Norse fr (from *b-) "unfriendly." Occurs in the runic nominative case form ubi. GB p. 15 s.n. Ubbi; NR s.n. Ubbi
beinn Scandinavian name from the Danelaw, corresponding to Middle English Ubaine, Unbein etc., From the OW.Norse adjective beinn "askew; wrong, distorted." Occurs in the runic nominative case form ubein. NR s.n. binn
Ur Appears in the Eddas as a son of Night. CV pp. 648 s.v. Ur
Uffi Found in Old Danish as Uffi and in Old Swedish as Offe, Uffe. From West Germanic loan-words. A short form of names in (W)ulf-/-ulf, -olf (Ulf-, -ulfR). Occurs in the runic nominative case form ufi. NR s.n. Uffi
Uggi   GB p. 15 s.n. Uggi
UggR Compare with Old Swedish Ugge, OW.Norse Uggi (found as a by-name) Perhaps from the OW.Norse verb ugga "to fear." Occurs in the runic genitive case form uks in the runic inscription U1146, "Rlfr and Fundinn and nundr, the brothers erected this stone in memory of Kri the Eloquent, their father, the son of Uggr of Svanabyr." NR s.n. UggR
lfarr The first element lf- is identical to Old Icelandic lfr, "wolf". Here the second element -arr is derived from either *harjaR, Old Icelandic herr, "army, warrior" or from *gaiRaR, Old Icelandic geirr, "spear". GB p. 15 s.n. lfarr; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. Ulf-, -arr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.nn. -ulfR, -arr
lfgeirr Found in Old Danish as Ulfger and in OW.Norse as lfgeirr. For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ulfua(in)r and ulfkair. NR s.nn. UlfgiRR, Ulf-, -giRR
lfheinn Found in Old Swedish as Ulfhidhin and in OW.Norse as lfheinn. For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -heinn see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form ul(f)hiin in the inscription S307$, "lfheinn and ... ... they raised this stone in memory of rsteinn, their father." The Old Norse term lfheinn as a common noun is also used to refer to the "wolf-skins" or berserker warriors. CV p. 668 s.v. lfheinn; NR s.nn. Ulfheinn/-hiinn, Ulf-, -heinn/-hiinn
lfhvatr Found in OW.Norse as lfhvatr. For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -hvatr see above. May occur in the runic nominative case form ulfua(in)r, or this may instead represent the name lfgeirr or lfvaldr. NR s.nn. Ulfhvatr, Ulf-, -hvatr, UlfgiRR, Ulfvaldr
Ulfied Found in Old Danish as Ulfiat. Derived from an English name, Old English Wulfgat, Middle English Wluiet. Runic examples include the nominative case form ulfied and the genitive case form ulfieds. NR s.n. Ulfied
lfkell, lfketill Found in Old Danish as Ulfkil and in OW.Norse as lfkell. For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -kell or -ketill see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ulfkil (3 instances), ulfkitil, ulkil (6 instances), u(l)kil, u(l)[k]il, ulkiul, uoilulfkel, ulfkitil. GB p. 15 s.n. lfkell; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. Ulf-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 668 s.v. ketill, lfr; NR s.nn. Ulfk(ti)ll, Ulf-, -k(ti)ll
lfljtr For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -ljtr see above. Found in OW.Norse as lfljtr. May occur in the runic accusative case form u(l)f(l)iu(t) in the inscription N449, "rir and Hallvarr raised this stone in memory of lfljtr(?)... Christianity had been twelve winters in Norway ..." GB p. 15 s.n. lfljtr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. Ulf-, -ljtr; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. Ulflitr
lfnar For the first element lf- see above. GB p. 15 s.n. lfnar; FJ p. 347 s.n. Ulf-; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
lfrekr Found in Old Danish as Ulfrik and in OW.Norse as lfrekr. For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [ulfrikr], [ulf(r)k(r)] and the accusative case form ulfrik. NR s.nn. UlfrkR, Ulf-, -rkR
lfr Found in Old Danish as Ulf (found as a by-name). Occurs in Old Swedish as Olf, Ulf, and as the by-name Ulv). Found in OW.Norse in the form lfr, both as a personal name and as a by-name. From OW.Norse ulfr, "wolf." Runic examples include the nominative case forms hulfr (3 instances), lfR, [ua=lfir], ufR, ulf (5 instances), ulfr (24 instances), ulfR (10 instances), ulf=ui and genitive case form ulfs (7 instances, the dative case forms lfi, ulfi, and the accusative case form uf, ulf (27 instances). GB p. 15 s.n. lfr; FJ p. 347 s.n. Ulf-; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. UlfR
lfvaldr For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. May occur in the runic nominative case form ulfua(in)r, or this may instead represent the name lfgeirr or lfhvatr. NR s.nn. Ulfvaldr, Ulf-, -valdr, UlfgiRR, Ulfhvatr
lfvarinn For the first element lf- see above. GB p. 15 s.n. lfvarinn; FJ p. 347 s.n. Ulf-; CV pp. 668 s.v. lfr; NR s.n. -ulfR
lfvir Found in Old Swedish as Ulfvidh and in OW.Norse as lfvir. For the first element lf- see above. For the second element -vir see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form ulfui in the inscription S88$, "Steinn, Fastulfr (and) Herjlfr raised this stone in memory of Gelfr, their father, and in memory of lfvir, Gelfr's brother. Holmlaug's able sons made the monument." NR s.nn. Ulfvir, Ulf-, -vir
Uni, Unni Occurs in Old Danish as Uni, Unni; found in Old Swedish as Une, Unne; and found in OW.Norse as Uni. The runic examples should probably be interpreted as Uni, from the OW.Norse verb una "to enjoy, be happy with, be content." Runic examples include the nominative case forms uni (3 instances), unin, the genitive case form una, and the accusative case form una. GB p. 15 s.n. Uni; FJ p. 146 s.n. Hunni; NR s.nn. Uni or Unni
UniR Possibly formed from the OW.Norse verb una "to enjoy, be happy with, be content." Occurs in the runic nominative case form uniR in the inscription M10, "Unir, Karl and ni erected this stone in memory of ... their." NR s.n. UniR
Unr Found in OW.Norse as the name Unr. Formed from the OW.Norse verb una "to enjoy, be happy with, be content." Runic examples include the nominative case forms un (4 instances), the genitive form unaR, and the accusative form un (4 instances). NR s.n. Unn
Unnketill A hypothetical form postulated from Anglo-Scandinavian place-name evidence. See Hnketill, above. For the second element -ketill see above. FJ pp. 146, 344, 349 s.nn. *Hnketill, Hn-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338 s.v. ketill; NR s.n. -k(ti)ll
Unnarr Found in OW.Norse as the name of the fictional character Unnarr. The first element Unn- is from the stem in the OW.Norse verb unna "to love" or from OW.Norse unnr (from *uni-) "to wave, billow, roll, undulate." Also compare with Continental Germanic names in Und-, Unt-. For the second element -arr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form [un(o)r] in the inscription DR323+P, "P In memory of Unnarr shall stand the ... Q ... in memory of Gunnarr. Ever shall stand (the) st[one] ..." NR s.nn. Unnarr, Unn-, -arr
