Return to the Viking Answer Lady Home Page The Viking Answer Lady
Return to the Viking Answer Lady Home Page General Information about the Viking Age and its History Articles About Daily Life in the Viking Age The Technology and Science of the Viking Age Agriculture, Crops and Livestock in Viking Times Viking Warriors, Weapons, Armor, and Warfare The Art and Literature of the Viking Age and Medieval Scandinavia Viking Age Mythology and Religion Viking Expansion, Raids, Trade, and Settlements in the Viking Age Bibliographies by Subject for Books and Articles Dealing with the Viking Age Shop for Viking-Themed Gifts, T-shirts, and More


 

Viking Age Hairstyles, Haircare, and Personal Grooming

Dear Viking Answer Lady:

How did the Vikings wear their hair? Did women wear long braids? How about the men? Did they wear braids? Long loose hair? Or cut their hair short for battle? Just what was the standard coiffure of viking men and women?

And while I'm at it, I've always heard that the Vikings were real barbarians... what kind of grooming and personal hygeine did the Vikings use?

(signed) Taking My Long Locks to Valhall




Gentle Reader:

Personal Grooming in the Viking Age

Although the popular image of the people of the Viking Age is one of wild-haired, dirty savages, this is a false perception. In reality, the Vikings took care with their personal grooming, bathing, and hairstyling.

Perhaps the most telling comment comes from the pen of English cleric John of Wallingford, prior of St. Fridswides, who complained bitterly that the Viking Age men of the Danelaw combed their hair, took a bath on Saturday, and changed their woolen garments frequently, and that they performed these un-Christian and heathen acts in an attempt to seduce high-born English women1:

It is reported in the chronicle attributed to John of Wallingford that the Danes, thanks to their habit of combing their hair every day, of bathing every Saturday and regularly changing their clothes, were able to undermine the virtue of married women and even seduce the daughters of nobles to be their mistresses2.

The Arabic observer Ibn Fadlan noted:

84. Every day they must wash their faces and heads and this they do in the dirtiest and filthiest fashion possible: to wit, every morning a girl servant brings a great basin of water; she offers this to her master and he washes his hands and face and his hair -- he washes it and combs it out with a comb in the water; then he blows his nose and spits into the basin. When he has finished, the servant carries the basin to the next person, who does likewise. She carries the basin thus to all the household in turn, and each blows his nose, spits, and washes his face and hair in it.

Ibn Fadlan's main source of disgust with the Rus bathing customs have to do with his Islamic faith, which requires a pious Mohammedan to wash only in running water or water poured from a container so that the rinsings do not again touch the bather. The sagas often describe a woman washing a man's hair for him, often as a gesture of affection. It would be likely that the basin was actually emptied between each bath: Ibn Fadlan would still have felt the basin contaminated by previous use. It does seem here that Ibn Fadlan is exaggerating a bit for effect3.

Aside from Ibn Fadlan, almost all sources indicate that the Vikings were the among the cleanliest of all Europeans during the Middle Ages. In the summer, bathing could be preformed in lakes or streams, or within the bath-houses found on every large farm (these would be much like the Finnish sauna, though tub bathing was also used), while in winter the heated bath-house would be the primary location for bathing4. In Iceland where natural hot springs are common, the naturally heated water was incorporated into the bath-house.

The Vikings also bathed their hands and faces on at least a daily basis, usually in the morning upon arising. Hávamál suggests that handwashing was customary before meals as well:

(4) A drink needeth       to full dishes who cometh,
a towel, and the prayer to partake;
good bearing eke,       to be well liked
and be bidden to banquet again.
5

The translator's note for this stanza says that "Water, for washing one's hands, and a towel were offered before a meal"6.

It seems clear that regular washing of hands and hair was the norm, and that failing to keep oneself clean was an unusual practice, perhaps reserved for those in mourning. It is said that Oðinn, king of the gods, left his hair unwashed as a sign of mourning for the death of his son Baldr in the poem Völuspá:

(31) Baldur I saw the bleeding God,
His fate still hidden, Odhinn's Son:
Tall on the plain a plant grew,
A slender marvel, the mistletoe.