Unnlfr Found in Old Swedish as Unnolf and in OW.Norse as Unnlfr. For the first element Unn- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms unulfr, [unu...r]rnulfu. NR s.nn. UnnulfR, Unn-, -ulfR
Unnvaldr For the first element Unn- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form unua(l)(t) in the Gtlandic inscription G80, "Btulfr ... had the stone ... has granted(?) these monuments(?) to Unnvaldr(?) ... his soul." NR s.nn. Unnvaldr, Unn-, -valdr
tlagi From OW.Norse tlagi "outlaw." Runic examples include the nominative case forms utlaki in the inscription Vg62, "tlagi raised this stone in memory of Eyvindr, a very good Thegn." and [utaki] in the inscription Sm103+, "tlagi(?) placed this stone in memory of Sveinn(?)..." NR s.n. tlagi
tryggr "Not faithful." CV p. 643 s.v. tryggr; NR s.n. tryggi
Uxi   GB p. 15 s.n. Uxi
 
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Name Notes Source
Vai Found in OW.Norse as Vai. Formed from the OW.Norse verb vaa "wade". Occurs in the runic nominative case form wA- in the inscription DR356$, "Va[i] wrought [in memory of] smundr, his son." GB p. 15 s.n. Vai; NR s.n. Vai
Vni This name is found as a by-name in Old Danish as Wne, in Old Swedish as Vne, and in OW.Norse as Vni. From the OW.Norse adjective vnn "one who is promising, likely to succeed, beautiful". Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form uani, for example in the inscription U851, "Vni and Sigrr ... this in memory of Ernfrr and Frey-..." NR s.n. Vni
VringR The singular form of the OW.Norse plural noun vringjar "Varangians, members of the Byzantine Varangian Guard". Occurs in the runic nominative form uirikR in the inscription g111$, "Vringr raised the stone in memory of jalfi, his brother, the valiant man who was with Kntr." Also found in the runic genitive form uereks in g68$, "Sveina made this bridge in memory of Eyvindr, his brother. He died in the west on Vringr's cargo-ship." NR s.n. VringR
Vafri Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Vafri. Formed from the OW.Norse verb vafra "to wander about, walk hither and thither, to totter". Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form uafra in the inscription U354, "Gullaug and Holma had this stone raised in memory of Sveinn, their brother, Vafri's heir. May God and God's mother help his spirit" and may also appear in the runic accusative form [uakra]. NR s.n. Vafri
Vagn Occurs in Old Danish as Waghn (found as a by-name), in Old Swedish as Vaghn (found as a by-name), and in OW.Norse as Vagn. From OW.Norse vagn "wagon, cart, wain". May occur in the runic accusative case form ruakn. GB p. 15 s.n. Vagn; NR s.n. Vagn
Vakr This name appears in Hrana saga hrings and is also used as one of the by-names of the god inn in Gylfaginning, where it means "the watchful; the vigilant." GB p. 15 s.n. Vakr
Vakri Found in Old Swedish as the by-name Vakre. From the OW.Norse adjective vakr "wakeful, watchful, alert". May appear in the runic accusative form [uakra]. NR s.n. Vakri
Valbjrn The first element Val- is of uncertain origin. It may come from Primitive Germanic *walha-, meaning "Celtic, Welsh, foreign" or Primitive Germanic *wala-, Old Icelandic valr "the dead on a battlefield". For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 15 s.n. Valbjrn; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. Val-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 675, 676 s.v. bjrn, Valir, valr; NR s.nn. -birn, Biarni
Valbrandr For the first element Val- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Valbrandr; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.n. Val-, -brandr; CV pp. 76, 675, 676 s.v. brandr, Valir, valr
Valdi Valdr and the weaker form Valdi- is from Old Icelandic valdr, "ruler". Valdi is also found as a diminuitive form of rvaldr. GB p. 15 s.n. Valdi; FJ p. 351 s.n. -valdr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV p. 675 s.v. valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. -valdi, -valdr
Valdimrr For the first element Vald- see above. For the second element -mrr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Valdimrr; FJ pp. 350, 351 s.n. -marr, -valdr; CV pp. 418, 443, 675 s.v. -mr, mrr, valdi, valdr; NR s.nn. -valdi, -valdr
ValdrkR Found in Old Danish as Walderik. The first element Vald- is from the OW.Norse verb valda "to rule" (this name-element is common in Continental Germanic). For the second element -rkr or -rekr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form ualtrikr g56 from stergtland, Sweden, which reads "ValdrkR laid this stone ..." NR s.nn. ValdrkR, Vald-, -rkR
Vli This name occurs in OW.Norse as Vli (also found as a by-name), and as bynames in Old Danish as Wale and Old Swedish as Vale (etymology uncertain). Derived from Germanic *walha- "foreigner". Occurs in the runic genitive case form uala in the inscription N29, "Finnr and Skopti, Vli's sons, they raised this stone when they divided their land(ed property)." NR s.n. Vli
Valgarr   GB p. 15 s.n. Valgarr
Valgautr For the second element -gautr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Valgautr; FJ pp. 348-349 s.n. Val-, -gautr; NR s.nn. Gautr, -gautr
Vli   GB p. 15 s.n. Vli
ValR Found in OW.Norse as Valr (also found as a by-name). From OW.Norse valr "falcon". Occurs in the runic nominative case form [ualr] in the inscription S63+, "Valr raised the stone in memory of Manni/Mni ... ... and (in memory of) Sgeirr, his brother and his brother." GB p. 15 s.n. Valr; NR s.n. ValR
Valjfr For the second element -jfr see above. GB p. 15 s.n. Valjfr; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. Val-, -jfr
Vmr The first element is from OW.Norse v (< Germanic *waiw) "accident, woe, damage." For the second element -mr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form uamu. NR s.n. Vmr, -mr
Vandill   GB p. 15 s.n. Vandill
Vandrar   GB p. 15 s.n. Vandrar
Vani Possibly from the OW.Norse adjective vanr "accustomed to" or "destitute, to be without". May occur in the runic nominative case form uani in two inscriptions from Uppland, Sweden. NR s.n. Vani
Vrfeitr, Vrfeitr Occurs in the runic nominative case form (u)arfaitr in the inscription S204$ from Sdermanland, Sweden, "P Here shall the stone stand ... ... Vrfeitr/Vrfeitr in memory of his father's brother. Q Here shall the stone stand [in memory of] Ingjald, [red of] runes, [raised it] Vrfeitr/Vrfeitr in memory of his father's brother." If this name represents Vrfeitr, it is compounded from OW.Norse vr "spring, spring-time" and the OW.Norse adjective feitr "fat", may be an ironic reference to a skinny, bony person. If instead the name is meant as Vrfeitr, it is compounded from OW.Norse vrr "lip" and the OW.Norse adjective feitr "fat," and is thus "one who has a fat lip". NR s.nn. Vrfitr, Varrfitr
Varghss From an adjective compounded from the noun varg-, "wolf", thus "wolfish," and OW.Norse hss "gray". Runic examples include the nominative case forms uarhas, uarkas. NR s.n. Varghss
Varinn Found in OW.Norse as the name of a fictional character, Varinn. From the name of the people or nation of the Varini, Germanic *warina- (the Latin plural Varini is from Tacitus). Runic examples include the nominative case form uarin and the accusative case forms uarin, [uarin]. NR s.n. Varinn
Varr This name is of uncertain derivation. The first interpretation is that the name is related to the OW.Norse fictional name Varr (compare with the Old Danish by-name Wari), and was derived from the OW.Norse adjective varr "vigilant, foresighted". Runic examples may possibly include a nominative case form yar and accusative case uar. The second interpretation is that the name is from OW.Norse vrr "Smi, Lapplander", and thus that the runic accusative case form uar reflects instead this second derivation. NR s.n. Varr 1, Varr 2
Vbjrn Found in Old Swedish as Vibiorn and in OW.Norse as Vbjrn. The first element V- is derived from Germanic *Wha-, from the adjective form, probably with the meaning "holy"; compare with Gothic weihs "holy". For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms uebiurn, uibarn, uibaurn, uibiarn (3 instances), [ui](b)iarn, [uibiarn] (4 instances), uibiaurn, uibiurn and the accusative forms uibiora, uibiorn, ui(b)(in)orn, uibiurn (3 instances), [uibiurn], uiurn. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 16 s.n. Vbjrn; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. V-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 687 s.v. bjrn, v; NR s.nn. Vbirn, V-, -birn, Biarni
Vbrandr For the first element V- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vbrandr; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. V-, -brandr; CV pp. 76, 687 s.v. brandr, v
Vdiarfr May occur in OW.Norse as Vdiarfr. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms u[in]tarfR, uitiarf and the accusative forms uitarf, uiterf, uitirf. CV p. 100 s.v. djarfr; NR s.nn. VdiarfR, V-, -diarfR
Ver Found in Old Danish as the name Wther and as the by-name Wether; occurs in Old Swedish as the by-name Vdher; and found in OW.Norse as the by-name Ver. From OW.Norse ver "weather" or OW.Norse ver "wether, a gelded ram"; the latter is thought to be the case in Runic Swedish and in OW.Norse names. Runic examples all come fromm Uppland, Sweden and include the nominative case forms uair, uar and the accusative form uar. The runic inscriptions show use as a personal-name instead of a by-name, for instance: U937 "egn and Gunnarr raised the stones in memory of Ver, their brother." U990 "Ver and egn and Gunnarr raised this stone in memory of Haursi, their father. May God help his spirit." U991 "egn and Gunnarr raised the stones in memory of Ver, their brother." NR s.n. Ver
Veraldi Derived from OW.Norse ver "weather" or OW.Norse ver "wether, a gelded ram", possibly with the suffix -aldi (derived from Germanic *-alan-). Runic examples all come from Uppland, Sweden and include the nominative case forms ueralti, [ue]ralti: U463 "Veraldi and Vgi had the stone raised in memory of Holmsteinn, their father; and Holmfrr in memory of her husbandman." U735 "Veraldi had the very great stone brought from (its) place out of Langgarn and (with) Arngerr, they had this monument raised in memory of Sigtryggr, their son." U865 "gulfastr(?) and Veraldi raised this... in memory of Spjallboi, their father." NR s.n. Veraldi
Vrormr For the second element -ormr see above. FJ p. 350 s.n. -ormr; CV pp. 468-469, 687 s.v. ormr, v
Vfastr Found in Old Swedish as Vifast or Vvast. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uifast, uifastr, [uifastr], [uifast-], uifastr, uifas--, uifostr and the accusative case forms uifast, uif(a)s(t), [uifast] (3 instances), [uifastr]. A short form of names such as Vfastr is Vfi. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. NR s.nn. Vfastr, V-, -fastr, Vfi, Fasti
Vfinnr, V-Finnr For the first element V- see above. The second element is either -finnr (see above) or the masculine name Finnr prefixed with the OW.Norse by-name v, "holy place". Occurs in either the runic nominative or accusative form uifin in the inscription gR1980;19 from stergtland, Sweden, "Gunnarr colored this, colored these runes. And he guilty fled, sought this sanctuary out. And he has this clearing, and he bound V-finnr." GB p. 9 s.n. Finnr; FJ pp. 82, 348 s.nn. Finnr, -finnr; NR s.nn. Vfinnr/V-Finnr, V-, -finnr, Finnr/Fir
Vfrr May be found in Old Danish as Wifrith, occurs in OW.Norse as Vfrr. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -(f)rer/(f)rr see above. Found in the runic nominative case form uifruR in an inscription from Denmark. May also occur in the runic genitive form uifraR from Smland, Sweden, although this name may instead represent the feminine name Vfrr. GB p. 16 s.n. Vfrr; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. V-, -frr; CV pp. 687 s.v. vNR s.nn. Vfrer/-frr, V, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
Vfss For the first element V- see above. For the second element -fss see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form uefus Sm170 from Smland, Sweden, "Vfss placed the stone in memory of ... ...-bjrg, their sister ..." CV pp. 178-179 s.v. fss; NR s.nn. Vfss, V-, -fss
Vgarr For the first element V- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vgarr; FJ p. 347 s.n. V-; CV pp. 687 s.v. v
Vgautr Found in Old Danish as Wigot. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -gautr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms ui*gautra, uikautrr, uikutr (3 instances), the genitive form uikuts, and the accusative form uikaut. FJ pp. 348-349 s.nn. -gauti, -gautr; CV pp. 193 s.v. Gautr; NR s.nn. Vgautr, V-, -gautr
Vgeirr Found in Old Danish as Wiger, in Old Swedish as Viger, and in OW.Norse as Vgeirr. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. This name is found in Landnmabk 149, where the name was formed as a nickname from Geirr: hann var kallar Vgeirr v at hann var bltmar mikill, "he was called Vgeirr because he was a great sacrificer". Runic examples include the nominative case forms u(in)faiR, uikeR and the accusative case forms [huikaiR], uikaiR. FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. V-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 687 s.v. geirr, v; NR s.nn. VgiRR, V-, -giRR
Vgestr For the first element V- see above. For the second element -gestr see above. This name is found in Landnmabk, of a man with family members with names in the same first element: Vds and Vmundr. GB p. 16 s.n. Vgestr; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.n. V-, -gestr; CV pp. 687 s.v. v
Vgisl For the first element V- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uikisl, uik-l(s) and the accusative case forms uikisl, [uikisl]. FJ p. 349 s.n. -gsl; CV p. 196 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli; NR s.nn. Vgsl/-gils, V-, -gsl/-gils