(32) From that fair shrub, shot by Hodur,
Flew the fatal dart that felled the god.
But Baldur' s brother was born soon after:
Though one night old, Odhinn's Son
Took a vow to avenge that death.

(33) His hands he washed not nor his hair combed
Till Baldur's bane was borne to the pyre:
Deadly the bow drawn by Vali,
The strong string of stretched gut,
But Frigga wept in Fensalir
For the woe of Valhalla. Well, would you know more?
7

The same is said of Baldr's brother Vali in the poem Baldrs Draumr:

(11) [The volva answered]
"Rind bears Vali in Western Halls;
but one night old, still will Vali slay him:
neither cleanses his hands nor combs his hair,
til Baldr's slayer he sends to Hel.
I was loath to speak, now let me cease"
8.

Hávamál also suggests that special events such as the Þing merited special grooming efforts:

(61) Well-groomed and washed       wend to the Thing,
though thy clothes be not the best;
of thy shoes and breeks       be not ashamed,
and still less of they steed
9.
Return to Top  Return To Top



Combs and Other Tools for Grooming

Scandinavian One-Piece Comb Line DrawingsThe Viking Age peoples used a variety of tools for personal grooming and cleanliness.

Combs

Perhaps the most important grooming tool was the comb, which was used not only to smooth and order the hair, but also to help remove any dirt or vermin. Combs were in everyday use at every level of society10. Combs were used as a part of the hair washing process, being used to comb through the wet hair during washing. Some scholars believe that the widespread use of combs throughout the ancient world was due to their utility in controlling lice and nits11.

Bone combs are among the most common archaeological finds in Viking contexts. Two types of combs are found: single-piece combs and composite combs.

Single-piece combs were made as the name suggests, all in one piece from a single piece of bone or ivory. The majority of such combs have teeth on both sides of the spine. The need for a suitably large piece of material to construct such a comb resulted in most being made from cetacean (whale) bone or imported elephant ivory. The material selection was important, since skeletal materials have a grain just as wood does, and for maximum strength the teeth of the comb must be cut parallel to the grain of the material12.

One-Piece Walrus Ivory Comb with Ringerike Design
One-Piece Walrus Ivory Comb with Ringerike Design

Although single-piece combs were predominant during the Migration Age in Scandinavia, by the Viking Age they had become much less common. Still, the few one-piece combs known from this era are either made from elephant ivory (and may have been imported from the Mediterranean) or else they are made of cetacean bone, and were generally intricately ornamented. Some experts call these "liturgical combs" although it is doubtful that these were actually used in the liturgy until after the 13th century13.

Double-sided combs from the Viking Age, whether one piece or composite construction, usually have fine teeth on one side of the comb and coarser teeth on the other. The fine teeth are extremely close in many cases, and this side was probably used for control of pests in one's hair. The coarser side would have been used to comb out tangles and style the hair.

Steps in Building a Composite Comb

Composite CombComposite combs make up the majority of surviving combs. A composite comb is made of several pieces of skeletal material, most commonly deer antler which has been split or sawed into individual plates. The two halves of the spine of the comb were cut and matched to either side of the comb, however since antler and bone have a "grain" the teeth must be cut aligned with the grain, which required the comb-maker to cut several individual plaques or plates for the tooth area of the comb. These plates were laid between the two spine pieces so that the grain of the antler ran in the same direction that the teeth would be cut, and then the plates were securely rivetted between the spine plates.

Double-Sided Composite CombComposite CombAfter this step, any overlapping sections that extended past the spine plates on the back of the comb would have been trimmed off and the resulting seam filed and sanded even with the curve of the back of the comb, although the end pieces and occasionally other areas would be left as ornamental elements to be shaped, carved, and incised for decoration. The teeth would next be shaped and trimmed as necessary, often with the leading edge being sanded to a pointed slope, then finally the teeth were cut, often using a special saw with two parallel blades14.