Veglgr   GB p. 15 s.n. Veglgr
VgrmR For the first element V- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form uikrim in the inscription U482 from Uppland, Sweden, "Vsteinn and rsteinn and Fasti had the stone raised in memory of Vgrmr, their brother." FJ p. 349 s.n. -grmr; CV pp. 216 s.v. grma; NR s.nn. VgrmR, V-, -grmR
Vhjalmr For the first element V- see above. For the second element -hjlmr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uihialmr, uihielbr and the accusative case form uRhRalm. CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.nn. VhialmR, V-, -hialmR
Vkell, Vketill Found in OW.Norse as Vkell. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [uekil], uikil, [uikilR], uikitil, [uikitil]. GB p. 16 s.n. Vkell; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.n. V-, -ketill; CV pp. 337-338, 687 s.v. ketill, v; NR s.nn. Vk(ti)ll, V-, -k(ti)ll
Vleifr Found in OW.Norse as Vleifr. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form uilef in the inscription Gs1 from Gstrikland, Sweden, "Snjlaug had the stone raised in memory of Vleifr, her husbandman. And Eynjtr (carved?)." GB p. 16 s.n. Vleifr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. V-, -leifr; CV pp. 381, 687 s.v. leif, vVlifR, V-, -lifR/-lafR
Vmundr Found in Old Danish as Wemund, occurs in Old Swedish as Vimund or Vmund. Found in OW.Norse as Vmundr. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. This name is found in Landnmabk, of a man with family members with names in the same first element: Vds and Vgestr. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. Runic examples include the nominative case forms (u)imontR from the inscription U449 from Uppland, Sweden, "... and Fastgeirr and Vmundr had raised ..." as well as [uim]ut[r] the inscription Sm44 from Smland, Sweden, "Vmundr placed this stone ... his brother Sveinn, gentle with his followers and free with food, greatly praised." GB p. 16 s.n. Vmundr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. V-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438, 687 s.v. mundr, -mundr, v; NR s.nn. Vmundr, V-, -mundr, Mundi
Vnitr For the first element V- see above. For the second element -nitr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form uiniutrand the accusative case forms uini(u)..., uinut, u(in)nut. CV p. 456 s.v. njta; NR s.nn. Vnitr, V-, -nitr
Vrn For the first element V- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vrn; FJ pp. 342, 347 s.nn. V-, Arn-; CV pp. 687 s.v. v
Vermundr Found in Old Danish as Wermund, occurs in OW.Norse as Vermundr. The first element is from OW.Norse verr "man" or from the stem in the OW.Norse verb verja "defend, protect" (compare with OH.Germ. Warimunt). For the second element -mundr see above. Occurs in the runic nominative case form uirmuntr in the inscription UFv1912;8A: "A Diarfr got from a man from Samland/Semgallen these scales in(?) ...[l]and. And Vermundr colored these runes. B The bird tore apart the pale thief: (One) found (i.e., observed) the increase (i.e., from eating) in the corpse-cuckoo (raven)." A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. GB p.15 s.n. Vermundr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr, -mundr; NR s.nn. Vermundr or Vrmundr
Vseti Found in Old Danish as Westi, occurs in OW.Norse as Vseti (also found as a by-name). From OW.Norse *vseti "one who lives with (properly, sits with) or is in charge of a v or holy place". Runic examples include the nominative case forms [uasati], uesti, uiseti (4 instances), (u)isiti, [uisiti], uisti, [uisti], usiti and the accusative case forms uisiti, uista. NR s.n. Vseti
Vestarr   GB p. 15 s.n. Vestarr
Vsteinn Found in Old Danish as Wisten, in Old Swedish as Vsten, and occurs in OW.Norse as Vsteinn. For the first element V- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uestin, (u)(e)stin, uistain (4 instances), ui--(a)n and the accusative case forms [uistain], uistein, uistin. GB p. 16 s.n. Vsteinn; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. V-, -steinn; CV pp. 591, 687 s.v. steinn, v; NR s.nn. Vstinn, V-, -stinn
Vestgeirr For the second element -geirr see above. GB p.15 s.n. Vestgeirr; FJ p. 349 s.n. -geirr; CV p. 196 s.v. geirr; NR s.n. -giRR
Vestlii   GB p. 15 s.n. Vestlii
Vestmar "Western man." GB p. 16 s.n. Vestmar
Vestmrr For the second element -mrr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vestmrr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -marr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr
Vestmundr Occurs as a Scandinavian name in England. The first element is from OW.Norse vestr "the west", For the second element -mundr see above. May occur in the accusative case form ...as(t)munt in Sm142$, or this may instead represent the name Fastmundr. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Vestmundr, -mundr, Mundi, Fastmundr
Vetr Found in Old Danish as Winter (also found as a by-name), occurs in Old Swedish as the by-name Vinter, and in OW.Norse as the name Vetr. From OW.Norse vetr "winter". May occur in the runic accusative case form oitr in the inscription Sm28 from the Berga churchyard, Smland, Sweden. NR s.n. Vintr
Vetrlii Found in OW.Norse as Vetrlii. Compounded from OW.Norse vetr "winter" and -lii, thus "winter-farer". May occur in the runic accusative case form uitl(b)a. GB p. 16 s.n. Vetrlir; NR s.n. Vintrlii
VulfR For the first element V- see above. For the second element -ulfr see above. Runic examples include the nominative case form [uiulfr], the genitive case form uiulfs, and the accusative case form [uiulf]. NR s.nn. VulfR, V-, -ulfR
Vurr For the first element V- see above. The second element in this name may either be from -varr/-urr see above, or else is derived from OW.Norse *vvrr m. "v-warder, guardian of the holy place." Occurs in the runic accusative case form ueur in the inscription Vg73 from Vstergtland, Sweden, "Krr and Kali/Kalli raised this stone in memory of Vurr, their father, a very good Thegn." FJ p. 351 s.n. -varr; CV p. 722 s.v. vrr; NR s.nn. Vurr, V-, -varr
Vormr For the first element V- see above. For the second element -ormr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vormr; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.n. V-, -ormr; CV pp. 687 s.v. v
Vorn For the first element V- see above. For the second element -orn see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vorn; FJ pp. 347; CV pp. 687, 742 s.v. v, orn; NR s.nn. orn, -orn
Varr   GB p. 16 s.n. Varr
Vibjrn Found in Old Swedish as Vidhbiorn. The first element Vi- is from OW.Norse vir (derived from *wiu-) "tree, forest". It was common in Norse poetry to use words meaning tree or wood or limb to mean "warrior", and may have that sense in names as well. It is unusual in contrast to the second element -vir. Compare with the Continental Germanic names in Widu-, Witu- etc. For the second element -bjrn see above. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uiabiarn, uibiarn, uibiurn, uRbian and the accusative case forms uibiarn, uibiurn, [uiburn]. A short form of names in Vi- or -vir is Vii. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. FJ pp. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Vibirn, Vi-, -birn, Vii, Biarni
Vfari Found in OW.Norse as Vfari. Compounded from the OW.Norse adjective vr "wide" and -fari; "he has travelled widely". Runic examples include the nominative case forms uifari, (u)ifari and the accusative case form uifara. NR s.n. Vfari
Vifastr For the first element Vi- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. Occurs in the runic genitive case form (u)ifast-- in the inscription VsFv1988;36$, "Taf(?) had this stone raised in memory of Grmmundr. The son of Vifastr travelled to the east. Ulfr and Vbjrn ... Ketilas(?) made the bridge at..." A short form of names in Vi- or -vir is Vii. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. NR s.nn. Vifastr, Vi-, -fastr, Vii, Fasti
Vhugsi Compounded from the OW.Norse adjective vr "wide" and the OW.Norse adjective hugsi "thoughtful, contemplative, hesitant, cautious, pondering, brooding". Occurs in the runic nominative case form uiugsi in the inscription U729 from Uppland, Sweden, "Vhugsi had this stone raised in memory of Sreifr, his good father. He lived in gurstair. Here will the stone stand between the estates. May the valiant man who is rune-skilled interpret those runes which Balli carved." NR s.n. Vhugsi
Vii Found in Old Danish as Withi. A short form of names in Vi- or -vir. Runic examples include the nominative form uii and the genitive forms [uia], uRa. NR s.n. Vii
Vkunnr   GB p. 16 s.n. Vkunnr
Vfi A short form of names such as Vfastr. Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form uifa in inscription SSB1965;12 "Ormr and Fastgeirr and ra had (the stone) raised in memory of Vfi, their brother" and in Vg151 "Vfastr raised this stone in memory of Vfi, a very good thegn." NR s.n. Vfi
Vfill Found in Old Danish as Wivil, occurs in OW.Norse as Vfill (found as a by-name). From either Germanic *webilaz - compare with OH.Germ. wibil, Old English wifel, Swedish vivel "weevil, a type of beetle" - or from Germanic *wgwilaz, a diminuitive formed from the OW.Norse verb vgja "to dedicate", "one who is dedicated", originally describing a priest. Occurs in the runic nominative case form uifil in G280, an inscription from Gtland, Sweden: "Hegbjrn raised this stone glaring (and his) brothers Hrvsl, Eysteinn, Emundr, who have had stones raised in memory of Hrafn south of Rufstein. They came far and wide in Eifur. Vfill ..." GB p. 16 s.n. Vfill; NR s.nn. Vifill or Vfill
Vgbjr, Vbjr   GB p. 16 s.nn. Vgbjr, Vbjr
Vgbjrn Occurs in Old Swedish as Vighbiorn and in OW.Norse as Vgbjrn. The first element Vg- is from OW.Norse vg "war, battle". For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Runic examples include the nominative case forms [uihbirn], uikbi[or]n, [uikibiarn] and the accusative case forms uikbian, [uikbiarn], uik-iarn. FJ p. 348 s.n. -bjrn; CV p. 66 s.v. bjrn; NR s.nn. Vgbirn, Vg-, -birn, Vgi
VgdiarfR Found in OW.Norse as Vgdiarfr. For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -diarfR see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uikterfr, u(in)[k]tirfR, uRhtafr and the accusative case form uiktiarf. CV p. 100 s.v. djarfr; NR s.nn. VgdiarfR, Vg-, -diarfR, Vgi
Vgfastr Found in OW.Norse as Vgfastr. For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -fastr see above. A short form of names in Fast- or -fastr is Fasti. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Occurs in the runic accusative case form uikfast in the inscription gFv1950;341 from stergtland, Sweden, "...-bjrn and sbjrn, they raised this stone in memory of Vgfastr, their father, Helga's son. He died in England." NR s.nn. Vgfastr, Vg-, -fastr, Fasti, Vgi
Vgfss For the first element Vg- see above. A diminuitive form of Vgfss is Fsi. GB p. 16 s.n. Vgi; FJ p. 347 s.n. Vg-; CV pp. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 715 s.v. vg, Vgi
VghjalmR For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -hjlmr see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uihialmr, uihielbr, uikhialmr, uikhiulmbR and the accusative case forms uRhRalm, uikia..., although some of these may instead represent the name Vhjalmr. CV pp. 266-267 s.v. hjlmr; NR s.nn. VghialmR, Vg-, -hialmR, Vgi
Vghvatr The first element Vg- is identical to Old Icelandic vg, "battle, strife". For the second element -hvatr or its weak side-form -hvati see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vghvatr; FJ p. 347 s.n. Vg-; CV pp. 297, 715 s.v. hvatr, vg; NR s.nn. Hvatr, -hvatr
Vgi Found in Old Swedish as Vighe (also found as a by-name), occurs in OW.Norse as Vgi. From the OW.Norse adjective vgr (see VgR below) or, as a personal name, a short form of masculine names in Vg-. Used as the name of a hound, specifically the dog of king lafr Tryggvasson. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uigi, uihi, uiki (3 instances), [ui]kn[in] and he accusative case forms uiha, uRiha. GB p. 16 s.n. Vgi; FJ p. 347 s.n. Vg-; CV pp. 715 s.v. vg, VgiNR s.nn. Vgi, Vg-, VgR
VgleikR Found in Old Danish as Wighlek, in Old Swedish as Vighlek, and in OW.Norse as Vgleikr. For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -leikR see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. Occurs in the runic nominative case form uiglaikR in the inscription S48 from Sdermanland, Sweden, "Vgleikr and Kjli/Gylli and Helgi and gulfastr, they raised the stone in memory of rbjrn." Vgleikr; FJ pp. 185-186, 347, 350 s.nn. Vg-, -leikr, Leikr; CV pp. 382-383, 715 s.v. leika, leikr, vg; NR s.nn. VglikR, Vg-, -likR/-lakR, Vgi
Vglundr For the first element Vg- see above. The word is also found as a poetic compound as a kenning meaning "warrior". Appears as the name of the title character in Vglundar saga. GB p. 16 s.n. Vglundr; FJ pp. 345, 347 s.nn. Vg-, -Lund-; CV pp. 715 s.v. vg
Vgmar Found in Old Danish as Wighman, occurs in Old Swedish Vighman (also found as a by-name). From OW.Norse vgmar "warrior". Occurs in the runic nominative case form uikmanr in the inscription Vg30 from Vstergtland, Sweden, "Kanpr(?) and Vgmar placed this stone and made the bridge in memory of ra." NR s.n. Vgmar
Vgmrr May occur in Old Danish as Wimar. For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -mrr see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Runic examples include the nominative case form uihmar (3 instances) and the accusative case forms uihmar, uikmar. FJ p. 350 s.n. -marr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr; NR s.nn. Vgmarr, Vg-, -marr, Vgi
Vgmundr Found in Old Swedish as Vighmund and in OW.Norse as Vgmundr. For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uihmuntr, [uikmu--R], the genitive case form uihmuntar and the accusative case form uihmt. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438 s.v. mundr; NR s.nn. Vgmundr, Vg-, -mundr, Vgi, Mundi