Grave-finds show a slight difference between men's comb usage and women's comb usage. Men's combs most often are found with a comb case, made with almost identical construction to the comb itself but with no teeth. The open area in the middle provided a place for the matching comb's teeth to be slotted, protecting them from damage. Women, on the other hand, apparently carried their combs inside a purse or pouch, and so did not need comb cases. At any rate, women's graves rarely include combs with comb cases, while men's graves that include combs almost always do.15

Viking Man's Comb with Comb Case

Return to Top  Return To Top



Tweezers, Earspoons and Other Personal Grooming Tools

In the Viking Age, there were no such things as cotton swabs for cleaning one's ears. Instead, a tool known as an earspoon was utilized.

Viking Age Silver Earspoon from Birka Silver-gilt Earspoon and Nailcleaner, Strung on a Silver Chain for Hanging from a Woman's BroochesBronze Age Toilet Set with Tweezers, Earspoon, and Picks Earspoon Carved from Walrus Ivory

Earspoons could be made from a variety of materials, including bone, ivory, silver and other metals. Often women wore an earspoon dangling from one of their brooches on a chain, not only to have it handy for use, but also to display it since many earspoons were ornamented. The second photo above shows a woman's toilet set containing a silver-gilt earspoon and a nail-cleaner together on a silver chain, ready to be hung from a brooch. Next to it is a Bronze Age toilet set, which includes an earspoon, tweezers, pick, and nail cleaners.

Viking Age Iron Tweezers Viking Age Toilet Set Containing Tweezers and Earspoon Bronze Age Tweezers Bronze Age Razor

Other tools for personal grooming included tweezers and razors. Tweezers were frequently carried by women on a chain from their brooches. Tweezers could be made in iron, silver, or even in antler or bone. The tweezers shown on the far left are iron. The toilet set shown above (second in the row) is silver, and contains tweezers and an earspoon.

The third illustration above is a pair of Bronze Age tweezers: although this is prior to the Viking Age, they are similar to tweezers that were used by the Vikings. Interestingly enough, bog remains dating to the Broze Age show that tweezers were used for plucking the eyebrows 16. Finally, on the right is a Bronze Age razor blade, used for shaving.

Return to Top  Return To Top



Men's Hairstyles

There is no one "Viking man's hairstyle". The Viking Age peoples had a wide variety of hairstyles, just as we do today. Some may have been most common in a particular region, or profession may have dictated hairstyle.

Usually only thralls (slaves) wore very short hair17. Probably the average man wore his hair about collar or shoulder length, and his beard as long as was comfortable for him. A professional warrior might make other choices for hairstyle to minimize the hazard of having hair or beard grabbed in combat.

The Arabic observer Ibn Fadlan noted that men of the Rus bleached their beards to a saffron yellow. Some scholars therefore believe that it is likely that they bleached their hair as well. This bleaching was accomplished using a soft, strongly basic soap, where the excess lye in the mixture provided the bleaching action18. Pliny the Elder noted this practice among the Germanic tribes, and states that men were more likely to bleach their hair than women:

Prodest et sapo, Galliarum hoc inventum rutilandis capillis. Fit ex sebo et cinere, optimus fagino et caprino, duobus modis, spissus ac liquidus, uterque apud Germanos maiore in usu viris quam feminis.
Soap is the invention of the Gauls and this is used to redden the hair. It is made from fat and ashes -- the best is beech wood ash and goat fat, the two combined, thick and clear. Many among the Germans use it, the men more than the women.
(Pliny the Elder Historia Naturalis)19
Carved Head from Oseberg Ship Burial.
Carved head from Oseberg Ship Burial, ca. late 9th cent.
Gunnar in the Snakepit. Carving on Sledge from the Oseberg Ship Burial.
Gunnar in the Snakepit. Carving on Sledge from the Oseberg Ship Burial, ca. late 9th cent.
This carving depicts a man wearing chainmail and a close-fitting helm or coif. His neatly-trimmed beard and mustache are finely detailed. This carving depicts a man with close-cropped hair almost in a "Norman" or bowl cut. There are also hints of a finely-trimmed beard and mustache, perhaps worn goatee-style.
Carved Head on Antler Handle.
Carved Head on
Antler Handle
Carved Head from Oseberg Ship Burial
Carved Head on Sledge, Oseberg Ship Burial, late 9th cent.
Here is another man wearing a conical Viking helm. The detail in the back may indicate collar-length hair. This Viking's beard is also well-groomed, and his moustaches seem to be waxed to points in an upward curve. This is perhaps the most naturalistic of the heads from the Oseberg ship find. This carving could almost be a death-mask. It is not possible to get a sense of the length of this figure's hair, although it is clear that he is wearing bangs. His chin is clean-shaven and he wears a moustache.
Bronze Oðinn Figure
Bronze Oðinn Figure
Helmet Plate from Torslunda, Öland, ca. 6th cent. AD.
Helmet Plate from Torslunda, Öland, ca. 6th cent. AD.
This statuette depicts the god Oðinn wearing a conical helm with nasal. He wears a beard groomed to a point or perhaps a goatee, and his moustaches are full and appear to be waxed to an upwards curve at the ends. The Vendel-era man shown in this helmet plate appears to have curly hair cut just above the earlobes and the eyebrows. He wears a full moustache, and his chin is clean-shaven.
Bone Gamepiece from Lund, Sweden
Bone Gamepiece from Lund, Sweden
Ithyphallic Freyr Figure from Rallinge, Södermanland, Sweden
Ithyphallic Freyr Figure from Rallinge, Södermanland, Sweden
This small bone carving depicts a figure grasping his long, plaited or twisted beard. This bronze figureine depicts the god Freyr wearing a conical helm. He has a long beard shaped to a point, and very full moustaches that are either waxed into an upward curve, or else are combined with sideburns continuing up to just under the ear.
Bronze Þórr Figure from Akureyri, Iceland, ca. 1000 AD
Bronze Þórr Figure from Akureyri, Iceland, ca. 1000 AD
Bronze Þórr Figure from Akureyri, Iceland, ca. 1000 AD
Face-On View of Bronze Þórr Figure
This bronze figure depicts the god Þórr wearing a conical helmet and an elaborate beard and moustache. The moustache appears to be divided into two sections, one which curls up, the other which lies in the normal area for a moustache. Either the moustache is truly divided into two portions on each side, with the upper part being waxed and curled upward, or perhaps this represents a moustache and "mutton-chop" side-burns. This is a different view of the same statuette. Here the beard may be clearly seen to be forked into two points (O.N. Tjúguskegg was used as a nick-name meaning "fork-beard"). In this view, the upper portion of the "moustache" seems definitely to be "mutton-chop" side-burns.
Bellows Stone from Viking Age Forge Depicting Loki
Bellows Stone from Viking Age Forge Depicting Loki
Face from Enamelled Belt Buckle
Face from Enamelled Belt Buckle
This soapstone line-carving is thought to depict the trickster Loki, after the gods of Ásgarðr had sewn his lips shut in punishment. The figure is shown with what seems to be curly hair and perhaps bangs, as well as an ornately curled moustache that would certainly have had to have been waxed to keep the shape shown. This male face is from a 7th century enamelled belt buckle found in Norway. The man has collar-length hair parted in the middle and worn straight, full moustaches, but stubble on the rest of the beard area.
Return to Top  Return To Top



Women's Hairstyles

Women's hairstyles seem to have been more limited during the Viking Age than men's hairstyles, based on the surviving evidence. One scholar suggests that blonde hair was most prized, and the brunette women could bleach their hair, using the same method known to the Celts, in which a strongly basic soap was made and applied to the hair, with the bleaching action provided by the lye resulting in a red or red-gold hair color20.

Thrall women, as with their male counterparts, were required to wear their hair cropped short as a sign of their servitude21.

Unmarried girls would wear their hair long and loose, or they might confine their hair with a circlet or kransen, especially on formal occasions22. At times they may have worn their hair in braids instead23.

Married women usually wore their hair gathered up into a knot at the back of the head, or coiled atop their head in some arrangement and often covered their hair with a cap, veil (hustrulinet) or headdress24. Several sources indicate that it was mandatory that Norse women who were married wear a headcovering, however the actual archaeology doesn't seem to support this belief: "Many of the ninth and tenth century women's burials at Birka reveal no headcoverings at all, let alone graves in some other locations, although finds of headwear are more common in Christianized areas like Dublin and Jorvk"25.

There were several types of headwear worn by women during the Viking Age:

Types of Viking Headdresses from Coppergate and Lincoln (after Gail Owen-Crocker)
Types of Viking Headdresses from Coppergate and Lincoln (after Gail Owen-Crocker)

Anglo-Viking women apparently wore a variety of hairstyles. Two hogback stones from Lowther, Cumbria depict women with their hair worn in two braids, falling to either side of the head beside the cheeks26. It is thought that early Anglo-Viking women probably did not wear a headdress, but by the end of the period were adopting fashions from the neighboring Christian Anglo-Saxon women, for instance, the tenth century silk hood with linen ties recovered at the Coppergate excavation (see Jorvik Hood below, as well as the two illustrations on the left, above, showing the same hood tied under the chin, or tied behind the neck under the hair). A slightly different style of cap or hood was recovered from Lincoln (see the illustration on the right, above)27.

The basic types of headdress worn by Viking women included28:


Frankish Brocaded Fillet
Frankish Brocaded Fillet
Fillet The fillet was a fabric band worn around the head, much like a coronet. This might be worn alone, or with a scarf or veil pinned to it. The fillet was often of metal-brocaded tablet-woven silk. Fillets of this type were worn by women of the Franks, Anglo-Saxons, Alamans, Bavaria, Lombardy, and Visigothic Spain (later 6th and 7th centuries), as well as by Swedish Vikings29.

Example of gold brocaded band using a pattern found at Birka
Example of gold brocaded band using a pattern found at Birka


For additional examples of these brocaded bands, see Metallic Trims for Some Early Period Personae
Woman Wearing Fillet<BR>(after Gail Owen-Crocker)
Woman Wearing Fillet
(after Gail Owen-Crocker)
     
  Scarves Some small textiles have been recovered in the Viking excavations at Dublin which are thought to have been worn as scarves. The extant examples are dyed purple and have fringe.  
     
Jorvik Hood Jorvik Hood The Jorvik hood was a type of hood formed from a rectangle of cloth with a rounded upper, and which fell in the back to cover the head and neck. Examples of this type of hood have been recovered from the Viking finds at Jorvk (Viking York) This type of headgear was equipped with ties to secure it under the chin. Surviving examples are in silk, with linen ties. Jorvik Hood
     
Dublin Hood Dublin Hood The Dublin hood was similar to the Jorvik hood, but made of wool, more rectangular, and having a point at the back of the head. Dublin Hood

When headcoverings were worn, whether to indicate the married status of a woman, as a decorative costume accent, or for warmth, the details of the headgear varied by place and date throughout the Viking Age, as shown in the table30 below:

  Ninth Century Tenth Century
Western Scandinavia
(Norway, Iceland, British Isles)
a fillet and possibly a veil pinned to the fillet Jorvik hoods or Dublin hoods
Eastern Scandinavia
(Sweden and eastern colonies)
brocaded fillet brocaded fillet
hood with brocaded trim

Valkyrie Amulets Showing Women's Hairstyles

The great majority of these images seem to be wearing a long ponytail knotted into a bun at the back of the head then allowed to fall free. But this could equally well be a representation of a long scarf covering the head and knotted at the back, with the scarf ends falling down the back.