Vgnitr For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -nitr see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Runic examples include the nominative case forms uihniutr, [ui]h[nk]ut[r]. CV p. 456 s.v. njta; NR s.nn. Vgnitr, Vg-, -nitr, Vgi
VgR May be found in Old Danish as Wigh and in Old Swedish as the by-name Vigh. From the OW.Norse adjective vgr "warlike, skiled with weapons". Runic examples include the nominative case forms uikr, uikR and the accusative case forms uih, uik, uik. NR s.n. VgR
Vgsterkr For the first element Vg- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. Vgsterkr; FJ p. 347 s.n. Vg-; CV pp. 715 s.v. vg
Vgorn For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -orn see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Occurs in the runic nominative case form (u)iku-... in the inscription U861 from Uppland, Sweden, "Sigorn ... the stone raised and the bridge made in memory of djarfr, (his) son, and in memory of Mey, his daughter; Eiorn and Sveinn and Vgorn ..." CV p. 742 s.v. orn; NR s.nn. Vgorn, Vg-, -orn, Vgi
Vglfr Found in Old Danish as Wigil, in Old Swedish as Vigholf, and in OW.Norse as Vglfr. For the first element Vg- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. A short form of masculine names in Vg- is Vgi. Runic examples include the genitive case form uikulfs, the dative case form uikuf(in), and the accusative case form [uigul(f)]. FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr; NR s.nn. VgulfR, Vg-, -ulfR, Vgi
Vkarr May occur in Old Danish as Wikar, found in OW.Norse as Vkarr. The first element Vk- is from OW.Norse vk "bay, inlet." For the second element -arr see above. Occurs in the runic accusative case form in two inscriptions from land, Sweden: as uikar in l72{39}, "Sveinn made in memory of his father, Vkarr, the only son raised the stone himself" and as [uikar] in l25{15}, "bjrn raised this stone in memory of ..., his father, ... Vkarr, his brother." GB p. 16 s.n. Vkarr; FJ p. 348 s.n. -arr; NR s.nn. Vkarr, -arr
VkingR Found in Old Danish as Wiking, in Old Swedish as Viking, and in OW.Norse as Vkingr. From OW.Norse vkingr "viking, pirate, raider." Runic examples include the nominative case forms uikigr, uikikr, [uikikr], uikikR, uikinkr, [uikinkr], [uiki...r], uik...-..., the genitive form uikiks and the accusative case forms uikik (5 instances), uikika, uikink, uik--. GB p. 16 s.n. Vkingr; NR s.n. VkingR
Vilhjlmr The name Vilhjlmr is found in Old Danish as Wilhelm, in Old Swedish as Vilhelm, and in Old West Norse as Vilhjlmr. It originated as a West Germanic name. The first element Vil- is identical to Old Icelandic vil, "will, liking, favor." For the second element -hjlmr see above. This name is found in the modern era as William and Wilhelm. This name is found in the runic nominative case form uilhialmr in one inscription which lists the name only. The name Vilhjlmr appears in other locations besides runic inscriptions as well, and when it appears it is referring to William the Conqueror, for example: Ragnarsaga lobrkar ok sona hans ch. 18 has Vilhjlmr bastarr; Gngu-Hrlfs saga ch. 12ff. has Vilhjlmr. GB p. 16 s.n. Vilhjlmr; CV pp. 266-267, 705 s.v. hjlmr, vil; NR s.nn. VilhialmR, -hialmR
Vili or Vli Found in Old Danish as Willi; compare with the OW.Norse mythological name Vili or Vli. Possibly a short form of names in Vil-. Occurs in the runic nominative case form uili. NR s.n. Vil(l)in
Vilmundr The first element Vil- is identical to Old Icelandic vil, "will, liking, favor". For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names in -mundr is Mundi. FJ p. 350 s.n. -mundr; CV pp. 437-438, 705 s.v. mundr, -mundr, vil; NR s.nn. -mundr, Mundi
Vinaman Occurs in the Latinized Old Swedish form Vinamannus, the Christian martyr from the legend of St. Sigfrid. This name was adopted from the Old English name Wineman. Occurs in the runic accusative case form uinoman in the inscription U375 from Vidbo Church, Uppland, Sweden, "Sigfastr and Ginnlaug, they had this stone erected in memory of Vinaman, their son. And he died in (?)." NR s.n. Vinaman
Vsburr   GB p. 16 s.n. Vsburr
Vttr   GB p. 16 s.n. Vttr
Vragi Found in Old Danish as Wraghi, also found as the by-name Wrage. Possibly from the dialect term vrage "a mooring post." Occurs in the runic accusative case form uraka in the Viking Age inscription DR269 from Kllstorp, Malmhus Ln, Skne, "rkell, rr's son, made this bridge in memory of Vragi, his brother." NR s.n. Vragi
Vri From the adjective *vrR, or the dialect term vr, "disobliging, peevish, unreasonable." Runic examples include the nominative case form urai and the accusative case form [ura]. NR s.n. Vri
Vrangi, Rangi Found as a by-name in Old Danish as Wrange, Old Swedish as Vrange, and in OW.Norse as Rangi. From the OW.Norse adjective rangr "wrong, perverse, unjust." Runic examples may include the accusative case forms ruakn, uraka. NR s.n. Vrangi
VrangR, Rangr Found as a by-name in Old Swedish as Vrang, and as the OW.Norse by-name Rangr. From the OW.Norse adjective rangr "wrong, perverse, unjust." Runic examples may include the accusative case form ruakn. NR s.n. VrangR
Vreir, Reir Found as a by-name in Old Danish as Wreth and in Old Swedish as Vredh. From the OW.Norse adjective reir "wrathful, angry, offended." Runic examples may include the nominative case forms uair, urair, [urair] and the accusative case forms urai, [ur]ai. NR s.n. Vrir
Vreistr, Reistr Found in OW.Norse as Reistr. From the verb vrida. Compare with the Norwegian dialect word vreist, reist "a type of ring," "wrong, perverse person," and also to OW.Norse jarar reistr referring to the Migarsormr or Midgard-Serpent. Occurs in the runic nominative case form uristr in the inscription DR339 from Stora Kpinge, Kristianstads Ln, Skne, "Vreistr and Nykr and Krsa raised this stone in memory of Api/Ebbi, their partner, a good valiant man." NR s.n. Vristr
  
 
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Name Notes Source
Yngvarr Found in Old Danish as Ingwar, in Old Swedish as Ingvar, and in OW.Norse as Yngvarr. The first element is from Ingi-, see above. For the second element -arr see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikuar, [ikuar], inguaR, inkuar, in[kua]r, [(in)(n)k(in)u(a)r] the genitive forms [iguars|], ikuars, inkuars, the dative forms in:ikn:u:ari, ikuari (11 instances), [ikuari], [(in)kuari], inkuari and the accusative forms [ikhu]ar, ikuar (3 instances), inkuar (5 instances), [inku]ari, in-kuar. GB p. 16 s.n. Yngvarr; NR s.nn. Ingvarr, Ingi, Ing(in)-/(Ingv-), -arr

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Name Notes Source
angbrandr For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. andbrandr; FJ p. 348 s.n. -brandr; CV p. 76 s.n. brandr
engill   GB p. 16 s.n. engill