Freyja. Viking Age Pendant, Sweden.
Freyja.
Viking Age Pendant, Sweden.
6th Century Silver-Gilt Valkyrie Amulet, Sweden
6th Century Silver-Gilt
Valkyrie Amulet, Sweden
This pendant is usually described as representing Freyja, goddess of love and war. Although much detail has been lost, the hair appears to be either braided closely to the head, or else has been tucked up under a close-fitting cap. If this is a cap, then woven trim appears to be affixed around the browline and also a vertical strip on the midline of the head. This amulet depicts a Valkyrie wearing her hair pulled back into what appears to be a bun. Alternatively, she could be wearing a wool cap with a tassel much like a modern stocking cap, perhaps made using naalbinding, a technique related to knitting.
6th Century Silver-Gilt Pendant from Uppland, Sweden.
6th Century Silver-Gilt
Pendant from Uppland, Sweden.
Bronze-Gilt Valkyrie Amulet, Sweeden.
Bronze-Gilt Valkyrie
Amulet, Sweeden.
This pendant is usually identified as a valkyrie, but could easily be the goddess Freyja as well, based on the prominent necklace depicted around her neck. Here the hairstyle is the enigmatic "knot" -- it is impossible to determine whether the hair is pulled into a ponytail and knotted at the back of the head, braided then knotted, or if a kercheif or scarf is covering the hair and knotted behind the head with the ends hanging down. This bronze-gilt female figure is more stylized than other similar amulets. Again, the figure is assumed to be a valkyrie, and her hair is in the knotted style, although here the knot appears on top of the head rather than behind the head.

Runestone Images Showing Women's Hairstyles

Valkyrie. Runestone from Alskog, Tjangvide, Gotland.
Valkyrie. Runestone from Alskog, Tjangvide, Gotland.
Hyrrokin the Giantess Riding on Wolfback
Hyrrokin the Giantess Riding on Wolfback
The valkyrie shown here is depicted as holding out a welcoming horn of mead to Óðinn as he returns to Valhöll on his magical steed, Sleipnir. The hairstyle is shown as being knotted in back of the head. It is possible that this represents hair which is braided and knotted, a ponytail that is knotted, or perhaps even a scarf covering the hair and kotted behind the head with the ends of the scarf hanging down. This runestone is thought to depict the giantess Hyrrokin. Like other female images, she is shown with her hair worn in the standard "knot" style, although her hair is shorter, and the knot is apparently place atop her head rather than at the back of the head.

Goldgubber Showing Women's Hairstyles

Some goldgubber seem to show slightly more detail in depicting hairstyles.

Goldgubber 1 Goldgubber 2
The detail in the gold foil plaques shown above seem to show that the "knot" hairstyle is composed of an actual knot in the long hair, rather than being a scarf.
Goldgubber 3 Goldgubber 4
These goldgubber are more stylized, closely resembling the runestone and amulet images depicting the standard "knot" hairstyle.
Goldgubber 5 Goldgubber 6
Another stylized depiction of the "knot" hairstyle. This gold foil shows further details of the "knot" hairstyle. Here the trailing portion of the hair appears to be braided.

Other Images Showing Women's Hairstyles

Valkyrie on Horseback. Figure set above a pillar in the stave church at Urnes.
Valkyrie on Horseback.
Figure set above a pillar
in the stave church at Urnes.
Woman from Oseberg Cart
Woman from Oseberg Cart
This carving was crafted after the close of the Viking Age, however it reflects several traditional elements. Here the valkyrie is shown with her hair either unbound and flying free, or else in a simple ponytail. Whatever mythological story that this carving depicts has been lost to us over the ages. The carving shows a woman with her hair parted in the middle, then pulled back into one or two braids which are coiled behind her head. The braid is coiled around itself to form a bun.
Depiction of A Sea-Woman. 8th Century Bronze Plaque.
Depiction of A Sea-Woman.
8th Century Bronze Plaque.

Silver Amulet of a Female Figure from Birka
This woman comes from a bronze plaque depicting a man fishing and a woman swimming in the waters beneath seizing the fishing line. Some scholars have interpreted this to be Þórr fishing for the Midgarðs-Ormr, but it could also depict the sea-goddess Ran, who collected dead sailors and sunken treasures in her ocean hall. As with the many depictions of valkyrie figures, this woman is shown with the standard knotted hairdo. This amulet shows a crude depiction of a woman. However, the "knot" hairstyle here is shown a bit differently. Here the hair is shown in a more complex knot, and the tail or braid seems to be drawn forward over the figure's shoulder.
Return to Top  Return To Top



Notes

 1Gwyn Jones. A History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1968. p. 177.

 2 Ian Riddler. Two Late Saxon Combs from the Longmarket Excavations. Canterbury's Archaeology 1989/1990, The 14th Annual Report of Canterbury Archaeological Trust Ltd. Accessed 5/15/99.