ttmrr For the second element -mrr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. ttmrr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -marr; CV pp. 418, 443 s.v. -mr, mrr
irandi   GB p. 16 s.n. irandi
irekr This name is equivalent to German Dietrich, and was adopted from the German form of the name in ireks saga af Bern, ca. 1250 AD, which tells the story of Dietrich of Bern, the legendary version of Theodoric the Great (493-526 AD), the Ostrogothic ruler of Italy. irekr is found in the medieval runic inscription DREM85;440A from Brns Kirke, Jylland, Denmark, which reads, fuorkhn idrik. For the second element -rekr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. irekr; FJ p. 350 s.n. -rkr; CV p. 499 s.v. rkr; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR; R.G. Finch. "ireks saga af Bern", in: Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. Eds. Phillip Pulsiano et al. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 934. New York: Garland. 1993. pp. 662-663.
ialfarr Found in Old Swedish as the name of a fictional character, Thilvar. The first element is from the stem in ialfi, from OW.Norse jlfi "the one that encompasses, encloses, keeps together, subdues, subjugates, overpowers, overcomes" (of disputed derivation). For the second element -arr see above. Occurs as a personal name in the runic accusative case form [ialfar] in g27: "rir placed the stone in memory of ialfarr, his father, who landed in ." FJ p. 348 s.n. -arr; NR s.nn. ialfarr, ialfi, -arr
ilfi Found in Old Danish as Thialvi, in Old Swedish as Thilve, and in OW.Norse as ilfi (may also be found as a by-name). From OW.Norse jlfi "the one that encompasses, encloses, keeps together, subdues, subjugates, overpowers, overcomes" (of disputed derivation). Runic examples include the nominative case forms alfi, elfi (3 instances), ialfi (5 instances), i-fi, the genitive case form ialfa and the accusative case forms ialfa (3 instances), ial[fa], [ialfa], ial[f]-. NR s.n. ialfi
jarr The first element j- is identical with Old Icelandic j, "a people, a nation". GB p. 16 s.n. jarr; FJ p. 347 s.n. j-; CV pp. 739 s.v. j
jgeirr For the first element j- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. jgeirr; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. j-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 739 s.v. geirr, j; NR s.n. -giRR
jmarr For the first element j- see above. For the second element -marr see above. The equivalent German name would be Ditmar. FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. j-, -marr; CV pp. 443, 739 s.v. mrr, j; NR s.n. -mrr
jlfr For the first element j- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. jlfr; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. j-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668, 739 s.v. lfr, j; NR s.n. -ulfR
jrekr For the first element j- see above. For the second element -rekr see above. This name is equivalent to German Dietrich, and a related post-Viking Age Old Norse name, irekr was adopted from the German form of the name in ireks saga af Bern, ca. 1250 AD, which tells the story of Dietrich of Bern, the legendary version of Theodoric the Great (493-526 AD), the Ostrogothic ruler of Italy. jrekr is found in Gurnarkvia in forna, one of the poems of the Poetic Edda, as the name of King Theodoric. GB p. 16 s.n. jrekr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.n. j-, -rkr; CV pp. 499, 739 s.v. rkr, j; NR s.nn. RkR, -rkR; R.G. Finch. "ireks saga af Bern", in: Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. Eds. Phillip Pulsiano et al. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 934. New York: Garland. 1993. pp. 662-663
jstarr   GB p. 16 s.n. jstarr
jstlfr For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. jstlfr; FJ p. 351 s.n. -ulfr
raldi, raldr The first element r- is identical to the Old Icelandic rr, the god of thunder. In modern usage the vowel is long (r-) before vowels h or d, but short (or-) before consonants, however it is thought that the long vowel occurred always during the Viking Age. GB p. 16 s.n. raldi, raldr; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rlfr For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rlfr; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rarinn For the first element r- see above. For the second element -arinn see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rarinn; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.n. r-, -arn; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rarr For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rarr; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rbeinir For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rbeinir; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rbeinn For the first element r- see above. For the second element -beinn see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rbeinn; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. r-, -beinn; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rbergr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -bergr see Berg- above. GB p. 16 s.n. rbergr; FJ pp. 342, 347 s.nn. r-, Berg-; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rbjrn For the first element r- see above. For the second element -bjrn see above. A short form of the name rbjrn is Tubbi. A short form of masculine names in Bjarn- or -bjrn is Bjarni. GB p. 16 s.n. rbjrn; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. r-, -bjrn; CV pp. 66, 743 s.v. bjrn, rr; NR s.nn. rbirn, r-, -birn, Tobbi/Tubbi, Biarni
rbrandr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -brandr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rbrandr; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. r-, -brandr; CV pp. 76, 743 s.v. brandr, rr
rr, rrr The Old West Norse masculine name rr is also found in Old Danish as Thorth and in Old Swedish as Thordh. The name is a contracted form of rfrer or orrr. For the first element r- see above. For the second element -(f)rer/(f)rr see above. There are a number of instance of the name rr in runic inscriptions, including the nominative case forms or, orr, urr, urR, the genitive case form uraR, and the accusative case forms or and ur. GB p. 16 s.n. rr, rrr; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.n. r-, -frr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. rr, r-, -(f)rer/-(f)rr
rfastr A short form of the names rfastr or rfrer is Tfi. NR s.n. rfastr, Tfi/Tfi
rfir For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rfir; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rfinnr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -finnr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rfinnr; FJ pp. 347, 348 s.nn. r-, -finnr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rfrer A short form of the names rfastr or rfrer is Tfi. NR s.n. rfrer, Tfi/Tfi