 3 Smyser, H.M. "Ibn Fadlan's Account of the Rus with Some Commentary and Some Allusions to Beowulf." Franciplegius: Medieval and Linguistic Studies in Honor of Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. eds. Jess B. Bessinger Jr. and Robert P. Creed. New York: New York University Press. 1965. pp 92-119.

 4 Mary Wilhelmine Williams. Social Scandinavia in the Viking Age. New York: MAcMillan. 1920. reprint New York: Krause Reprint Co. 1971. p. 80.

 5 Hávamál in: The Poetic Edda. trans. Lee M. Hollander. 2nd revised ed. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1962. pp. 14-41. ISBN 0-292-76499-5.

 6 Ibid. pp. 15, note 6.

 7 Völuspá in: The Poetic Edda. pp. 1-13.

 8 Baldrs Draumr in: The Poetic Edda. pp. 117-119.

 9 Hávamál in: The Poetic Edda. pp. 14-41.

10 Arthur MacGregor. Bone, Antler, Ivory and Horn: the Technology of Skeletal Materials Since the Roman Period. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble. 1985. p. 73. ISBN 0-7099-3242-1.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid. p. 74.

13 Ibid. p. 78.

14 Ibid. p. 74.

15 "Combs." World of the Vikings CD-ROM. York Archaeological Trust and the National Museum of Denmark.

16 Froncek, Thomas. The Northmen. The Emergence of Man Series. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books. 1974. p. 105.

17 Peter G. Foote and David M. Wilson. The Viking Achievement. London: Sidgewick and Jackson. 1970. p. 76.

18 Social Scandinavia. p. 83.

19 Pliny the Elder Historia Naturalis Book 28, 191.

20 Social Scandinavia p. 80.

21 Ibid. p. 76.

22 Ibid. p. 174.

23 Social Scandinavia. p. 80.

24 Ibid; Viking Achievement. p. 174.

25 Carolyn Priest-Dorman. (Mistress Thora Sharptooth, OL), "But That's How They Look in the Book!": Viking Women's Garb in Art and Archaeology. Accessed 7/11/99.

26 Gail R. Owen-Crocker, Dress in Anglo-Saxon England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1986. p. 147. Also W.G. Collingwood, "The Lowther Hogbacks." TCWAAS 7 (1907) pp. 153, 160, as well as the plate and figure opposite pp. 152 and 160.

27 Dress in Anglo-Saxon England. pp. 146-147, including Figures 146-148.

28 Carolyn Priest-Dorman. (Mistress Thora Sharptooth, OL), A Quick and Dirty Look at Viking Women's Garb in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. Accessed 7/11/99.

29 Dress in Anglo-Saxon England, pp. 59-60, Figure 53.

30 A Quick and Dirty Look at Viking Women's Garb in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries.

Return to Top  Return To Top



Sources

  • The Poetic Edda. trans. Lee M. Hollander. 2nd revised ed. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1962. ISBN 0-292-76499-5.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Allason-Jones, L., and Miket, R., Bone Comb from South Shields. Catalogue of Small Finds from South Shields Roman Fort, 1984, No.2.39. Accessed 5/15/99.

  • Anglo-Saxon and Viking Bone and Antler Work. Regia Angelorum. Accessed 5/15/99.

  • Artifacts from the Viking House and Home (Bone Combs). Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. Accessed 5/15/99.

  • Cleasby, Richard and Gudbrand Vigfusson. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. 1957. ISBN: 0198631030.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Collingwood, W.G. "The Lowther Hogbacks." TCWAAS 7 (1907) pp. 152-164. (See pp. 153, 160, as well as the palate and figure opposite pp. 152 and 160 for depictions of women with two braids, one on either side of the face.).

  • Fjellstrom, Phebe. "The Hlað: A Viking Hair Ornament." In Honorem Evert Baudou. Archaeology and Environment 4. eds Margareta Backe et al. Umea, Sweden: Universitet Avd for Arkeologi. 1985.