rgautr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -gautr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rgautr; FJ pp. 347, 348-349 s.nn. r-, -gautr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. Gautr, -gautr
rgeirr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -geirr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rgeirr; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. r-, -geirr; CV pp. 196, 743 s.v. geirr, rr; NR s.n. -giRR
rgestr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -gestr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rgestr; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.n. r-, -gestr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rgils For the first element r- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 16 s.n. rgils; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. r-, -gsl; CV pp. 196, 743 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, rr; NR s.nn. Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
rgsl For the first element r- see above. For the second element -gsl or -gils see above. Short forms of names in Gs(l)-, -gsl or -gils include Gsi, Gsl or Gsli. GB p. 16 s.n. rgsl; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. r-, -gsl; CV pp. 196, 743 s.v. geisl, geisla, geisli, rr; NR s.nn. Gsi, Gsl, Gs(l)-, -gsl/-gils
rgnr For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rgnr; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rgrmr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -grmr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rgrmr; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. r-, -grmr; CV pp. 216, 743 s.v. grma, rr; NR s.n. -grmR
rhaddr For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rhaddr; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV p. 743 s.v. rr
rhaldr For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rhaldr; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV p. 743 s.v. rr
rhalli, rhallr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -hallr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rhalli, rhallr; FJ pp. 344, 347 s.nn. r-, -hallr; CV p. 743 s.v. rr
rhrlfr For the first element r- see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rhrlfr; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. r-, -ulfr; CV p. 743 s.v. rr
rir For the first element r- see above. For the second element -vr or -vir see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rir; FJ p. 347 s.n. r-; CV p. 743 s.v. rr
riroddr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -oddr see above. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 16 s.n. riroddr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. r-, -oddr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.n. -uddr, Uddi
rkell, rketill For the first element r- see above. For the second element -ketill or -kell see above. A short form of rkell or rketill is Tki. A diminuitive form of rkell is Keli. GB p. 16 s.n. rkell, rketill; FJ pp. 347, 349 s.nn. r-, -ketill; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 337-338, 743 s.v. ketill, rr; NR s.nn. rk(ti)ll, r-/r-, -k(ti)ll, Tki/Tki/Tki
rlkr, ollkr, rleikr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -leikr or -lkr see above. A short form of names such as rlaugR, rleifR, rleikr is Tli. A short form of names in -leikr is Leikr. GB p. 16 s.n. rlkr, ollkr, rleikr; FJ pp. 185-186, 347, 350 s.nn. r-, -leikr; CV pp. 382-383, 743 s.v. leika, leikr, rr; NR s.nn. -likR/-lakR, Tli/Tli
rlaugR A short form of names such as rlaugR, rleifR, rleikr is Tli. NR s.nn. rlaugR, r-/r-, -laugR, Tli/Tli
rleifr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -leifr see above. A short form of rleifr is TliR. A diminuitive form of rleifr is Leifi. A short form of names such as rlaugR, rleifR, rleikr is Tli. GB p. 16 s.n. rleifr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. r-, -leifr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 381, 743 s.v. leif, rr; NR s.nn. rlifR/-lafR, r-/r-, -lifR/-lafR, Tli/Tli, TliR (TliR?)
rljtr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -ljtr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rljtr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.n. r-, -ljtr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr
rmr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -mr see above. A short form of names such as rmr or rmundr is Tumi. GB p. 16 s.n. rmr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. r-, -mr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. rmr, r-/r-, -mr, Tmi/Tmi/Tummi
rmundr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -mundr see above. A short form of names such as rmr or rmundr is Tumi. FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. r-, -mundr; CV pp. 437-438, 743 s.v. mundr, -mundr, rr; NR s.nn. rmundr, r-/r-, -mundr, Tmi/Tmi/Tummi
rnitr The names Tni, Tunni may represent a short form of rnitr. NR s.nn. rnitr, r-/r-, -nitr, Tni/Tunni
roddr For the first element r- see above. A short form of masculine names in Odd-, -uddr/-oddr or derived from Oddr is Oddi. GB p. 16 s.n. roddr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. r-, -oddr; CV pp. 743 s.v. rr; NR s.nn. -uddr, Uddi
rlfr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -lfr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rlfr; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. r-, -ulfr; CV pp. 668, 743 s.v. lfr, rr; NR s.n. -ulfR
rormr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -ormr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rormr; FJ pp. 347, 350 s.nn. r-, -ormr; CV pp. 468-469, 743 s.v. ormr, rr,
rsteinn, osteinn For the first element r- see above. For the second element -steinn see above. Short forms of rsteinn iinclude Tosti, Tti, Totti. GB p. 16 s.n. rsteinn, osteinn; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. r-, -steinn; CV pp. 591, 743 s.v. steinn, rr; NR s.n. rstinn, r-/r-, -stinn, Tosti, Tti/Totti
rvaldr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -valdr see above. A diminuitive form of rvaldr is Valdi. GB p. 16 s.n. rvaldr; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. r-, -valdr; CV p. xxxiv s.v. "Pet Names"; CV pp. 675, 743 s.v. valdi, valdr, rr; NR s.n. -valdr
rvarr For the first element r- see above. For the second element -varr see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rvarr; FJ pp. 347, 351 s.nn. r-, -varr; CV pp. 722, 743 s.v. vrr, rr
rvir For the first element r- see above. For the second element -vir see above. GB p. 16 s.n. rvir; FJ pp. 347, 352 s.nn. r-, -vir; CV pp. 703-704, 743 s.v. vir, rr; NR s.n. Vi-, -vir
rinn   GB p. 17 s.n. rinn
rndr, rndr   GB p. 17 s.n. rndr, rndr
rassi   GB p. 17 s.n. rassi
rstr   GB p. 17 s.n. rstr
rottlfr For the second element -olfr see above. GB p. 17 s.n. rottlfr; FJ pp. 351 s.n. -ulfr
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