  • Foote, Peter G. and David M. Wilson. The Viking Achievement. London: Sidgewick and Jackson. 1970. ISBN 0283979267.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Froncek, Thomas. The Northmen. The Emergence of Man Series. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books. 1974. ISBN 0316846759.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Studia Marklandica I. Olney, MD: Markland Medieval Militia/Yggsalr Press. 1977. (Available for $5 from Celtic Traditions, 3366 Laurel Grove South, Jacksonville FL 32223, (904) 886-0326.)

  • Graham-Campbell, James and Dafydd Kidd. The Vikings. New York: Tabard Press. 1980. ISBN 0-914427-25-3. (See p.88 for photo of the silver earspoon from Birka.)
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Heckett, Elizabeth. "Some Hiberno-Norse Headcoverings from Fishamble Street and St. John's Lane, Dublin." Textile History 18(2), pp. 159-74, 1987.

  • Henshall, Audrey S. "Early Textiles Found in Scotland," Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 86 (1954) pp.1-29.

  • Jones, Gwyn. A History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1968. iSBN: 019285139X.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Karras, Ruth Mazo. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia. Ann Arbor: Yale University Press. 1988. ISBN 0900041217.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Konya, Allan. Finnish Sauna. New York:Van Nostrand Rheinhold. 1987. ISBN 0-442-20496-5.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Konya, Allan. The International Handbook of Finnish Sauna. London: Architectural Press. 1973. ISBN 0-470-50223-1.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • MacGregor, Arthur. Bone, Antler, Ivory and Horn: the Technology of Skeletal Materials Since the Roman Period. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble. 1985. ISBN 0-7099-3242-1.
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Owen-Crocker, Gail R. Dress in Anglo-Saxon England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1986. ISBN 1843830817. (See especially Figure 53, p. 59; Figures 146 & 147, p. 146; and Figure 148, p. 147; these show several Anglo-Viking women's hairstyles.)
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • Pliny the Elder. Historia Naturalis Latin language text. Book 28, 191. (All translations are my own).

  • Priest-Dorman, Carolyn (Mistress Thora Sharptooth, OL). A Quick and Dirty Look at Viking Women's Garb in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. Accessed 7/11/99.

  • Priest-Dorman, Carolyn (Mistress Thora Sharptooth, OL). "But That's How They Look in the Book!": Viking Women's Garb in Art and Archaeology. Accessed 7/11/99.

  • Priest-Dorman, Carolyn (Mistress Thora Sharptooth, OL). Metallic Trims for Some Early Period Personae. Accessed 7/11/99.

  • "Sauna" in: Our Troth. (Electronic Text Version). Accessed 5/15/99.

  • Smyser, H.M. "Ibn Fadlan's Account of the Rus with Some Commentary and Some Allusions to Beowulf." Franciplegius: Medieval and Linguistic Studies in Honor of Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. eds. Jess B. Bessinger Jr. and Robert P. Creed. New York: New York University Press. 1965. pp 92-119.

  • Vaughan, R. ed. "The Chronicle Attributed to John of Wallingford." Camden Miscellany 21 (1958): pp. 1-67.

  • Viking York (Jorvik): Trade. Secrets Beneath Your Feet Website. Accessed 5/15/99. (See photo of woman's silk cap).

  • Wilson, David M. The Northern World: The History and Heritage of Northern Europe AD 400-1100. New York: Harry N, Abrams. 1980. ISBN: 0810913658. (See photo of brocaded fillet from the Frankish "Cologne Princess" burial, p. 53.)
    Buy this book at Amazon.com  Buy this book today!


  • World of the Vikings CD-ROM. York Archaeological Trust and the National Museum of Denmark.

Return to Top  Return To Top
Open printer-friendly version of this page
A A A A
Like my work?
Buy me a
cup of coffee
via PayPal!


Get your Viking-themed T-shirts, cards, and gifts today!
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 





The Viking Answer Lady Website is Now an Amazon.com Associate

Search: Enter keywords...

Amazon.com
logo



Page designed by Christie Ward (Gunnvǫr silfrahárr).

For comments, additions, and corrections, please contact Gunnvǫr at gunnora@vikinganswerlady.com

Return to The Viking Answer Lady




Valid CSS! Valid HTML 4.01! This page was last updated on: